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From the collection of the 

2 m 

v J-Jibrary 

San Francisco, California 




A Summary of the Literature 


A Summary of the Literature 

Source Book for Teachers and Administrators 

Compiled by 


Ohio State University 


Teachers College, Columbia University 


American Council on Education 


Teachers College, Columbia University 

under the auspices of the 
Committee on Motion Pictures in Education 

of the 

New York 

The H. W. Wilson Company 

Copyright 1937 

by the 
American Council on Education 

Published December 1937 
Printed in the United States of America 


Motion Pictures in Education : A Summary of the 
Literature is the fourth of a series of publications issued 
under the direction of the Committee on Motion Pictures 
in Education of the American Council on Education. The 
first was the National Visual Education Directory, a survey 
of audio-visual equipment owned by elementary and sec- 
ondary schools of the United States compiled by Mr. Cline 
M. Koon and Mr. Allen W. Noble of the United States 
Office of Education. The other two have been published 
as American Council on Education Studies. The one, The 
Motion Picture in Education : Its Status and Its Needs, is a 
Committee report of the work of the Educational Motion 
Picture Project of the Council and the major problems which 
remain unsolved. The other, Teaching with Motion Pic- 
tures: A Handbook of Administrative Practice by Mr. 
Edgar Dale and Mr. Lloyd L. Ramseyer of Ohio State 
University, is a handy reference for the teacher and admin- 
istrator. It provides concrete answers to the most frequently 
raised questions relating to motion pictures and other visual 

The origin and development of Motion Pictures in Edu- 
cation: A Summary of the Literature is described in the 
introduction to this volume. For the generous gift of time 
and effort in directing this work and in synthesizing the 
materials appreciation is extended to Mr. Edgar Dale of 
Ohio State University, Miss Fannie W. Dunn of Teachers 
College, Columbia University, and Mr. Charles F. Hoban, Jr., 
of the American Council on Education. For the bibliographi- 
cal compilation, digesting and editing of a large amount of 
the material contained in this volume appreciation is extended 


to Miss Etta Schneider of Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity. The Committee on Motion Pictures in Education 
has been unfailing in its directive and advisory capacities 
in connection with the Educational Motion Picture Project. 
It comprises Mr. Ben G. Graham, Chairman, Mr. John E. 
Abbott, Mr. W. W. Charters, Mr. Frank N. Freeman, 
Mrs. Mary Langworthy, and Mr. Mark A. May. 

George F. Zook 





Fannie W . Dunn Etta Schneider 


I. Administration for a City 

A. The Establishment of a City System 20 

B. Some Experiences in Administering a City System 51 
II. Administration Within a School Building 74 

III. Systems for Filing and Cataloging 87 

IV. Administration for a State 91 

V. National Plans .101 




Fannie W. Dunn Etta Schneider 


I. Teaching Techniques Generally Applicable to All Subjects 113 
II. Teaching With Visual Aids in the Elementary School.. 133 

III. Teaching With the Motion Picture and Other Visual 
Aids in the Junior and Senior High Schools 181 

IV. Motion Pictures for Adult Education 226 

V. Motion Pictures in Higher Education 230 

VI. Large Group Instruction With Films 237 


Charles F. Hoban, Jr. 


I. What Evaluators Have Found 248 

II. Deriving Criteria for Selection 250 

III. Digests of Published Literature 255 

IV. Supplementary Bibliography 267 



Edgar Dale 


I. Areas of Production 

A. Creative Dramatics 272 

B. School News Reels and Public Relations 279 

C. Amateur Films as an Instructional Aid 285 

II. Techniques of Production . 289 



Charles F. Hoban, Jr. 


I. Criteria for Evaluation of Experimental Research in 
General 312 

II. Neglected Factors in Experimental Procedure 317 

III. Review of Experimental Data 334 

IV. Implications of Experimental Data for Educational 
Practice 356 

V. Bibliography 361 



Fannie W. Dunn Etta Schneider 


I. The Need for Teacher Preparation 376 

II. Trends in Teacher Preparation 385 

III. How Can Teachers in Service Be Trained or Guided? 

A. By In-Service Teacher Training Projects, Exten- 
tion Courses, and Institutes 402 

B. By Special Monographs or Handbooks 402 

C. By Suggestions Incorporated in Elementary or 
Secondary Courses of Study 404 

D. By Supervisory Help 407 

IV. What Is the Scope of Instruction in the Use of Visual 
Aids? 415 

V. Preparation for the Teaching of Motion-Picture Appre- 
ciation 427 

VI. Should Courses in Visual Instruction be Separate or 

Should Guidance Be Offered in Special Methods Courses? 435 
VII. Present Offerings in Visual Education 440 


INDEX 465 


The growth of interest in the possibilities of using educa- 
tional motion pictures has led to a realization of the need 
for an organized, selected bibliography which will help 
research workers, teachers, and administrators to evaluate 
what has been done, to consider what ought to be done, and 
to proceed to plan what might be done with this new educa- 
tional medium. 

The student of visual education, attempting to study what 
has been written, is confronted with a number of problems. 
First, bibliographies are inadequate. Second, in order to find 
what he is looking for he must thread his way among theses, 
pamphlets, mimeographed reports, monographs, magazine 
articles, and books. Third, he will face several difficulties 
in securing materials for examination, namely: college libra- 
ries do not usually maintain a complete set of educational 
journals; most of the theses are unpublished and difficult to 
obtain; and the number of books devoted to visual education 
is small. That this body of information should be assembled 
and coordinated for the use of workers in the field of visual 
instruction is obvious. Even a cursory study of the material 
indicates that it contains not only valuable records of per- 
sonal experiences and significant generalizations, but a great 
many important factual data as well. 

The digests here included are an attempt to provide one 
answer to this difficult problem. In this volume detailed sum- 
maries have been made of significant articles, theses, and 
books which have appeared during the past decade. They 
have been classified and assembled, moreover, with editorial 
comments to assist the reader in distinguishing the high 
lights of the available literature. 


The authors, it should be added, have organized and 
interpreted the material in the light of the educative process 
as a whole, and the relationship of the motion picture to it. 
They have attempted to maintain a balanced view of the 
field. They are less concerned with promoting the use of 
the motion picture in education than they are with promoting 
its effective use. 

The reader will be interested in knowing how these mate- 
rials were selected. Under the direction of Professor Dunn 
and Miss Schneider a Works Progress Administration project 
at Teachers College was initiated in 1934 to compile a bibli- 
ography on the motion picture in education. After a few 
thousand titles had been assembled, the workers attempted 
to classify them under such categories as suggested them- 
selves from the nature of the material. This led to such 
classifications as the Administration of Visual Aids, Teacher 
Preparation in Visual Education, Production of Motion Pic- 
tures in Schools, Teaching Techniques, and the like. 

The American Council on Education, through its project 
on the educational film, subsequently expressed a desire to 
assist in making this bibliography generally available. It was 
decided that the most useful form which this bibliography 
might assume would be a series of selected digests of the 
more important references. An experimental series of digests 
in the fields of "Administration of Visual Aids" and "Teacher 
Preparation in Visual Education," respectively, were pub- 
lished and distributed to workers in visual education in vari- 
ous parts of the country. 

These experimental volumes were mimeographed 250 
copies of the section on "Administration," and 400 copies of 
that on "Teacher Preparation" and submitted to leaders in 
the field for criticism. The bulletin on "Administration of 
Visual Aids" was accompanied by the following questions : 

1. Have the authors missed important materials dealing 
with the administration of visual aids? If so, what are they? 


2. Are these digests adequate? If not, how may they 
be improved ? 

3. Would the offering of, let us say, a quarterly digest 
and bibliographical service be a legitimate function of the 
proposed American Film Institute? 

A similar questionnaire was sent with the "Teacher 
Preparation" bulletin. Both these bulletins are now out of 

The suggestions received from this source were utilized 
in rewriting these two experimental volumes, which now form 
two chapters of this book. The suggestions were also used 
in preparing the additional sections of the book. 

The distribution of chapters for abstracting was based 
on the past experience of the workers who cooperated. Dr. 
Hoban was qualified to treat the sections on Research and 
on Criteria for Evaluation because of the intensive study he 
had made in connection with his Ph.D. dissertation. 1 Dr. Dale 
has for some time been actively interested in promoting 
school production of motion pictures, making him the logical 
consultant for the section dealing with that topic. Professor 
Dunn and Miss Schneider are interested in all aspects of the 
field, and agreed to report on the remaining topics. Dr. Dale 
assisted in editing and assembling the entire book. 

The plan followed in selecting articles for inclusion in 
the series of abstracts was as follows : First, the titles of 
the articles contained in the bibliography were mimeographed 
and sent to leaders in the field of visual education. These 
persons were asked to check those articles which they con- 
sidered important enough to be summarized in detail, and 
to add others. This procedure was followed for the sections 
on "Administration" and "Teacher Preparation." 

Next, digests were written experimentally by several 
competent persons to get a consensus of what should be 

1 Hoban, Charles F., Jr. "A Critical Evaluation of the Experimental Literature 
on Instructional Films." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Duke University. 1935. 


included. No attempt was made by the reviewers to evalu- 
ate the conclusions stated in the various articles. They were 
constantly aware of the needs of the persons using these 
digests, and attempted to summarize the salient items of 
information which would be most useful. 

This book has been developed under the sponsorship of 
the American Council on Education as one of the publications 
related to its project on Motion Pictures in Education. It is 
hoped that this volume will acquaint the reader with the 
significant literature in the field, and will present information 
necessary to those who wish to be intelligent about the con- 
tribution of the motion picture to education. 

Special acknowledgment is made to the following persons 
for their valuable assistance in preparing these materials : 
Alene Little, Ohio State University; Lloyd L. Ramseyer, 
Ohio State University; Elias Katz, New York City; and 
Hazel Gibbony, Ohio State University. Acknowledgment is 
also made to the publishers for permission to summarize 
articles from their periodicals. 

The bibliography upon which this publication is based 
was developed under the Works Progress Administration 
Project 65-97-295, Sub-Project 23. 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1937 






Administration of visual aids has both mechanical and 
educational aspects. It is concerned on the one hand with 
the organization of materials from the standpoint of as- 
sembly, classification, care, physical production, and distribu- 
tion; and, on the other, with their integration into the 
educational program, through courses of study and the 
development of teaching techniques by means of teacher 
training, supervision, and experimentation. Both aspects 
have the common purpose of providing conditions favorable 
to effective teaching, and thereby improving the quality of 
education afforded by the school. 

First steps in the utilization of visual aids are most 
often toward the provision of the physical materials pic- 
tures, prints, slides, films, and projection machines and 
such organization of these as facilitates their ready avail- 
ability for teachers' use. These steps are frequently, if not 
usually, taken on the initiative of an individual teacher or 
principal, who out of his own active interest gradually 
develops the interest of a self-constituted committee or of 
the administrative office. 1 

Useful beginnings can be made with materials which call 
for practically no budgetary provision. Such, for example, 
are lists of "vicinities and specific places for field study 
and excursions to gain acquaintance with living things in 
their natural habitats"; 2 collections of still pictures, speci- 

1 Emery, James N. "Visual Instruction in a Small City System." 
2 Hollinger, John A. "Organization and Distribution of Visual Materials." 


mens, and models ; 3 or bulletins of information as to sources 
of free or inexpensive visual materials. 

Such beginnings soon expand. Surveys of community 
resources are made for sources of materials; children and 
school patrons are interested in the exploration; ideas and 
information are interchanged through exhibits and other 
forms of publicity. Collection is supplemented by construc- 
tion, by loan, and by exchange. Out of this almost inevitably 
some financial support eventuates, and materials are pur- 
chased through the efforts of children and teachers, through 
parent-teacher groups, or through the board of education. 4 

Materials and equipment most often purchased include 
maps, globes, slides, still , films, stereographs, stereoscopes, 
stereopticons, and opaque projectors. 5 The nature of aids, 
as reported in the same study, varies according to the size 
of the school. Smaller schools use mounted and unmounted 
pictures more frequently; larger schools are apparently better 
equipped for projection, slides being second only to maps in 
types of aids most often reported by them, whereas they are 
eighth in frequency of mention in small schools. A more 
recent inclusion is the motion-picture projector, first silent 
and more recently sound, and provision for access to films. 

When interest in the provision of visual materials extends 
beyond a single teacher, or at most a single school, some 
change becomes necessary, since it is no more economical 
to duplicate all items for every classroom than would be the 
case with books. Some flexibility is inevitably sacrificed in 
the course of the systematization that is involved, and the 
degree of inflexibility is likely to increase with the size of 
the system. A less ambitious program, making use of mate- 
rials so inexpensive that each classroom and each school 
shall have its permanent supply, may in some cases contribute 

8 Campbell, Laurence R. "A Five Year Program." 

4 Sputhall, Maycie. "Supervisor's Relation to Improvement of Materials of 

8 N.E.A. Research Division. "A Survey of the Use of Teaching Aids." 


more to effective instruction than the machinelike regularity 
with which certain forms of equipment circulate in some 
cities. 6 This is, however, no more true and inevitable than 
is the case with the library. Adequate provision and effec- 
tive organization of materials will make certain types avail- 
able in each classroom, as is now the case in most schools 
with respect to maps, globes, and textbooks, and in many 
with respect to supplementary texts, classroom libraries, and 
school libraries. Materials less frequently or generally needed 
will be centered in museums or distributing bureaus of 
reasonable accessibility. 7 Careful selection will eliminate 
wasteful expenditure, and organization with relation to cur- 
riculum will greatly multiply fruitful use of available provi- 

A whole series of important problems is here involved. 
What is to be the basis of selection, and who is to make the 
selection? How can curriculum and materials be interrelated 
so as to be mutually beneficial and contribute most to the 
educational objectives of the school? What agencies can 
most economically and effectively render the services needed? 
How can the service be most efficiently organized? What 
shall be the unit of administration? What proportion of the 
budget is to be assigned to the maintenance of the service? 
These are the problems of the administration of visual aids 
with which the articles summarized in this compilation are 

A fundamental consideration is the relation of visual 
materials to the educational program. Some enthusiasts 
would go so far as to regard visual work as a definite subject 
of instruction with an allotted period on the program of 
every classroom as strictly observed as periods of any sub- 
ject in the curriculum. 8 The opposite position is that the use 

8 Knowlton, D. C. "Problems of Administration of Visual Instruction." 
'Enlow, E. R. "Some Tentative Standards for City Visual Education Pro- 

'Chambers, Elsie I. "Are You Interested in Visual Education?" 


of visual materials constitutes a method of instruction applic- 
able to practically all fields. 9 Is it a method of fundamental 
importance, on a par with the use of books, or is it merely 
supplementary to the real work of the school ? 9 Have visual 
materials a clear-cut purpose in the educational program, 10 or 
are they mainly of entertainment and at best of vague and 
general educational value ? 9 What is their value in counter- 
acting handicaps imposed by large enrollments and crowded 
classrooms, 11 more expeditious imparting of desired infor- 
mation, 12 " 13 cutting down the number of repeaters or reducing 
truancy ? n Is their more important service the contribution 
they make to sound understanding, through a degree of 
concreteness not possible with words alone, 13 so that in many 
respects and for many purposes they may be superior to 
the book as a means? Or are they rather to be regarded 
as a means of arousing intellectual interest which will lead 
to study of books ? 13 

The foregoing values and purposes are not necessarily 
alternatives; in many cases they are coordinate or inter- 
related, but not in all. It is with respect to conflicting ideas 
among them that a clear position must be taken, if principles 
of selection and use are to be evolved. With respect to use, 
for example, are many pictures to be shown or may better 
results be obtained by intensive cumulative use of a few, 
carefully selected? One writer points out that the viewing 
of films may be very much like the experience of a party of 
tourists trailing an overzealous guide through a European 
art gallery. 14 Another warns against using too many pic- 
tures at one time lest the exercise become only a picture 
show. 15 These dangers exist because teachers lack a clear 

9 Strayer, George D. "Administration of Visual Education." 

10 Hollinger, John A. "Administration of Visual Aids in Education." 
u Evans, Marian. "Budgeting for Visual Instruction." 

12 "Suggestions for a Motion Picture Exchange." Volta Review. 

18 Gregory, William M. "Visual Aids in the Classroom." 

14 Knowlton, D. C. "Problems of Administration, etc." 

16 Abrams, A. W. "Administration and Supervision of Visual Aids." 


conviction of the educational, as opposed to the mere enter- 
tainment, purpose in the use of visual materials. 

In the light of fundamental educational values, the numer- 
ous aspects of the administration of a program of visual aids 
must eventually be evolved. Some of the problems treated 
in the digests which follow are : selection of materials 
(Dorris, 26, Enlow, 43, Gregory, 31, Southall, 35, Whitting- 
hill, 69) ; curriculum and visual materials (Dorris, 26, Evans, 
25, Gregory, 31, McClusky, 32, Southall, 31, Strayer, 20, 
Reitze, 44, Campbell, 48, Angell, 49, Horning, 50, Gross, 84, 
Chambers, 85, Brunstetter, 29; equipment needed (Campbell, 

48, Emery, 48, Reitze, 44, Enlow, 43) ; distribution of ma- 
terials (Crakes, 46, Dorris, 26, Evans, 25, Hollinger, 76, 
McClusky, 34, Reitze, 45, Southall, 37, Strayer, 20) ; storage 
of materials in a central office (Dorris, 27, Evans, 25, Mc- 
Clusky, 34, Enlow, 43, Reitze, 44, Crakes, 46, Lain, 70, 
Gregory, 68, Haworth, 71, Hollinger, 24, Sigman 72) ; qualifi- 
cations and administrative relationship of the director of 
visual education (Dorris, 27, Evans, 25, McClusky, 34, Reitze, 
45, Whitcomb, 50, Whittinghill, 69) ; supervision, and in- 
service education of teachers (Abrams, 95, Dorris, 26, Brun- 
stetter, 29, Evans, 25, Gregory, 68, Haworth, 71, Horning, 
50, McClusky, 34, Reitze, 45, Roach, 73, Southall, 35, 
Strayer, 20, Whittinghill, 69) ; experimentation through the 
department of visual education (Gregory, 68, McClusky, 34, 
Reitze, 45, Strayer, 20, Whittinghill, 69) ; developing a pro- 
gram of visual education (Brunstetter, 29, Campbell, 48, 
Hester, 86, Hoek, 86, Smith, 83) ; costs and budget (Angell, 

49, Crakes, 46, Emery, 48, Emery, 48, Evans, 25, Enlow, 43, 
Gregory, 68, Hollinger, 24, Reitze, 45 ) ; status and trends in 
administration (Division of Research of the N.R.A., 16, 
Southall, 35, Bard, 54) ; systems of filing and cataloging 
materials (87-91). 

Out of many possible organizations, that selected for this 
compilation is, with the exception of the third section, on the 


basis of units of administration. Articles dealing with city, 
state and national departments of visual education have been 
summarized in the order named. 


A. The Establishment of a City System 

The articles by Strayer and McClusky, although written 
ten years ago, are still pertinent. In them is defined the 
relation of a visual-education department to other admin- 
istrative departments in the city system. It is important that 
this relation be clearly perceived by the visual-education 
supervisor both for the proper organization and administra- 
tion of his department and to promote a spirit of cooperation. 

Strayer, George D. (Institute of Educational Research, 
Teachers College, Columbia University) "The Administra- 
tion of Visual Education." School and Society. 22:234-5. 
August 22, 1925. An abstract of an address delivered before 
the Section on Visual Education of the National Education 
Association, Indianapolis, June 30, 1925. 
The administration of visual education must be considered 
in the light of the relation of visual education to the whole educa- 
tional program. If, as many of us believe, visual aids should 
be provided for teachers in practically all fields, then the prob- 
lem consists in the introduction of a method of instruction rather 
than in the actual administration of any unit of the school system. 
The director of visual education should work in cooperation 
with principals and supervisors, heads of departments in high 
schools, and individual teachers. He is essentially a staff worker 
who should be assigned, from time to time, to different parts 
of the school system so that he may aid in developing the use 
of visual materials in particular situations. He most certainly 
is not a line officer who is placed in control of some particular 
unit of the school system. His work in the school system is 
comparable to that of a director a director of research, for 
example, or of the psychological clinic, or of the health service. 
We need further investigation as to the most economical 
and efficient method of using pictures, slides, stereographs, and 
films. The method of distribution now found in many com- 
munities suggests that these visual aids are thought of as supple- 


mentary to the real work of the school, rather than of the same 
fundamental importance as books. Some indication of our ulti- 
mate solution of this perplexing problem may be found in our 
organization of classroom and school libraries as opposed to a 
dependence upon a central library. 

The director of visual education, in cooperation with special- 
ists throughout the school system, must provide for the training 
of teachers in service. We cannot hope to achieve the results 
that are predicted through the use of visual materials without 
training teachers in this new technique. Our teachers' colleges 
and normal schools may be expected to include work in this field 
in their curricula, but for the teachers already in service it is 
essential that demonstrations of the efficient use of visual ma- 
terials be provided and that courses of study be revised to include 
definite instruction to teachers in the use of these materials. 

Since visual aids are used to improve instruction rather than 
to provide entertainment, the classification of pupils with respect 
to training and ability is essential. The herding of children into 
large auditoriums in order to exhibit a film that may have little 
or no relation to the work that most of them are doing, or the 
use of the stereopticon slide or stereograph merely to occupy 
time, has done much to delay the development of this most im- 
portant technique in our public-school systems. 

If we are to take visual education seriously, we shall have 
to think in terms of equipping every classroom with a proper 
electrical outlet for the portable stereopticon that we plan to 
use. We shall just as certainly need to build our auditoriums 
small enough 16 for a group of children of the same grade to 
work comfortably with the teacher in those subjects in which the 
slides or film offer an important aid to instruction. We shall 
have to provide space in the classroom, in the auditorium, and 
in the central storeroom, for the proper housing of the materials 
which are to be used. 

Many other administrative problems wait upon more exten- 
sive investigations than have yet been undertaken. We must 
discover just how much it will cost to provide adequate visual 
aids for all subjects in which they can be used to advantage. We 
must discover how the courses of study in individual schools may 
be adjusted to allow for the use of particular materials at differ- 
ent periods during the year. We must learn to choose from 

M This recommendation, made in 1925, was based on the necessity of a 
special booth for the 35 mm. projector, used exclusively at that time. Ed. 


among the visual aids that are now provided those that will 
bring the best results in each situation. We must learn to what 
extent we should vary the use of visual materials in relation 
to the intellectual capacities of different groups of children. 

These are some of the issues that must be considered by the 
director of visual education. The compass of his inquiries and 
the validity of his findings will have much to do with the develop- 
ment of this important method in education. 

McClusky, F. Dean. "Finding the Facts of Visual Education : 

The Administrative Status of Officers in Charge of Bureaus." 

Educational Screen. 4:72-6. February 1925. 

The administration of visual education is a complex task. 
New devices complicate methods of instruction and require 
formulation of special techniques. The relation of departments 
of visual education to other phases of educational administra- 
tion is a major factor to be considered. According to Hollis's 
study in 1924, the status of visual-education directors is not 
clearly defined. They are usually people already employed, who 
have been given additional assignments. 

The director of visual education should not be a supervisor. 
To supervise personally all visual materials would call for more 
work than the director could handle and would cause friction 
between him and other supervisors. The administration of 
visual education should be in terms, not of devices, techniques, 
or methods, but of subject matter. There are supervisors of 
art and music, for example, but not of the lecture method or 
the laboratory method. A visual-education supervisor, there- 
fore, would not fit into the administrative set-up, and would 
either exaggerate his position, or become a tool in the hands of 
other supervisors. 

Among the functions suitable to a director of visual educa- 
tion are those of assisting in the organization of courses of 
study and, with other administrators, the collection of visual 
materials and their coordination with the course of study. The 
ultimate function of a city school department of visual education 
would be that of lending expert advice and assistance to teachers 
and principals; who would collect for their immediate and con- 
tinued use those visual aids which they would keep permanently 
in their schools ; and to secure in return the cooperation of all 
in collecting and distributing those materials which would supple- 
ment and enrich the materials in the possession of each indi- 


vidual. Directors should define their own position by a spirit 
of intelligent cooperation. 

Cooperation is difficult where the bureau is located in the 
state extension service. A state bureau may, however, prepare 
and collect materials for the use of small schools that would 
otherwise find it difficult to use visual aids. A state conference 
on visual education, such as those organized by the Universities 
of Missouri and Utah, would be very helpful, as would the 
distribution of bulletins of information. 

Summary and conclusions. A director of visual education 
should not be a supervisor comparable to those in music and 
art. He has the responsibility of seeing that all visual aids are 
coordinated through his office. This should be done in a cooper- 
ative spirit, not in a spirit of domination. He must check on 
what is being done in the line of visual education in all depart- 
ments and know that it is being done properly. He can 
accomplish these ends by organization of visual-education con- 
ferences, correlation of visual aids with courses of study, estab- 
lishment of a clearing house for information in his office, 
encouragement of experiments on the value and use of visual 
aids, and preparation of bulletins and circulars on techniques 
and methods. 

Hollinger, John A. (Pittsburgh) "The Organization and Dis- 
tribution of Visual Materials." Educational Screen. 5 :147- 
50. March 1926. 

A few outstanding methods of organization and distribution 
of visual materials are as follows : 

1. Locate and announce vicinities and specific places for 
field study and excursions to gain acquaintance with living 
things in their natural habitats. Field study and excursions may 
be for (a) teachers and advanced students only, either because 
adults would be less likely to destroy property, or because such 
trips would make them more symapthetic with their surround- 
ings, or (b) for classes of students in elementary, secondary, and 
higher schools. The classes must have specific purposes, and 
results should be carefully checked. These trips provide mental 
training, as well as subject-matter training. 

Favorable localities and specific places can be located by state 
normal schools, museums and historical societies, industrial, com- 
mercial, and business concerns, or by specialized organizations, 


such as the American Nature Society, State Game Commission, 
and so on. 

Information for the use of the public schools should be 
submitted to designated centers from which it may be distributed 
to individual teachers. Such centers might be, for example, the 
U. S. Office of Education, the State Department of Public 
Instruction, offices of the county superintendents and city super- 
intendents of schools, offices of supervising principals. 

2. Create centers for the collection and distribution of 
materials that should be used as visual aids. There should be a 
national center for materials of national importance ; a state 
center; and a center for local distribution either a city visual- 
education center working closely with local museums, or a center 
in the extension divisions of normal schools or universities. Each 
individual school might also have a definite organization for the 
collection and distribution of visual aids. If the school is not too 
large, this organization may center in the principal's office; 
otherwise some teacher in the building should be given a reduced 
teaching load to allow some time for the control of visual aids 
used in the building. 

Until better educational films are produced, centers for the 
selection and distribution of motion pictures are especially 
needed. Good films are expensive and should move quickly from 
class to class, but the integration of the film with the lesson 
should not be sacrificed for the sake of rapid circulation. 

The article by Marian Evans will explain further the 
duties of the staff of a visual-education department and the 
economic problems to be considered. The section in Dorris's 
book on administration is also quite explicit, although the 
figures, which applied to the Berkeley schools in 1919, are 
no longer helpful. 

Evans, Marian (San Diego, Calif.) "Budgeting for Visual 
Instruction." School Executives Magazine. 53:19-20. Sep- 
tember 1933. 

Modern schools demand a visual-instruction center for these 
reasons: (1) Parents realize the value of visual aids and many 
parents' organizations raise funds for equipment. (2) Teachers 
and principals endorse them as essential materials, especially for 


enlarged class registers. (3) Visual aids can teach local and 
current community history in flexible form; books cannot be 
so detailed or supplemented so easily. The scope of the depart- 
ment should extend to all instructional materials except books 
and supplies and should include materials of multiple-sensory 

A visual-education center should serve as a collecting, or- 
ganizing, and distributing center for visual and other instruc- 
tional aids ; a teacher-training and advisory bureau on techniques 
and use of materials; a production plant and photography 
laboratory for making aids ; a testing division for the evaluation 
of visual materials and equipment; a correlating center for 
educational organization such as museums, galleries, zoos, and 
so on ; a center for the display of students' work. 

The work of the director cannot be done by the librarian or 
warehouse staff because the director must be thoroughly 
acquainted with curriculum content and methods, from kinder- 
garten through high school. He should also have business 
experience for purchasing, producing, and testing visual aids. A 
specially trained staff includes : the director, a technical director, 
a teacher-and-research-assistant for films, another for slides, and 
other aids clerk, secretary, and so on. There should also be a 
film inspector, emergency carrier, and janitor for part-time work. 

Expenditures of a visual-education budget usually fall under 
the following categories : 

1. Funds for the circulation of visual aids, such as exhibits, 
specimens, realia; slides, film slides; silent and sound films; 
pictures, charts, posters, plates, portfolios; stereographs; still 
films; photographs. 

2. Funds for the maintenance of a department and upkeep 
of the equipment. Expenses include the cost of photographic 
equipment; the developing, printing, and production of films; 
the upkeep and purchase of departmental demonstration equip- 
ment; the assembly section, i.e., film editing and repair, classify- 
ing, organizing, and mounting of pictures, posters, slides, 
exhibits; shipping and postage; upkeep of projection equipment 
in schools. 

3. Salaries. 

4. Necessary funds for the installation of standard equip- 
ment permanently placed in schools. This expense should be 
charged to capital outlay or to the building fund. 


Often auxiliary agencies pay all costs for visual education, 
except salaries. 

In figuring the annual allotment, take the percentage of 
the per-pupil daily attendance to cover all expenses except the 
initial cost of equipment (which, as has been said, should be 
taken care of in the building fund). If paralleled with the 
amount allowed for books, the rate would be 75c to $1 per 
average daily attendance for elementary-school pupils and $2 to 
$6 per pupil in high schools. 

Visual instruction might even cut down on the number of 
repeaters, which cost about $112 each, annually. It may also cut 
down truancy because the class work will be more interesting. 

Dorris, Anna V. "Administrative Problems of Visual Instruc- 
tion in the Public Schools." In Visual Instruction in the 
Public Schools. Ginn and Co. Boston. 1928. Part III, 
p. 369-426. 

Plans for teacher training include : 

1. General instructional classes once a week for five or 
six weeks, held by the head of the department of visual instruc- 
tion with attendance optional. Lectures and demonstration 

2. General training for rural schools through conferences 
with rural supervisors and through annual institutes and section 

3. Teacher-training colleges to give courses in visual educa- 
:ion to prospective teachers and in-service teachers. 

The course at State Teachers College in San Francisco, 
Jalifornia, in 1922 included personal visits by the instructor to 
^chools whose principals had requested concrete suggestions for 
using visual aids. The content of the course included instruc- 
tion in techniques and principles for using visual instruction, a 
discussion of sources of materials and equipment and how to 
use them, and consideration of how to enrich the curriculum by 
visual instruction. 

A visual-instruction department must select, buy, and circulate 
materials for every subject in all grades of the curriculum and 
must be equipped to guide teachers in the use of materials and 
equipment. It is therefore separate from, yet must cooperate 
closely with, every other administrative department of the 


The general duties of the director of visual education are 
many. They include the organization and supervision of the 
department and office help ; making up and spending the budget ; 
consulting groups of teachers, principals, and supervisors, and 
advising with them on types of materials needed; selecting and 
buying materials for all subjects in all grades; organizing and 
classifying materials ; selecting and buying all types of apparatus ; 
issuing bulletins on materials on hand and announcing meetings ; 
holding teachers' meetings by grades and demonstrating the 
use of apparatus and materials; compiling a course of study, 
or teachers' guide, with the cooperation of teachers, principals, 
and others, to offer suggestions for use of different materials 
in various types of lessons; supervising the organization and 
compilation of an annual catalog; visiting schools to help teachers 
with their special problems ; giving advice and assistance to 
community clubs; conducting special college courses in visual 
instruction; supervising the preparation of the annual report to 
the superintendent of schools and the board of education; 
occasionally previewing films with teachers. 

To perform these varied duties, the director must be a 
scholar with a broad knowledge of the fundamental principles 
of modern education. He must know subject matter and tech- 
niques of teaching. He must have an extensive teaching knowl- 
edge and, if possible, teaching and supervisory experience. He 
must know primary, junior-, and senior-high-school fields 
thoroughly. He should have a reasonable amount of business 
ability and a thorough knowledge of the field of visual education. 
He must know how to cooperate with supervisors and faculty. 

The director's staff should include a mechanical expert, an 
assistant and stenographer, an office helper, a delivery man. 

The Berkeley, California, schools in 1919 used the following 
procedure in setting up a department. A room was set aside 
as a visual-instruction center and equipped with shelves, and 
so on. Materials, such as slides and exhibits, were gathered 
from all schools and commercial agencies. One portable motion- 
picture machine and two stereopticon lanterns were purchased. 
(All but two of the schools had already owned such equipment.) 
A small portion of the budget was set aside for rental of strictly 
educational films. Lists of such films had been sent out by a 
committee and referred to the course of study. Letters were 
sent to commercial and industrial firms for material. Slides, 


pictures, and stereographs were, in time, carefully selected and 
purchased. They were then classified. Pictures from the 
National Geographic were mounted and filed. Habitat groups 
of birds and small animals were made by the Academy of Na- 
tural History at Golden Gate Park. (The cases had been made 
by manual-training students.) Monthly teachers' meetings were 
held by grades. A chairman of visual instruction for each school 
was selected. 

The budget was $5000 to $6000 annually. Films did not 
have to be purchased, since the University of California's distri- 
bution service was in the same city. 

A monograph by Edgar Dale and Lloyd L. Ramseyer, of 
Ohio State University, entitled Teaching with Motion Pic- 
tures: A Handbook of Administrative Practice contains a 
summary of the problems of visual instruction as expressed 
by administrators, with suggestions for their solution. The 
book was published in 1937 by the American Council on 
Education, Washington, D.C. and should be consulted in its 

The recommendations which follow were formulated by 
Brunstetter after an intensive program in cooperation with 
a group of school systems containing schools of various 
sizes and types, so selected as to furnish a cross section of 
the educational field. The outlines for a program in the 
Hershey, Pennsylvania, and Evansville, Indiana, schools, 
respectively, are included on pages 62 and 63. Brunstetter's 
suggestions represent recent judgments concerning effective 
administration for visual education, and are concerned almost 
entirely with the educational sound film. The ideal set-up, 
however, includes all possible types of visual aids. 

The article written by Gregory in 1927 stresses the need 
for correlating visual aids with the course of study and 
illustrates with the Cleveland course of study. 


Brunstetter, M. R. "Organizing an Audio-Visual Instruction 
Program." In How to Use the Educational Sound Film. 
University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1937. Chapter IV, 
p. 73-95. 

The use of films and other instructional materials should 
be developed as a program, with all the planning and coordination 
that the term implies administrative services, integration with 
the curriculum, assistance to teachers in the use of the medium, 
a study of problems relating to the mechanical aspects of the 

Creative administration demands vision before supervision 
in outlining the direction of the educational program. It solves 
the minor problems of class schedules, plant facilities, and the 
provision of supplies, so that the teacher is free to concentrate 
on the growth of the students in his charge. 

Effective utilization of audio-visual materials of instruction 
must be planned in terms of local objectives, curriculum needs, 
available services, and plant facilities. Preliminary investigation 
is needed of the courses of study for which superior films are 
available; courses of study which need more effective materials 
of instruction; courses of study for which teachers need more 
command of subject matter; desirable courses which might be 
initiated if suitable materials of instruction can be secured; 
special projects and activities, such as extracurricular work, 
teacher training, adult education, and the like, to which audio- 
visual aids might contribute. 

The next step is to make a survey of all the materials owned 
by the local system to determine the extent to which each type 
is used, how materials are secured and distributed, what facilities 
are available for projection, and so on. This survey should take 
into account administrative provisions as well as the teachers' 
competence in the use of materials. 

A survey should also be made of the local staff to determine 
the individual or individuals most competent to direct the 
projected program. If committee work is to be organized, which 
teachers or principals are best fitted to participate ? What should 
be the duties of a special director, other than those related to 
audio-visual aids? Is course-of -study revision contemplated 
which could be coordinated with certain aspects of the program? 


The classroom teacher should be given ample opportunity 
to cooperate in carrying out this survey and in planning for 
the development of a program. 

Planning the film program. There are five elements in a 
program for audio-visual education: (a) training teachers in the 
effective use of audio- visual aids; (b) selecting audio- visual 
materials and integrating them with the curriculum; (c) develop- 
ing new areas of instruction; (d) providing films, equipment, 
and projection facilities; and (e) organizing the administrative, 
clerical, and mechanical services. Each of these elements may 
be developed in three steps: (1) preliminary preparations, (2) 
experimentation and study, and (3) expansion. 

In school systems where efficient departments of visual in- 
struction already exist, the problem would be only that of organiz- 
ing the use of sound films into the system. [The provisions for 
such a program in the Englewood (New Jersey) Junior High 
School are described.] 

Organising services for an audio-visual instruction program. 
In beginning the use of sound films, the administrative, clerical, 
and mechanical services usually can be handled by existing 
personnel. There are advantages other than financial when the 
present staff administers the initial stages of the program. This 
insures the immediate participation of all individuals on the 
staff and familiarizes them with the problems which are to be 
solved. Solutions for routine activities, such as the distribution 
of films, will be more readily achieved by persons who are already 
acquainted with the school system. 

Administration in one school system with seven elementary 
schools and a large junior-senior high school has been placed 
in the care of one elementary-school principal ( for the elementary 
schools) and the biology teacher (for the junior-senior high 
school). An interne teacher is in charge of handling the ma- 
terials in the central library. 

In a school system of eleven buildings, efficient administra- 
tion has been carried on through the efforts of a part-time 
director assisted by a secretary-clerk [A program for a large 
school system is outlined as suggested for the Evansville, Indiana, 
schools. The program is summarized in the present volume, 
p. 63.] 


Selecting audio-visual materials and integrating them with 
the curriculum. Materials may be selected and integrated by 
committees consisting of teachers who have before them certain 
set standards to guide them. A permanent reviewing committee 
might be set up to recommend rental films. Integration with 
the curriculum should involve no more than the listing of certain 
films available to teachers in connection with specific units of 
instruction. This might be made possible by mimeographed 
bulletins from time to time. 

Developing new areas and modes of instruction. There is 
much evidence of the value of the sound film in platoon schools 
where several classes view the film in the auditorium. Health 
or music programs adapt themselves well to auditorium use. 
In certain school systems the availability of sound-film material 
is facilitating the introduction of elementary-science courses. 
Many high schools are teaching appreciation of the sound film 
as an art form in regularly scheduled classes. 

Gregory, William M. (Director, Educational Museum, Cleve- 
land, Ohio) "Visual Aids in the Classroom." Elementary 
School Principal's Sixth Yearbook. 6:251-60. April 1927. 

Visual aids assist the pupil in many ways. They give con- 
creteness to ideas, connect words with objects, visualize factual 
conditions, economize time in understanding facts, interest pupils 
with objective materials, offer substitutes for excursions, furnish 
an approach to problems, create ideals, stimulate imagination. 

Before visual aids are incorporated into the curriculum, 
proper experimentation must be carried out as to the desirability 
of using each type of aid and the time and place for its use. 
Purchase of materials must be made regularly, not spasmodically. 
Proper organization is essential for any effective use of visual 

School organization necessary. There should be units of 
activities based upon visual material. The experimental school 
should apply and evaluate this procedure; the results may then 
be made a part of the course of study. 

There should be unit graded sets of illustrative materials 
classified as to cost (determined by classroom tests made before 
the purchase of the material) and authenticity (whether the 
material was made by educators or commercial firms). The 


visual material should be listed in each course of study and in 
a separate catalog. The material should be kept in repair by 
an expert. 

The distribution of units of visual aids should be at the 
opportune time for the activities of pupils in regular classroom 
lessons. Detail as to delivery methods depends upon the size 
of the school or community. Economy is effected by a regular 
delivery-and-collection route to the teachers. 

The classroom use of visual aids depends upon the teacher. 
There must be definite techniques, however, for their use and 
teachers should be specially trained in these techniques. A set 
of standards for each type of aid should be set up. Visual aids 
not closely related to classroom activities should be excluded. 

Some school systems issue a catalog of lantern slides, films, 
specimens, and so forth, that they make available to schools. 
Teachers select the aids they want at the time they think best. 
Many of these lists reveal why visual aids have not been more 
rapidly accepted in modern education. Three-quarters of the 
pictures listed by some schools and state universities are advertis- 
ing films of no educational value ; many of the lantern slides are 
quite unrelated to actual school activities. 

The Cleveland course of study, on the other hand, illustrates 
how visual aids may be made an integral part of the curriculum. 
Among the visual aids used are mounted pictures, lantern slides, 
exhibits, and motion pictures one a term, if any. 

McClusky discusses the problems of administering a de- 
partment of visual education after tracing the steps in the 
visual education movement. He views city administration 
from a broad, nation-wide point of view and cites instances 
of varying techniques in operation in several cities of the 
United States. 

McClusky, F. Dean (Director of Scarborough School, New 
York; President, National Academy of Visual Instruction) 
"The Administration of Visual Instruction in the Public 
Schools." Junior-Senior High School Clearing House. 5 : 
207-14. December 1930. 

The increase in the number of available photographs and 
illustrated textbooks and the cheapness of slides and stereo- 
graphs have made visual education a necessity and not a luxury. 


There have been three distinct phases in the development of 
organized visual education : 

The school museum movement (1905-14). See chapters on 
"Educational Work of American Museums," in annual reports 
of the U. S. Commissioner of Education, 1913-14-15-16. 

The university extension movement (1915-19). The Bureau 
of Education in Washington, D. C, deposited 100 reels of film 
in each of over twenty extension departments of education, 
thus giving an impetus to the circulation of visual aids. 

The creation of visual- education bureaus in city school sys- 
tems. The Chicago bureau, the first established, resulted from 
a projection club that ten elementary-school principals started 
in 1895. The stereopticons they purchased were finally placed 
in the care of a visual-education bureau. Many other cities 
have since established such departments. 

Directors of city visual-education centers are usually ap- 
pointed because of their success in handling visual aids as teach- 
ers, principals, or supervisors. Many of them have handled 
visual aids without much financial assistance. 

The responsibilities of the director are as follows : to keep 
in touch with sources of new material ; to select wisely, to con- 
struct, or to reconstruct material and correlate it with the curric- 
ulum; to interview teachers and principals with respect to the 
handling of visual aids; to administer the routine of the depart- 
ment; to follow up breakage and delays in transportation; to 
supervise the use of materials ; to help teachers with special 
exhibits; to make tabular studies of the extent of the service; 
to arrange for proper dissemination of information regarding 
the rules; to prepare rules and regulations for borrowing 
materials ; to prepare or arrange for the preparation of lesson 
units correlating with visual aids; to render a report at stated 
intervals to his superior. 

The well-qualified director should have thorough experience 
and training in handling people, in the technique of teaching, 
and in educational administration; he should have training in 
the science and art of photography, in the preparation of museum 
exhibits, in the handling of projection equipment, and in prepar- 
ing catalogs and reports. 

The assistant director usually does just what his title implies ; 
that is, he assists the director in carrying out his duties. In some 


cases he carries on certain of the duties himself, leaving others 
for the director to conduct. In Pittsburgh, for example, the 
assistant director carries on work with nature study and the 
director is free to carry on other activities. In New York City, 
the director is a lecturer and the assistant director is responsible 
for a large portion of the work. 

A visual-education staff also includes stenographers, clerks, 
chauffeur, and licensed operator. 

Cost of visual education. A survey of the National Academy 
of Visual Instruction showed that thirty- four cities and twenty- 
three states spent over five million dollars on visual education 
in the period 1923-30. (See McClusky, "Progress of Visual 
Instruction in the United States." Educational Screen. Septem- 
ber 1930.) Of the five million dollars, 51 per cent was used for 
salaries, 38 per cent for the purchase of new materials and 
equipment, and 1 1 per cent for operating expenses. 

City bureaus own about $300,000 worth of equipment and 
materials; state bureaus about $600,000 worth. 

Methods and extent of the distribution of visual materials. 
Bureaus distribute films by (a) "circuit method," and (b) 
special-order method. Under the circuit method, rented, loaned, 
and school-owned films are sent to schools in a regular system 
of exchange. Under the special-order method, the bureau acts 
as a broker for ordering films, or stores films in its library 
until they are desired. The pedagogical value of the special- 
order method is evident. St. Louis combines the advantages of 
both methods by having the delivery truck stop regularly at the 
school for teachers' special orders. 

Slides are usually sent out by the special-order method. The 
best methods of transporting visual materials are by truck, special 
messenger, or school messenger. 

City museums, libraries, and other institutions have co- 
operated closely with school departments of visual instruction. 
(See, for example, museums and libraries in Buffalo, Chicago, 
Cleveland, Detroit, Los Angeles, Newark, New York, Oakland, 
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh.) They attempt to organize exhibits, 
and so on, in terms of school curricula. They often "take the 
museum to the schools." 


After considering these proposals for setting up a city 
system of visual education, it might be well to note the find- 
ings of a study of supervisory relationship to materials of 
instruction, based on an informal questionnaire sent to mem- 
bers of the Department of Supervisors and Directors of 
Instruction of the National Education Association. The 
findings represent current practices in administering various 
materials of instruction, including visual aids. 

Southall, Maycie. "Supervisor's Relation to Improvement of 
Materials of Instruction." Materials of Instruction, The 
Eighth Yearbook of the Department of Supervisors and 
Directors of Instruction, National Education Association. 
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity. New York. 1935. p. 149-83. 

Determining the materials needed. In answer to the ques- 
tions, (1) what is being done in the system to provide better 
and more adequate materials of instruction, and (2) what in 
their opinions should be the supervisor's responsibility and how 
it should be met, there were sixty replies. 

Materials of instruction are denned as those tangible, visual, 
auditory, kinesthetic, gustatory, and olfactory aids to learning 
that are actually used by pupils. In selecting materials, it was 
the general opinion that consideration should be given first to 
the children their interests, needs, and abilities; second, to the 
educational objectives that the materials are expected to further; 
third, to the size and organization of the local system; fourth, 
to the amount and kinds of material already on hand. The 
resources of the local environment and the funds available for 
purchasing materials must also be considered. 

Various people were reported as being responsible for de- 
termining what materials were needed. In some cases, the 
supervisor decides upon the most desirable types in view of 
curriculum needs; in other cases, the selection is made by the 
superintendent of the bureau of supplies. Sometimes staff 
members prepare a list of materials needed in their respective 
departments, or requisitions may be drawn by heads of depart- 
ments and others. Again, a committee of teachers the member- 
ship based on significant work done in the field in question 

assists in finding materials most needed. In other cases, the. 


responsibility is given to a teachers' advisory committee, selected 
by teachers, which meets frequently with the supervisor. Or 
special committees may be appointed to investigate new materials 
and make recommendations annually to joint conferences of 
teachers, principals, and supervisors. Or the supervisor may 
act in an advisory capacity to committees, such as (a) a special 
committee appointed to investigate specific materials, (b) com- 
mittees working on the course of study, (c) a teachers' advisory 

It is noteworthy that the majority of those reporting utilize 
the cooperation of many people in determining the instructional 
materials most needed. 

Needs are determined by observation of materials used in 
other systems, by study of equipment listed in catalogs, or 
through the recommendations and requests of teachers and 
pupils. Suggestions are gained, in some cases, by reference to 
students' records: curriculum records (used as a basis in 
nine of the replies), pupils' reading records, as revealed by 
library cards showing books and magazines most used, or school 
progress records and standardized test results, indicating weak- 
nesses in the work with students. Experimentation was used 
by only four supervisors and usually for new materials, espe- 
cially new textbooks. 

It is important that the supervisor lay before the super- 
intendent the needs of the pupils in such a way that materials 
shall receive a just share of the school budget at every grade 
level. He should also acquaint parents and organized groups 
with the need for various types of materials and their use. 

Developing an appreciation of visual aids. It was reported 
that an appreciation of the educational value of visual aids was 
developed by means of study groups held in classrooms. These 
groups investigated creative materials of various kinds, new 
and old materials available for the same purpose, new environ- 
mental material, the adaptation of materials to the needs of 
exceptional children, and techniques in the use of different 
materials. Appreciation was also stimulated through demonstra- 
tions, by materials committees, by visiting other schools, by 
teachers' excursions, and by the exhibition and circulation of 

Sources. Sources for commercial materials are found to be 
exhibits (5 types), reading books and magazines, studying 


advertisements, analyzing curriculum records, interviewing or 
talking with others. Sources for environmental materials are 
found through surveys of the community, guides for teachers 
and parents, and through the use of children as explorers. 

Selection of materials. Materials are selected in the follow- 
ing ways : by experimentation especially for new materials 
before their purchase; by using the expert opinion of specialists 
in the respective fields (resorted to by only four supervisors) ; 
by using local opinion, either of one person or of many; by 
exhibits or displays; by requisition, either from lists of mate- 
rials already available in the Central Bureau or from additional 
lists of suggestions. 

A threefold responsibility was recommended for the super- 
visor in the selection of instructional materials. The supervisor 
must be well informed in order to guide in the selection of 
materials. He must know trends in the improvement of 
materials of instruction, research findings, new materials pub- 
lished, recommendations by specialists in different fields, and 
reactions of teachers and pupils to materials being used. 
Recommended lists of materials should be compiled with the 
cooperation of teachers and principals and should be kept up 
to date. 

Instructional materials are secured by purchase through 
the board of education, through parent-teacher groups, or 
through children and teachers. Materials are also secured 
by collection, by construction, and by loan and exchange. 

Making materials available. Various systems were reported. 
In some instances, there are centrally located depositories in 
a central office, or in the central library, or in the supervisor's 
office. Only two supervisors reported a materials bureau one 
under the direction of a full-time person, the other under the 
direction of a group of teachers who took turns in keeping it 
open. In other cases, there is an exchange of materials by 
teachers, or a classroom is used as a depository, or there is 
a materials bureau located in the principal's office in each school. 

Promoting more efficient use of materials. This is ac- 
complished through demonstrations (a) of how to use new 
materials correctly, (b) of new uses for old materials, (c) of 
how certain materials may be used for several purposes, (d) of 
how to substitute inexpensive for expensive materials, (e) to 


emphasize the purpose of materials that teachers are not using, 
(f) to encourage teachers to use environmental materials. Other 
methods of promoting efficiency are through discussion, ex- 
hibits, printed and mimeographed guides, courses of study, and 

Recommendations. Recommendations offered include the 
following: The supervisor should help teachers organize and 
administer efficiently the materials available; waste of all kinds 
should be eliminated; cooperative purchase and use of material 
should be encouraged whenever possible; a schedule should be 
used to promote borrowing of rare or expensive materials in 
advance ; cheaper substitutes should be used whenever advisable ; 
teachers should be induced to make more use of environmental 
materials; opportunities to see materials used more effectively 
should be given teachers through demonstration, exhibits, and 
mtervisitation; teachers should be stimulated to experiment with 
many creative uses of materials; new uses of materials observed 
in the system or elsewhere should be reported to teachers. 

Evaluating materials in terms of child growth. Materials 
are evaluated subjectively by (a) supervisor appraisal, (b) 
teacher appraisal, (c) cooperative appraisal of supervisors, 
teachers, and principals, and (d) pupil appraisal. One super- 
visor said that "the child himself is the best evaluator." Other 
means of evaluation reported the use of standardized test results, 
individual and group records, and experimentation. 

Summary. The improvement of materials of instruction 
might be directed along three lines: (a) to meet the needs of 
the changing school program, (b) to comply with research 
findings regarding children's interests, needs, and abilities, (c) to 
be adapted to individual differences. 

Supervisors may cooperate with others in improving mate- 
rials as follows: (1) They may cooperate with state and national 
committees that are experimentally preparing materials. (2) 
They may stimulate discovery of new materials by local groups. 
(3) They may cooperate with publishers by letting them know 
which materials are unsatisfactory. (4) They may write mate- 
rials that are useful to teachers and children. (5) They should 
welcome suggestions. 


The abstracts which follow are based on plans that the 
writers evolved to fit school systems of varying size. 

The plan described by Worrell is based on the author's 
experiences in administering such a program in a small 
school system in New Jersey. The information given in 
this article is very concrete and up-to-date. 

Enlow's program is a committee report for the National 
Academy of Visual Instruction. He poses three practical 
questions and recommends ways of answering them. His 
figures are average and may be applied to cities of 100,000 
population or over. 

Reitze sets up, from data drawn from over 150 school 
systems, what he calls a" flexible plan, applicable to a city 
of about 350,000 population. Reitze used this material as 
subject for a thesis, "Organization, Functions and Admin- 
istration of a City Visual Aids Department." The plan is 
complete and extensive. 

Crakes, as principal of the high school in Moline, Illinois, 
formulated a plan for cities of 30,000 to 50,000 population. 
This plan offers practical suggestions for its execution, such 
as names and addresses of dealers and distributors, cost esti- 
mates, and so on. 

Emery's article dates back to 1925 and may not have 
many implications for present-day administrators; for ex- 
ample, provision is made only for 35-mm. motion pictures, 
used exclusively at that time. The abstract is worth reading, 

Worrell, F. Marshall (Junior High School, Englewood, NJ.) 
"Establishing a Program of Supervised Audio- Visual Educa- 
tion." Educational Screen. 16:6-8. January 1937. 

Physical organization of a department of visual education. 

The task of a director of visual education is to place at the 
disposal of the instructor the materials most useful in the teach- 
ing of her problem and through suggestion and example aid 
her to achieve perfection in their use. A department of visual 


education might be organized somewhat as follows as to per- 
sonnel and visual-aid centers: 

The personnel should include a director of audio-visual 
education, who will be directly responsible to the superintendent 
of schools, assisted by a visual-education committee made up 
of one teacher from each school, each responsible to her prin- 
cipal and to the director for the successful execution of the 
program in her school. There should also be technical assistance. 
The cooperation of the art supervisor, music supervisor, 
industrial-arts supervisor, or other such persons who might 
furnish technical information in their particular fields would be 
valuable. Heads of departments may also cooperate in cor- 
relating visual materials with the course of study. Additional 
assistance may be given by teachers interested in photography 
who might make photographic materials with the cooperation 
of a photography club; by a motion-picture operators' club, 
made up of interested students of junior- and senior-high-school 
age and trained by the director to operate projection equipment; 
by some member of the clerical staff who should service mate- 
rials ; and by teachers having hobbies in some specific branches 
of visual education, such as collecting pictures or specimens, 
making puppet shows, supervising school museums, and the like. 
A clerical staff made up of members of the high-school com- 
mercial department may aid the director in various office routine 
duties. There should also be messenger service between the 
various schools and the visual-education center. 

The headquarters for the visual-aids department should be 
located in a room set aside for the purpose in a central school 
building. The room should be suitably equipped to serve as the 
(a) meeting place for the visual-education committee, (b) office 
for the clerical force, (c) library for visual-education magazines, 
catalogs, and the like, (d) repository for department records, 
(e) repository for such visual materials and projection equip- 
ment as may be held by the department for distribution, (f) 
workshop for making or repairing materials, (g) projection 
room for previewing, (h) repository for school museum and art 

Smaller centers should be developed in each building under 
the immediate supervision of the committee representative, and 
should contain: (1) raw materials related to the work of the 
individual school; (2) projection equipment held by the school; 


(3) copies of slide and film records, catalogs, and the like; 

(4) such facilities as will fit them as meeting places for the 
departmental representatives in planning their use of visual 
materials; and (5) projection facilities for previewing. 

Preliminary activities of the department, These include: 
(1) acquainting the school administrator with the department's 
program, (2) acquainting the visual education committee with 
its duties, (3) acquainting the teacher with department facilities, 
and (4) organizing and classifying all visual materials. 

After the official creation of the visual education department, 
the superintendent may call a principals' meeting in which he 
will explain his reasons for establishing the new organization 
and request their cooperation. The director then describes in 
detail the functioning of his department, its value to principals 
and teachers, and ways in which principals may assist in 
carrying on the work. He must impress the principals with the 
fact that his is a service organization, set up primarily to assist 
both teachers and principals in carrying on the work of their 
schools in so far as it is concerned with visual materials. 

The principals will subsequently select those teachers to 
serve on the visual-education committee. These will include 
persons whose interest, initiative, and willingness to cooperate 
will assure the successful execution of the project. The com- 
mittee will confer with the director in a series of meetings in 
which he will explain the entire program. Each will be made 
acquainted with his duties and will take steps to carry out the 
details allotted to him. 

The committee representatives or the director will then meet 
with the teachers in their regular monthly teachers' meetings, 
and "sell" the idea to them, describing how the department 
hopes to assist them in their work and explaining the routines 
involved in selecting, ordering, and reporting on materials used. 
In so far as is possible at the time, he shall acquaint the teachers 
with the available materials on hand and inform them as to 
the quantity and quality of materials procurable from outside 
sources. The director will subsequently meet with smaller 
groups in their department meetings and aid them in planning 
the use of materials and correlating them with their syllabi or 
course of study. 


A survey should be made of all visual-auditory aids now in 
the possession of the teachers or schools. The materials should 
be classified according to (a) type of visual aid, (b) condition, 
(c) value or quality, and (d) usability in specific grades or 
subjects. Based on the results of this survey, catalogs should 
be compiled for the elementary grades, junior high and senior 
high schools, listing the worth-while materials according to type 
and subject. These classifications should be made by the 
visual-education committee or based on the judgment of previous 

In cases where an individual teacher has made a collection 
of visual aids as a private enterprise, such a collection should 
be left in her possession or stored in the visual-education center, 
if it is desired. It is desirable to encourage individual initi- 
ative in the collecting or making of visual aids, and their ready 
availability will contribute much to their usefulness. The 
teacher, however, should be willing to cooperate with the de- 
partment. The name of the teacher and school responsible for 
such items will be indicated in the catalog to facilitate scheduling 
and handling. Items of a general nature or of a type infre- 
quently used should be made available for general distribution 
and may be stored in the visual-aid center. 

Thornton, D. C. "Why a Department of Visual Education?" 
Nebraska Educational Journal. 16:381. November 1936. 

The purpose of having a supervisor of visual education is the 
same as the purpose of having a supervisor for any other de- 
partment : to make easier the learning process through improve- 
ment of the teaching procedures. Perhaps in no other depart- 
ment is supervision more needed than in a visual-education 

Teachers have had little if any training in the use of visual 
aids. Few institutions of higher learning offer visual-education 
courses. The average teacher is still in the dark so far as 
visual aids are concerned, and because of inertia and a very 
human willingness to let well enough alone is content to remain 
in the dark. 

Teachers must learn how to use visual aids and how to 
measure their effectiveness. A supervisor can do much to bring 
this about. He can devote his time to studying the general and 
specific problems of the department; carry on research work 


to measure effectiveness; organize materials; try out procedures 
and techniques; keep informed as to the subject matter being 
taught ; suggest visual aids for particular units of work ; and see 
that effectiveness is attained in the use of visual aids. The 
director may aid, further, in planning special programs for the 
entire school and may work in harmony with the art department 
and other departments throughout the system in the use of 
visual aids. 

There must be a central source of visual materials to care 
for many and varied needs. Arrangements for renting still 
films, slides, and moving-picture films are made by the central 
office. The director must meet with teacher groups to plan a 
visual-aids program. If the school owns films and slides, these 
must be stored, filed, mended, and checked. Visual aids, as well 
as the syllabi or teachers' aids that accompany them, must be 
cataloged. Projectionists must be trained. Pictures should 
be evaluated and these evaluations filed so that the poor pictures 
will not be reordered. 

Enlow, E. R. (Atlanta, Georgia) "Some Tentative Stand- 
ards for City Visual Education Programs." Educational 
Screen. 10:167-9. June 1931. The report of a special com- 
mittee of the National Academy of Visual Instruction, of 
which the writer was the chairman. 

The problems considered by the special committee of the 
National Academy of Visual Instruction were: (1) What is the 
cost of an adequate visual-education program? (2) Which visual 
aids should be permanently placed in schools? (3) What is the 
desired size of staff and what positions would be needed? 

Conclusions. (Based on nine completely filled questionnaires 
answered by city directors) : 

1. The average cost per pupil is 60c per year, with a range 
of from 30c to 90c. 

2. Visual aids should include stereographs, specimens, prints, 
film slides, motion pictures, exhibits. 

3. Visual materials must be classified according to the 
extent to which it is thought best to circulate them, or locate 
them permanently in each school. 

4. The salaries should be about 50 per cent of the budget, 
with a range of from 40 per cent to 65 per cent. But there 
should be a gradual increase of staff annually, so that at the 


end of a five-year period, the maximum number of people will 
be employed. The largest part of the budget at the beginning 
is needed for purchase of equipment, but after the five-year 
period much of that allotment may be used for a larger staff. 
Suggested staff positions are as follows : 

Director Film Custodian 

Assistant Director Projectionist 

Supervisor Photographer 


Clerk Mechanic 

Slide Custodian Truck Driver 

Reitze, Arnold W. "A Suggested Plan for a City Department 

of Visual Aids." Educational Screen. 10:261-2. November 


The plan is based on data from more than 150 school sys- 
tems. In a large department, it is to be used as a guide, not a 
final set-up. It required a period of years to formulate the 
plan. The work of organizing a visual-aids department is 

The plan is applicable to a city of 350,000 population, in 
which there are 50,000 pupils and forty schools: elementary to 
senior high, and special schools. The size of the staff is based 
on EnlOw's "Standards." 

Organization of a visual-aids department. The general aim 
of a visual-aids department should be to cooperate with all 
teachers and departments by supplying proper visual aids when 

A visual-aids center should be established for the purpose 
of distributing visual aids, trying out and examining aids and 
equipment, and for the making and repair of visual aids. Its 
location should be central and in a building no longer used for 
teaching. There should be space for a director's office, a general 
office and file reference room, a conference and demonstration 
room, a picture-, print-, and chart-file room, a film- and slide-file 

"This is the outline of a plan used as the subject of a thesis at New York 
University: "Organization, Functions and Administration of a City Visual Aids 
Department." Educational Screen. January-March 1932. 


room, a receiving, shipping, and repair room, a room for photo- 
graphic material. 

The types of aids circulated may include 16-mm. motion- 
picture film ; glass lantern slides ; film slides and still films ; 
mounted charts, pictures, and prints; and exhibits. It is sug- 
gested that trucks be used for the distribution of aids and 
that the city be divided into five school districts, with one day 
reserved for each school. 

Equipment under consideration for purchase may be studied 
and tried out in the visual-aid center, in test schools, or sub- 
mitted to a committee of teachers and supervisors. The loan 
period for equipment should be one week. 

The printed materials needed are loose-leaf catalogs, hand- 
books on the use of aids and equipment, suggested lesson plans, 
and forms for requisitioning, booking, shortage notification, 
exhibition report, slide check, and so on. 

The minimum equipment suggested for junior and senior 
high schools is as follows : booth with standard projector, two 
16-mm. projectors, six lantern-slide projectors, two opaque pro- 
jectors, two film-slide projectors, six portable class screens, one 
standard auditorium screen; for elementary schools: one or two 
16-mm. projectors, one opaque projector, four to six lantern- 
slide projectors, film-slide projector, four to six portable class 
screens, one auditorium screen. 

It is suggested that aids be arranged in sets directly related 
to subject and grade with a maximum of twenty-five pieces to a 
set. These aids should be filed by subject, and by subject and 

Functions of a visual-aids department. The primary func- 
tion of a visual-aids department is to supply any teacher from 
kindergarten to high school with the proper visual aids when 
most needed. 

The specific functions of a visual-aids department are many. 
The department should train teachers in proper methods of 
using aids and equipment. It is responsible for acquiring new 
aids by printing, purchase, renting, or through the courtesy 
of the manufacturer. It should standardize and select aids and 
equipment. This may be done by study at the visual-aids center, 
or by committee, or through test schools. The department is 
also responsible for the care and repair of equipment, though 


schools should be responsible for damages. It also relates visual 
aids to the course of study. This problem may be studied by 
committees, and the procedure then tried out in test schools. 
The department should, further, establish a photographic section 
to duplicate any material and to prepare photographic material 
for teaching aids and publicity. Publicity may be secured 
through school activities with parents and pupils, through civic 
organizations, and so on. 

The supervision of the department should be general, and 
cooperation with all school departments, such as art, domestic 
science, guidance, health, sewing, music, and so on, is essential. 

Administration of a visual-aids department. The visual- 
aids department should be directly responsible to the superin- 
tendent of schools. Its rules and regulations should be general 
enough to meet all situations. Rules for borrowing aids should 
be simple and brief. 

The personnel of the department may be as follows: 

Director. Chief duties : general organization and ad- 
ministration ; study, evaluation, and selection of visual aids; 
demonstration and supervision of aids. 

Secretary. Duties: correspondence, telephoning, mimeo- 
graphing, reports, and so on. 

Booking Clerk. Duties : to gather and requisition visual 
aids, send to delivery clerk, keep records. 

Shipping Clerk. Duties: to gather aids, prepare orders 
for chauffeur, check incoming material and its return. 

Projectionist (films only). Duties: repair, training others, 

Repair Man. Duties : repair of all aids except films. 

Photographer. Duties : to make up all slides, and so on. 

Chauffeur. Duties : to deliver and collect material. 

Crakes, C. R. (Principal, Moline High School, Moline, 
Illinois) ''Organizing and Administering a Visual Instruc- 
tion Program." School Executives Magazine. 52:11. Sep- 
tember 1932. 

The plan which follows was devised for a city of 30,000 to 
50,000 population. There are two junior high schools and one 
senior high school. 


Personnel. (1) A part-time director. (If possible, a full- 
time director who can conduct the necessary research work.) 
The qualifications of the director should include university 
training in educational psychology, ability to conduct constructive 
research, some knowledge of the mechanics of photography and 
electricity. [A list of fourteen duties of a director is quoted 
from A. V. Dorris, Visual Instruction in the Public Schools.] 
(2) A full-time clerk. 

[Cost of equipment. The cost is given for practically every- 
thing that a department of visual instruction might need. The 
list includes the price of a motion-picture projector, as well as 
paste, twine, and so forth.] 

The minimum investment for materials is approximately 
$1500. At least $1300 of this can be used over an eight- or 
ten-year period. Yearly rental and transportation costs amount 
to $1200, and there is $400 additional expense per year for the 
purchase of films, slides, and picturols. In five years there 
should be a sufficient library to warrant reduction in the cost 
of rental and transportation. 

An annual outlay of $3600 for 3600 pupils is at the rate of 
$1 per pupil per year. The improvement in learning and in 
initiative should warrant this expenditure. 

Distribution of materials. The plan for the distribution of 
materials to teachers calls for a card index system based on the 
requisitions made by teachers at the beginning of the term. 
Notice is sent to teachers well in advance of the arrival of 
material. A report from the teacher is required to determine 
whether or not the material will be used again and for what 
purpose. A synopsis of the lesson unit of each film or set of 
slides is made by the director, who previews all films. The 
projectors are operated by pupils. [See Abstract p. 70] 

Emery, James N. (District Principal, Pawtucket, R.I.) 
"Visual Instruction in a Small City System." Educational 
Screen. 4:391-4. September 1925. 

Visual education in a small-city system is usually a growth 
w r hich comes from within, through the efforts of some individual 
or group. According to Hollis's study, in practically no city 
under 75,000 population is there a separate department of visual 
education. Yet such work is going on, perhaps unsystematically. 


The following set-up could be used in a city of 70,000. There 
may be one senior high school, two junior high schools, eight 
elementary schools with an auditorium, fourteen elementary 
schools without an auditorium. Most work would, therefore, 
be done with charts, still pictures, maps, and so forth. 18 

Each of the junior and senior high schools would be equipped 
with a 35-mm. projector and a balopticon. A portable stereopti- 
con would be placed in each elementary-school building. In the 
superintendent's office the following equipment should be stored 
and made available to schools according to a regular schedule: 
Four to six stereopticons ; two portable 35-mm. projectors; four 
Brayco or S.V.E. Picturol projectors; two or three Keystone 
slide sets of 600; 3000 other slides (selected to correlate with 
the course of study); a library of picturol films; motion pic- 
tures rented from state universities, the Y.M.C.A., and U.S. 
Bureau of Mines,, Dept. of Agriculture, and so forth. The slide 
services offered by the University of Wisconsin and the De- 
partment of Education of New York State are outstanding. 

The money for visual education might come from the budget 
or from the parent-teacher organization. The department of 
visual education would in time be a normal part of the admin- 
istrative system, just as are the departments of music, health, 
and so forth. At the beginning the director may be a prin- 
cipal or a special teacher. 

Campbell, Laurence R. "The Five Year Program." Educa- 
tional Screen. 9:292, 307-8. December 1930. 

A "visual-education" program does not consist merely of 
occasional showings of slides or films in an assembly program. 
It should include a modern curriculum made up of teaching 
units and activities. The course of study should list specific 
films, slides, excursions, charts, and other visual aids, and make 
them an integral part of the course of study. 

The administrator may aim for a two-, three-, four-, or five- 
year program of visual education, at the end of which the 
teachers will be well-trained and expenditures for equipment 
made. A five-year program of visual education might begin 
with the requirement that all teachers receive adequate training 
within the five years so that the program will be carried out 
most effectively. 

18 The list of equipment needed, it should be noted, has been modified con- 
siderably in the ten years since the article was written. 


A good beginning might be made with an intelligent use of 
school excursions, still pictures, specimens, and models, all of 
which are comparatively inexpensive. 

Projection equipment should be purchased after a careful 
study has been made of the particular value of each item. Such 
equipment includes projectors for showing slides, still films, 
motion pictures, and opaque pictures. 

Knowlton, D. C. "Problems in the Administration of Visual 
Instruction." Visual Instruction News. 5 :7-8. September 

Administrative methods must be judged by educational out- 
comes. One picture adequately introduced and intensively taught 
may serve the teacher's purpose better than a whole series. 
There is danger that the viewing of films may be very much 
like the experience of a party of tourists trailing an overzealous 
guide through a European art gallery. 

The writer's recent experiments at Yale exploded the theory 
that an extensive use of such materials was of greater value 
than an intensive, cumulative use. A less ambitious program 
one making use of flat pictures, stereographs, and slides may 
contribute more to real progress than the machinelike regularity 
with which certain forms of equipment circulate in some cities. 

Angell, Herbert E. "Teaching Films." Educational Screen. 
8:201, 218. September 1929. 

Though motion pictures have always been said to be an 
effective aid in teaching, there are many reasons why they have 
not been introduced extensively in the schools. 

Producers, for example, cannot profitably present instruc- 
tional films fitted to a course of study. Films for school use 
must be specially edited. Industrial films, though made and 
distributed free, include too much advertising and are not 
fitted to courses of study. They cannot be referred to as 
teaching films. Films made especially for school use, however, 
are expensive and beyond the reach of most schools. Schools 
that use free films do not use discrimination. 

Films definitely stimulate interest and encourage textbook 
study. Under ideal conditions there should be (1) a library 
of films in every school with a teacher's manual for each film, 
(2) projection equipment in each classroom. 


A practical solution of the problem of cost that is being 
tried out in several cities is the establishment of a central library 
of films in the office of the board of education, with one room 
in each school equipped for projection. It seems impossible, 
however, to evolve a satisfactory renting system. 

Recommended for classroom projection are: a quick and 
easy method of excluding light, a 16-mm. projector (easy to 
operate), a beaded screen (30 by 40 inches). The projector 
should be placed about eighteen feet away from the screen. 

Excellent films are now available on nature, geography, 
hygiene, and science, and films on other subjects are in produc- 

As soon as a solution is found to the high cost and scarcity 
of subjects in instructional films, a new field will be opened. 

Horning, S. D. (Pasadena, Calif.) "Programming- in Visual 
Education." Educational Screen. 11:203. September 1932. 

For an efficient distribution of visual-aid materials there 
should be a central department of visual education in the school 
system. The teaching corps should be trained and experienced 
in the use of visual aids. A chairman of visual instruction in 
each school should keep informed on all sources of materials, 
should select the best materials, and order for other teachers in 
the school. This will obviate duplication and insure prompt 
delivery. Such duties as research studies, correspondence, and 
servicing of equipment should belong to the director of the 
central bureau and not to the school chairman. The course of 
study should, as far as possible, make reference to specific 
materials and how they are to be used within a unit. 

Whitcomb, Grace Slater. Formerly Special Supervisor, Spo- 
kane, Washington, Schools) "Who Shall Supervise Visual 
Instruction?" Visual Instruction News. 5:11-12. November 
1931. A controversial discussion designed to stimulate 
thought among educators. 

Various practices are current in the supervision and organ- 
ization of visual aids. 

The teacher may be left to her own devices. This plan is 
excellent when the teacher spends much time in research and 
preparation. It is too time-consuming, however, for the average 
overworked teacher. 


The visual aids may be supervised by one teacher in the 
building. This usually places too much responsibility on one 
person and often leads to indifference on the part of other 
teachers, or to a neglect of visual aids by the person in charge. 

The principal may make a plan for distributing the aids at 
stated times and for checking up on materials used and time 
spent. Under this plan, teachers who want materials do not 
receive them because they are scheduled for another room. One 
advantage of this plan is that the students of teachers who 
would otherwise be unlikely to use visual aids are benefited. 

A visual-education director may be appointed for the whole 
school system, who will (a) demonstrate techniques, (b) dis- 
tribute lesson plans, and (c) arrange for teacher-demonstrated 
lessons, followed by discussion. Unfortunately, some directors 
spend their time in purchasing and selecting materials rather 
than in helping in their practical application. 

The state bureau of visual instruction may be utilized. This 
system is good for schools that cannot afford to buy equipment. 
It requires careful planning far in advance and makes no pro- 
vision for unexpected activities when materials will be needed 
before or after the scheduled time. 

No one plan has as yet been acknowledged as the best. The 
author raises the question but attempts no solution or recom- 

B. Some Experiences in Administering a City System 

The intensive survey made for the 1934 Elementary Prin- 
cipal's Yearbook gives us a good picture of the status and 
needs of visual aids in representative elementary schools 
throughout the country. The data presented are based on 
reports from 366 principals of schools in cities ranging in 
population from 2,500 to over 100,000. The chief findings 
are recounted here. 

National Education Association, Research Division. "A Sur- 
vey of the Use of Teaching Aids." National Elementary 
Principal. 13:150-9. June 1934. 

This study is based on a questionnaire sent to 5,000 members 
of the National Education Association. Replies were received 


from 7 per cent of these and represent mainly cities of over 
100,000 population, although 45 per cent of the replies came 
from cities of 2,500 to 100,000. (See Table 1 Size of City 
and School Enrollment.) 

Table 2 shows schools in which aids were used systematically. 
It may be noted from this table that maps are the teaching aids 
most often reported, but that other devices frequently used are 
globes, phonograph records, pictures, charts, posters, and ex- 

Some aids vary according to the size of the school. For 
example, slides are eighth in frequency of mention in small 
schools, but second in schools of large enrollment. This prob- 
ably means that larger schools are better equipped for projection. 
Smaller schools, however, use mounted and unmounted pictures 
more frequently. 

Table 2 reveals also that silent films were used by 52 per cent 
of the schools, and sound films by 3 per cent. Here, too, the 
larger schools were most progressive. Again radio was used by 
40 per cent of the small schools, and by 61 per cent of the large 

Books, printing, stereoscopes, and gardens were not re- 
quested in the questionnaire and cannot be tabulated. 

Table 3 shows those teaching aids that are particularly inter- 
esting to principals. Slides were preferred by over 50 per cent 
of the principals, mounted and unmounted pictures by 
33 per cent, while about one in four was especially interested 
in exhibits, maps, and silent films. 

Principals in larger schools are more likely to be interested 
in museums, silent films, and slides than are small-school execu- 
tives. Yet principals of small schools are apt to have a special 
interest in exhibits, maps, pictures, radio, and charts. The crux 
of this difference lies probably in the need for an auditorium 
and equipment for projection materials. 

Only about one in ten had a special interest in museums, 
phonograph records, or posters. 

Table 4 shows which aids are supplied as a part of the 
regular equipment of the school system. Maps and globes are 
supplied by 80 per cent or more of the schools, slides and 
phonograph records by almost 50 per cent, while about one in 
four received allotments of silent films and charts. 


Silent and sound films, slides, and radios are distributed as 
a regular feature by large school systems oftener than by small 
systems. Small schools frequently receive phonograph records 
and school museums from their administrative departments. 

Table 5 shows which aids are purchased through teachers 
and which through parents and other unofficial sources. Almost 
50 per cent of the principals receive pictures through unofficial 
sources, one in three receive phonograph records, radios, and 
exhibits in this way, and about one- fourth receive aquariums, 
slides, and posters. 

Relatively more of the large schools reported outside aid. 
This is because of the greater likelihood of their having a 
parent-teacher association, or of their giving profitable entertain- 
ments, or because their teachers receive higher salaries. 

Table 6 summarizes the aids that are made or obtained by 
pupils. Fifty-one per cent of the schools reported that pupils 
made or obtained posters. Exhibits were next in frequency 
(39.3 per cent), and charts third. About one in ten principals 
reported that pupils could make or obtain school museums, 
slides, maps, and aquariums. School size is not a determining 
factor in this tabulation. 

Table 7 lists all the agencies that might possibly provide 
teaching aids. Out of 366 schools, 245 reported obtaining pic- 
tures from outside agencies. Public libraries supplied 180 (73.5 
per cent). Exhibits were received from outside sources by 154 
principals. Seventy-three, or 47.4 per cent came from local 
museums, while a few reported business firms as their source. 
Public libraries supplied slides to 142 schools, and, in many 
cases, books and films. 

One hundred and ninety-five principals did not list the aids 
that they said they did get from outside agencies. 

Table 8 depicts the means by which schools keep abreast 
of modern visual aids. Professional reports and bulletins were 
read by 57 per cent. About one-third of the principals either 
visited teachers, or had teachers keep informed, or had a com- 
mittee of teachers report to the entire faculty. In 51 per cent 
of the cases the principal himself assumed this responsibility. 
Almost 4 per cent made no special effort to keep informed. 


In larger schools, bulletins and reports were most used, 
but in smaller school units, each teacher was responsible for 
new developments. 

Table 9 shows to what extent aids are incorporated into the 
course of study. Almost 92 per cent of the principals said that 
this was done, while 7 per cent reported no such coordination. 
Large schools again were most active, probably because they 
had printed courses of studies. 

Following is the report of another survey, less extensive 
in its scope, but very suggestive. This study was the subject 
of a master's thesis and presents the status of visual aids and 
equipment in the secondary schools of Ohio. Other find- 
ings and recommendations of this study are found elsewhere 
in the compilation. [See Abstract p. 183] 

Bard, C. L. (Principal, Liberty Center High School, Liberty 
Center, Ohio) "A Study of the Administration of Projector 
Apparatus in the Secondary Schools of Ohio." Unpublished 
master's thesis, Ohio State University, 1931. 

Administration in this thesis is denned as the way in which 
the administrator, or school head, chooses projection equipment 
and adapts its use to educational purposes in the high school. 
This involves the solution of the following problems : ( 1 ) choos- 
ing projector apparatus that will best fit the high-school needs; 
(2) the housing of projector apparatus; (3) the responsibility 
for ordering projector apparatus and the preferred method of 
film distribution; (4) financing the projector program; (5) the 
presentation of projected pictures to the pupils; and (6) the 
sources of films. 

A questionnaire was prepared with the assistance of Mr. 
Aughinbaugh, Director of Visual Education in Ohio, and Dr. 
A. O. Heck. From a list of 940 high schools, questionnaires 
were sent to 450. Answers were received from 215 schools, 
giving a fair cross section of the secondary schools of Ohio. 

Projector apparatus in Ohio secondary schools. Thirty-five- 
millimeter projectors are owned by sixteen city high schools, 
eleven exempted village high schools, and fifty-seven county high 
schools. Some own two or even three. Forty-six schools stated 


they did not own such equipment, and fifty- four failed to answer 
the question. A small number rent these machines. Thirty-five- 
millimeter films are owned by but five of the schools reporting. 
Slide attachments were owned by sixty-three schools. Sixteen- 
millimeter projectors were owned by eighteen schools and rented 
by three more; 16-mm. films were owned by eight schools. Two 
high schools (in county systems) own sound-film equipment. 
Film-strip projectors are owned by twenty- four schools; opaque 
projectors by twenty-one schools; microprojector attachments 
by seventeen schools; stereopticon lanterns by sixty-five schools; 
lantern slides by eighty-nine schools. Microscopic slides are 
owned by several schools. 

Housing of projector apparatus. More projectors are housed 
in the assemblies than in any other room. This is due to the 
fact that the assembly is more accessible than any other room, 
has a larger capacity, and is usually equipped with a permanent 
fireproof booth. Many are housed in classrooms where they 
are used. Films, in those few schools owning them, are housed 
in the office or in the projection booth. 

Ordering projector apparatus. The majority of the second- 
ary schools of Ohio order their projector apparatus individually. 
This is the most convenient method, but is it the most economical? 
In the city high schools the principal is by far the one most often 
responsible for ordering materials, while the visual-education 
supervisor ranks second. County high schools and exempted 
village schools do not mention the visual-education supervisor 
often. In such schools the superintendent is the one most often 
responsible, while the principal ranks second. In all three types 
the committee of teachers ranks third in responsibility, except in 
the city high schools where superintendents are tied for third 
rank. Many of the high schools use the circuit plan for purchas- 
ing and borrowing materials. In this way one person or a 
committee is responsible for ordering. 

Methods of film distribution. In answer to the question 
regarding the kind of film distribution preferred, forty-seven 
high schools preferred having individual school collections, fifty- 
one schools favored State-owned collections, forty preferred a 
county system of distribution, and only one city high school 
preferred the company-owned prints, slides, and films. 


In 1930, Mr. Aughinbaugh asked the county superintendents 
of Ohio if they would favor a State collection of prints, slides, 
and films for distribution to the schools. Over 90 per cent were 
in favor of such a collection. 

Financing the projector program. Some thirty-nine high 
schools reported spending fifty dollars or less for apparatus and 
rentals, and twenty-three reported spending more than that on 
apparatus alone and eighty-six on rentals alone. These figures 
are high or low depending upon the size of the school, the size 
of the annual budget, and so on. Of the 215 schools reporting, 
117 received their money from the school board. Other sources 
of money were the parent-teacher association, pupil admission, 
admission to the general public, pupil donations, general school 
fund, athletic association, State aid, and a women's club. 

Presentation of films (reviewed in section on Techniques 
p. 183) 

Sources of slides and films and approximate costs. The 
source most used is V. M. Riegel; then come National Cash 
Register Company, the United States Government, General 
Electric, International Harvester, Ohio State University (Yale 
Chronicles), Pathe, and others. More high schools spend less 
than fifty dollars per source than those who spend more than 
fifty dollars per source. 


Projectors. For high schools with enough money, the best 
and latest equipment is recommended. The auditorium should 
be equipped with sound equipment, there should be enough still 
projectors for use in all classes, the science laboratories should 
be equipped with slide projectors and microprojectors, and 
all rooms should be suitably equipped for projection. Any high 
school can afford a motion-picture projector, a film-strip pro- 
jector, and a microprojector attachment. Projector apparatus 
should be well housed and cared for. 

Films. It is not necessary, and usually not practical, for 
an individual high school to own its own films. A small collec- 
tion of special films (purchased cooperatively by a few high 


schools), and a large State collection would be the ideal situation. 
Films should be carefully housed and cared for usually by an 
extension of the high-school library. 

Ordering equipment. Some capable person, usually the 
principal or an assistant, should be responsible for the ordering 
of all equipment. Teachers and pupils, under the instructor's 
guidance, should choose films, slides, and the like, to be used. 
Where a circuit plan is used, a committee of teachers might be 
delegated to select the materials. 

Financing the program. The high-school budget should be 
so arranged that a certain amount of money will be allowed for 
projector apparatus. High schools should not compete with 
local theaters, neither should students be expected to finance 
this part of the school program. The high-school administrator 
must convince the school board members of the value of the 
use of projector apparatus in teaching. 

Presentation of films (see section on Techniques, p. 183). 

Sources for obtaining films. It is not a question of where 
you obtain your films, but what films do you obtain? Are they 
educational? Will they help teach the children the things they 
should know? Are they adequate? The best plan would be 
for the State to have a collection of educational films and slides 
for distribution among the high schools of Ohio, these to be 
supplemented by films from other sources. 

The study by Dunn and Schneider is by no means com- 
plete. It gives, however, a picture of current practice in 
representative cities. It has been briefly summarized below. 

Dunn, Fannie W. and Schneider, Etta. "Practices in City 
Administration of Visual Education." Educational Screen. 
15:269-70, 301-3. November, December 1936. 

Reports from 81 cities and towns in the United States re- 
garding their work in visual education reveal many points of 
similarity among cities, and some indications of individual 
initiative which are worth repeating for the use of administrators 
and teachers in other situations. 


The person in charge of visual aids ranges from an individual 
teacher, to a supervisor or director of visual education. In 
some cases the director of the educational museum, the city 
librarian, directors of museums, and the like assume responsibility 
for distributing materials to the schools. Other persons reported 
as being in charge are elementary or high school principals, the 
head of the science department, the head of the art department, 
the director of vocational and industrial education, the superin- 
tendent of schools and the assistant superintendent of schools. 
It is noted, however, that a visual education program is measured 
by the extent to which teachers utilize it, and not by the official 
ranking of the person in charge. 

Among materials usually distributed from a central library 
are motion pictures, mounted pictures, museum specimens, maps, 
charts, and lantern slides. Filmslides and Japanese prints are 
centrally distributed in two cases. Materials for making lantern 
slides and photographs are also administered from a central 
office in some instances. 

These visual materials are located in a variety of places, 
namely, the principal's office, the superintendent's office, the city 
library, a museum, or a classroom. 

In the matter of selection of materials, it was found that 
some schools enlist the cooperation of "improvement of instruc- 
tion committees," ' 'subject matter committees," or "curriculum 
revision committees." Some other practices are related, but the 
one in which teachers and supervisors lend most assistance is 
judged to be the most beneficial. 

Distribution of materials may be made, according to these 
reports, by a regular delivery or circuit arrangement, or by a 
system of delivery depending upon individual requests from 
schools. In some cases a combination of these methods is offered. 
The most desirable procedure, it is concluded, is the one which 
makes ample provision for the individual teacher with the 
expert guidance of a curriculum specialist or a director of visual 

Several means of instructing and counselling teachers in the 
use of visual aids have been reported : catalogs correlated with 
the course of study, handbooks, lesson units, or personal super- 

In a great many cases financial support is secured outside 
the regular fiscal budget. Increasingly the cooperative system 


of purchasing and borrowing materials among a group of prin- 
cipals is becoming popular. 

In conclusion, it is stated that the problems of visual educa- 
tion can be met by planning and by proper administration and 
supervision. These problems, as indicated in the analysis, are 
the need for establishing a clearing house for information, 
adequate annual funds, guidance of teachers, and the routine 
distribution of materials. 

The article describing the status of visual education in 
the Chicago schools will indicate the plans being made for 
improvement under the direction of Dr. William H. Johnson, 
now city superintendent of the Chicago Schools, author of 
Fundamentals in Visual Instruction, published in 1927. 

The system operating in the Elgin, Illinois schools ap- 
pears to be directly concerned with the needs of the classroom 
teacher and ways in which the routine of administration can 
be minimized. 

Kruse, William F. "Visual Education Program of Chicago 
Public Schools: An Interview with Dr. William H. John- 
son." Educational Screen. 16:84-6. March 1937. 

The responsibility of the principal toward visual instruction 
is to make available proper materials and equipment, and to 
get as many as possible of his teachers to use these facilities 
effectively. The superintendent has exactly the same job, but 
on a much broader scale. Basically, however, the task is the 
same, to provide the materials, to show the teachers how and why 
to apply those materials, and to get them to do it. 

Responsibility for securing and circulating materials, and for 
coordinating them with the course of study cannot be the task of 
an individual in a city the size of Chicago. This work is done 
by the Department of Visual Instruction, headed by Paul G. 
Edwards. Personnel also includes a Supervisor, five clerks, 
three film and slide inspectors, and part time artists when the 
need arises. The Department has accumulated, and circulates 
constantly 150,000 slides, 3,500 reels of 16mm. film to serve the 
1000 stereopticons and 400 silent motion picture projectors in the 
schools. During the school year 1935-36 the Chicago schools 


used 900,000 slides, and 60,000 reels of 16mm. film. The use of 
these materials has increased since that date due to the increased 
interest among teachers and principals, and to the increase in 
the number of projectors available. The Department distributes 
wall charts, and in cooperation with the Field Museum, object- 

Slides are used beginning with kindergarten and lowest 
primary grades. Silent films begin to be effective from the fourth 
grade on, and sound pictures at present available seem best 
fitted for the seventh grade and up, with accent on the higher 
levels. The Department owns four sound projectors, three of 
which are used at the junior colleges. Six high schools have 
purchased their own sound projectors. A library of about 40 
reels serves these sound projectors at present. 

The basis of any teaching program, whether by visual 
methods or others, remains the teacher. The finest film libraries 
and projection equipment in the world will be useless unless we 
have a body of teachers willing to use them, and trained to do 
so effectively. There is usually no lack of willingness once the 
teachers have acquired the necessary understandings and skills. 

The Chicago Normal College is planning to offer a formal 
course in visual education for all new students, and to place 
more stress on visual aids in the teaching of other subjects as 
the students progress through their general course. Teachers of 
the future will have as part of their background a thorough 
training in both theory and practice of visual education. 

Classroom demonstration lessons are to be provided through 
ten school clinics, five in science and the other five in pupil- 
activization classroom projects. All will emphasize the important 
contributions of visual aids to classroom results. Every teacher 
will gain something from these clinics, how much will depend 
upon the individual teacher and her principal. 

The initiative and self-reliance of principal and teacher are 
finally determinative in work of this kind. The visual instruc- 
tion department furnishes the facilities, the individual principal 
devises ways and means to make best possible use of them. 
Where additional equipment was needed, many principals have 
used local funds or funds from P.T.A. groups. Some com- 
munity showings were used to finance the program, the programs 
being made up of good entertainment films available on 16mm. 


The Department has been developed as an outgrowth of a 
"Projection Club" of principals organized in 1895. The size and 
scope of service rendered by the Department has grown tre- 
mendously since that time. In the last five years, for example, 
the slide circulation has doubled, the circulation of 16mm. silent 
films has increased six- fold, yet the cost of running the Depart- 
ment has been reduced to one-third the peak budget of 1927. 

New media are introduced as they appear. The sound film 
is being introduced through the junior college, and increasingly 
extended to the high school. Further use will depend upon 
the demands of the teacher body. 

Waggoner, E. C. "The Program of Visual Education in the 
Elgin Public Schools." Illinois Teacher. 24:284-5. May 

The Elgin school system enrolls approximately 3,900 ele- 
mentary students in eleven grade schools and 1,700 high-school 
students in one junior high and one four-year high school. For 
six years this system has been developing a visual-education 

The aim of the program is to have the visual-aid materials 
available to the teacher at the time they are needed in the 
learning process. This requires planning for a semester or even 
a year in advance. 

The success of a film showing depends on the correct prepara- 
tion of the students for the picture. A teacher guide should 
be included with each film. When there is no such guide the 
visual-education director prepares an outline of the subject 
matter and sends it to the teacher in advance of the use of 
the film. 

Sound projectors are rather expensive and it has been diffi- 
cult to get boards of education to finance their purchase during 
the depression. The sound projector owned by the Elgin school 
system was purchased through the efforts of a student science 
club composed of thirty boys. The silent projectors used in 
the system are purchased by the board of education, which also 
finances the yearly programs. 

More than one elementary school in Elgin must be serviced 
with one projector. A committee of principals aids the visual- 
education director in preparing the year's schedule. Junior 
and senior boys are used as projectionists in the high school. 


A boy from this group is chosen as assistant in operating pro- 
jectors in the elementary schools after his graduation. These 
boys have been found to be just as responsible as teachers in 
the care and use of this equipment. 

The assistant projectionist makes at least one visit a week to 
each elementary school. The teacher is notified as to the exact 
hour of his arrival. The class which is to see the picture moves 
to the projection room with very little disturbance and a class- 
room attitude is maintained. The "show" idea has entirely 

The teacher is the deciding factor in determining the value 
of a motion-picture program. If she has carefully prepared the 
pupils for the aid and has a well-planned "follow-up," a good 
visual aid will undoubtedly achieve its purpose. 

In 1934-35, as part of a study by the Erpi Picture Con- 
sultants, the Derry Township schools in Hershey, Pennsyl- 
vania, were fitted into a program for using talking motion 
pictures. The plan and costs are fully described in the 
brochure by Brunstetter. The purpose of the plan was to 
"stimulate local initiative in gradually working out a system 
for audio-visual instruction, which is completely integrated 
with the educational offering." The first effort was to orient 
the teaching staff to the new instructional medium, and then 
to present goals toward which the school system may work. 
This plan makes no provision for visual aids other than 
talking pictures. A similar survey was made in Evansville, 
Indiana, at about the same time. Both surveys have here 
been outlined. 

Brunstetter, M. R. The Organization of an Audio-Visual In- 
struction Program. Erpi Picture Consultants, Inc. New 
York. 1935. 98p. Mimeographed. 

The essential elements in this program were conceived to be : 
(1) teacher training in the purpose and function of educational 
talking pictures and techniques evolved as a result of training 
and supervision ; (2) effective use of films when integrated with 


the course of study; (3) growth of the program to include new 
techniques and new areas of subject matter ; (4) growth in 
community support, through a program of adult education; and 
(5) mechanization of routine and skill in handling equipment. 

There are three public-school buildings in the Hershey school 
system with the following teachers: kindergarten, two; ele- 
mentary school, twenty- four; junior high school, eight; high 
school and trade school, twenty-two. There are also three 
special teachers and supervisors. 

The school program suggested for talking pictures was 
organized under the following heads : ( 1 ) administrative service ; 
(2) educational services: training of teachers, supervision, 
integration of sound films with curriculum, selection of sound 
films; and (3) mechanical services: delivery, operation, storage, 

Outlined by steps, the program calls for, first, preliminary 
training, preferably through a unit course (see Pennsylvania 
State course of study for visual education, or the Erpi 
course) ; second, a period of experimentation and analysis which 
might be carried on in science classes in the elementary, junior, 
and senior high schools, the lesson units being organized by a 
science committee which would give demonstration lessons before 
other teachers; and third, a period of expansion. The latter 
steps include teacher training, integration of sound films with 
courses of study, 19 selection of talking pictures from among 
those available, development of new areas of instruction, provi- 
sion of films and equipment, and the administration of distri- 

New areas of instruction mentioned are: (1) adult-educa- 
tion courses in art, literature, civics, psychology; (2) religious 
instruction; (3) use in assembly programs; (4) courses in 
photoplay appreciation in high schools. 

Brunstetter, M. R. "A Program for the Utilization of Audio- 
Visual Teaching Aids." Erpi Picture Consultants, Inc. New 
York. 1935. Mimeographed. 

A plan proposed for the Evansville Public Schools, Evansville, 

19 Brodshaug, Melvin D. "Integration of Sound Films with Science Courses 
of Study." (In Program for Utilization of Audio-Visual Teaching Aids for Evans- 
ville, Ind. p 133-82) 


Organisation of the Evansville Public Schools. The popula- 
tion of Evansville is 102,000, with a student enrollment of 16,000 
in the four high schools and seventeen elementary schools. The 
parochial schools have over 4,000 students. Evansville College, 
a denominational institution which includes a department of 
education, enrolls about 300 students. The administrative staff 
of the Evansville schools includes a superintendent of schools; 
a business manager with a staff; an assistant superintendent of 
elementary schools in charge of instruction in grades five to 
eight ; a supervisor of instruction for kindergarten and grades 
one to four; a director of research in charge of secondary edu- 
cation; supervisors of special subjects, such as music, art, home 
economics, and industrial arts. The industrial-arts supervisor 
is also director of night schools. A director of health and physical 
education, with a staff, and the supervisor of physical education 
administer the health program. In all the elementary schools 
except three, two elementary-school buildings are assigned to 
one principal. 

Local educational offering. There are 4,103 high-school 
pupils enrolled with 159 teachers, and 11,033 elementary-school 
pupils enrolled with 338 teachers. The work of grades six, 
seven, and eight in the elementary schools is operating under 
a modified platoon plan for the upper elementary grades. This 
plan involves auditorium activities in which special attention 
is given to music appreciation and expression. An intensive 
program of curriculum revision has recently been developed. 
In the elementary schools, the assistant superintendent organized 
a subject-matter committee for each grade. The chairmen of 
these committees met as a group to integrate the whole ele- 
mentary-school program. The same organization prevailed for 
the primary grades, under the immediate direction of the 
primary-school supervisor, who in turn conferred with the 
assistant superintendent. In the high schools the director of 
research and secondary education, in collaboration with the high- 
school principals, organized a social-studies key committee. 
This general committee integrated the work of social-studies 
subject-production committees, in which all social-studies teachers 
were included. 

Extracurricular activities. There are over one hundred clubs 
in four high schools. Activities range from languages to air- 


craft; practically every hobby interest is represented. In the 
elementary schools, bands and orchestras occupy a prominent 
place in the music program. Many of the schools have uniformed 

Community contacts. There is an active parent-teacher asso- 
ciation in each school. An emergency education program under 
the Public Works Administration has shown a significant need 
for a broad program of adult education. This work was 
organized under the direction of the supervisor of industrial arts. 
The Museum of Fine Arts and History, through its exhibits, 
has provided contacts with local history and with foreign coun- 
tries. The industrial plants of the city have been a source of 
first-hand experience for students, through excursions which 
have been planned in connection with school projects. 

Use of instructional aids prior to this survey. The responsi- 
bility for using visual aids was tacitly delegated to the school 
principals, who were unable to accomplish much because of the 
lack of budgetary support. Available equipment included seven 
16-mm. projectors, six 35-mm. silent projectors, no 16-mm. 
sound projectors, one 35-mm. sound projector, seven reels of 
film, twenty screens, eighteen stereopticon lanterns, six opaque 
projectors, three film-slide projectors, 189 film strips, 4,996 slides, 
and nineteen radio-phonographs (in practically all schools). 

Unless special building provisions are made for placing pro- 
jectors in operation readily, the teachers find it too difficult to use 
the materials. There should be electrical outlets conveniently 
placed and provisions for darkening all rooms to be used for pro- 
jection. Few schools in Evansville were adequately equipped. 
The high schools initiated a program of visual instruction in 1934. 
They appointed a visual-education committee in one school to 
plan the development of such a program in that school. There 
was practically no centralization of equipment or materials. As 
for training teachers in the use of instructional aids, there was 
no such provision. The excellent work with visual aids which 
was done was apparently the result of the teachers' own initiative. 
There was no attempt to correlate visual aids with courses of 
study. The survey here described was conducted with the 
cooperation of the visual-education committee, consisting of five 
elementary-school principals. 


The Program of Audio-Visual Instruction 

Preliminary preparations. These include, first of all, train- 
ing teachers in the effective use of audio-visual aids through a 
training course organized for principals, supervisors, and selected 
teachers from each school. At the outset, this will take the form 
of a short unit course. Concurrent with this course, a series of 
experimental film units should be initiated in each building, so 
that as members of the group come together there will be a 
pooling of actual experience. The preliminary training course 
should consider rapidly the nature of the various instructional 
aids, standards for selection, sources of materials, integration 
of these materials into the curriculum, techniques for administer- 
ing the program throughout the school system, and teaching 
techniques. 20 During the summer, teachers should be encouraged 
to take professional training courses in this field. 

Audio-visual materials must next be selected and integrated 
with the curriculum. As part of the teacher- training program it 
is recommended that all the teachers of a school cooperate in 
selecting audio-visual materials to integrate with the unit. They 
may preview and evaluate films in terms of recognized standards. 
Each school should take inventory of materials available in that 
school and catalog them in relation to the course of study. 

New areas of instruction, such as adult education, photo- 
play appreciation, extracurricular activities, and the like, may 
be developed, and current curriculum offerings, such as ele- 
mentary science, may be enriched. Films, equipment, and pro- 
jection facilities should be provided. 

Administrative, clerical, and mechanical services can be 
rendered by the present staff, since such persons are acquainted 
with the needs of the schools. The interest which the present 
staff derives from initiating the program will continue even 
when the wide extension of the program in the future necessitates 
the establishment of a special audio-visual instruction department. 
[The distribution of responsibilities for this service is described 
on a chart.] 

Experimentation and study. This step involves the same 
series of procedures as was described under the first step and 
should extend over an entire school year. 

20 See Section on Teaching Techniques, p. 109ff. 


Extension of the audio-visual instruction program. Teacher 
training, selection and integration of materials, new areas of 
instruction, facilities for securing and projecting materials, and 
administrative assistance must all be considered in connection 
with extending the program. 

In the final period, there should be ample provision for 
maintaining the services initiated in the other steps. 

The most recent reports of the activities of city depart- 
ments throughout the United States are contained in the 
1937 issue of the Visual Review, published by the Society for 
Visual Education, Chicago, 111. The reader is recommended 
to examine this bulletin for timely information regarding 
city administration. 

Other reports on the work of city administrators have 
here been summarized and arranged in inverse chronological 
order, because the most recent is likely to be of greatest value. 

Gregory, W. M. (Director, Educational Museum, Cleveland, 
Ohio, Public Schools) "The Services of a Central Depart- 
ment." National Elementary Principal. 13:175-84. June 

Progressive education requires that children be provided 
with learning tools that impart life experiences with speed and 
accuracy. The use of modern learning tools, under the guidance 
of the teacher skilled in the technique of handling aids, shortens 
and clarifies the learning process. 

The value of modern learning tools is pointed out in sum- 
maries of research already conducted. (See Chapter X of the 

Factors which determine the success or failure of learning 
aids are (1) correct technique (which teacher-training courses 
fail to give), (2) wise selection, either through experimentation, 
or by consideration of the principle that each visual aid must 
be an essential tool in learning, (3) purposeful organization, 
both by a system of filing and distribution, and by correlation 
with the curriculum, and (4) educational value, which cannot 
be afforded by the text alone. 


Some central bureau, either in the museum or in the adminis- 
trative building, should collect, organize, distribute, and repair 
visual materials. Teachers in collecting materials often resort 
to unevaluated free advertising matter. 

The Educational Museum in Cleveland, for example, under- 
takes to supply pupils and teachers with illustrative materials 
that are carefully selected and organized as an effective aid to 
actual school work. The Museum endeavors to meet the objec- 
tive requirements of each course of study, to obtain the type of 
material best suited to bring about the desired results, and to 
organize material to be used at the different grade levels. 

Pictures, for instance, are arranged in sets and include only 
those that are dated, located, authoritative, accurate. They are 
printed in 8-by-10-inch size, about twenty-five in each set, a 
number suitable for one week's instruction. On the reverse of 
each picture is a study guide adapted for each grade with ques- 
tions, a game or puzzle, a selected vocabulary, a check-up test, 
and an information paragraph. 

Lantern-slide units are also arranged in sets of twenty-five 
and are accompanied by title sheets which suggest definite class 
uses. Many popular sets are loaned to a school for a whole 
semester. The study guides are also printed for slides and used 
in proper order during the lesson. There are 42,633 slide units 
supplied yearly. 

Motion pictures and projectors are purchased by the Museum. 
The projectors are loaned to schools for a semester and the films 
loaned through a fixed schedule organized in advance. Five 
thousand films are used per month. The cost of each film 
varies from $10 to $20. Servicing is done through the Museum. 

The economic aspect of the Cleveland Museum service is of 
interest. In 1920-21, 5,556 units circulated; in 1925-26, 17,332; 
in 1932-33, 156,045. The average turnover was, therefore, 22 
times per unit per year. 

In 1925, $23,013 was spent; in 1930, $44,838; in 1932, $15,793 
(because of the depression). These figures represent a little 
more than half the total budget. The cost per unit (computed 
on the basis of the actual number of units circulated and the 
total budget) in 1925 was $1.22; in 1930, 41^; in 1932, fy. 


Whittinghill, W. W. (Asst. Director, Dept. of Visual Educa- 
tion, Detroit, Michigan, Schools) "Functions of a Central 
Visual Education Department." National Elementary Prin- 
cipal. 13:185. June 1934. 

Although the set-up of a department varies with the size of 
the school system, cooperation is the keynote that determines a 
department's success or failure. 

The duties of the director vary in different schools. He may 
have to supervise the proper use of visual-aid libraries throughout 
the school system. He may be the science teacher. Or, in 
addition to supervising the use of visual aids in the school sys- 
tem, he and his staff may make visual aids. Again, he may head 
a staff of ten or fifteen people who make and distribute aids but 
whose service ends there, with supervisors in each subject 
directing their use. 

The Department of Visual Education in Detroit directs 
eleven definite programs : teacher training, the selection of 
visual aids, a film program, a slide program, an exhibit program, 
a photographic program, an equipment program, a delivery- 
service program, an equipment-service program, a phonograph- 
record program, a radio program. 

The film program, for example, includes the review, by com- 
mittees, of all films. Approved films are bought ; some films 
are made by the department ; a film library is stored, serviced, 
distributed. [See table for number of films used 1928-33 and the 
per cent of change.] 

The selection of visual aids is made by a committee. In 
science, for example, the committee includes the director of 
science, the head of the science department in the school, two sci- 
ence teachers, and the city director of visual education. The 
committee decides which visual aids are particularly adapted to 
the curriculum, previews them, and makes recommendations. 
This type of selection when applied to all subjects in the curric- 
ulum results in a specialized library of visual aids that is of 
value to all teachers. The course of study includes visual aids 
to be used and how they may be obtained. 

Request blanks for visual aids are filed with the department 
one semester in advance, after which the teacher is relieved of 
any further responsibility until he starts using the material. 


There are 736 complete units of visual-education equipment in 
the Detroit schools. The equipment includes all types of pro- 
jection apparatus. The Department services all equipment. 

Among the research studies in which the Department co- 
operated are: 

1. Proper objectives for a broad program of visual edu- 

2. Relative values, in a general program of instruction, of 
slides, still films, auditorium films, classroom films, exhibits, 
photographs, charts, maps, museum materials. 

3. The degree of differentiation that should be made be- 
tween visual aids used in the classroom and those used in the 

4. The degree to which visual education can be made a 
factor in improving local, national, and international relations. 

5. Organization of a program of supervision accompanied 
by measurements of the use of visual aids. 

6. Organization of state and city departments. 

7. Exhibit standards. 

8. Educational talking pictures. 

Teacher training in the proper use of visual aids is in the 
hands of the department heads or supervisors, who in turn are 
members of the Department of Visual Education and cooperate 
with it. Training in the handling of equipment is carried on 
by the Department through demonstrations in the various schools. 

Lain, Dolph (Director of Visual Education, Moline Public 
Schools, Moline, Illinois) "A Visual Education Depart- 
ment." Illinois Teacher. 20:7, 34. September 1931. 

The Department of Visual Education in Moline was or- 
ganized in 1923. Most of its service is conducted in the junior 
and senior high schools. 

Visual aids include 16-mm. and 35-mm. films and some 
slides. Most instructors seem to prefer motion pictures to 

Selection. Films edited only for school use are not abundant, 
but the supply is slowly increasing. 

A card system for listing educational films is worked out 
as follows : A new catalog of films or slides is sent, on arrival, 
to the department head or to special teachers. The films or slides 
that they recommend are added to the card index. If after a 
trial the films are found to have little educational value, the 


card is removed from the file. The list is, therefore, the result 
of trial and elimination. 

Equipment. Each junior and senior high school has one 
room reserved for projection work. The need for moving equip- 
ment from room to room is thus eliminated. However, as soon 
as teachers become skilled in the use of 16-mm. equipment, 
each classroom will be used for projection. This will make it 
possible for several teachers to use projection equipment at 
one time or for a teacher to show a few slides at one session 
without the necessity of moving her class. 

There are two 35-mm. and three 16-mm. motion-picture 
projectors in the schools, and three stereopticon lanterns. 

All the work in visual education below the junior high school 
level is done independently in each school. 

The operators of equipment are boys in the school who 
receive special credit for their work. After September, 1931, 
the only films used will be 16-mm. 

Sources of films and slides. Films are rented from state 
universities, film agencies, and some industrial concerns. Slides 
are made or bought. 

Haworth, Harry A. (Supervisor of Visual Education, Pasa- 
dena, Calif.) "Administration of a Department of Visual 
Instruction." Junior-Senior High School Clearing House. 
5 :218-22. December 1930. 

The functions of the Pasadena Department of Visual Instruc- 
tion are as follows: (1) To introduce the visual-instruction 
method to teachers and to assist them in the correct and eco- 
nomical use of this method. (2) To secure visual aids. (3) 
To organize visual aids in a scientific manner corresponding 
to the course of study. (4) To circulate these aids among 

[The set-up of this department is very much like that 
described by McClusky. (See p. 22) The duties of the director 
are especially in line with the suggestions outlined in that 
article. ] 

System of classification. The Dewey decimal system for 
classifying subject matter is used wherever practicable. A 
letter preceding the number describes the type of visual aid 


required: P (print), W (wall print), S (stereograph), L (lan- 
tern slides), S.F. (still film), Ex. (exhibits), R (roll film or 
film slides). Material for primary grades is marked "X." 

Thirty-five-millimeter films are arranged according to the 
University of California catalog, and 16-mm. films alphabetically 
according to title. Details are worked out as the need arises. 

Supervision of use made of visual aids. All elementary- 
school teachers and all high-school teachers, according to their 
department of specialization, meet once each semester. At these 
conferences instruction is given in the operation of projection 
equipment, suggestions are made for the use of visual aids, 
and the new pictures available are exhibited. 

Individual conferences are also arranged, and personal visits 
to the department are encouraged. 

Sigman, James G. (Director of Visual Education, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.) "The Organization of a Department of Visual 
Education." Junior-Senior High School Clearing House. 
5:214-18. December 1930. 

The official creation in 1929 of the visual-education depart- 
ment in Philadelphia was not the first step in visual education. 
Such activities as the distribution of slides were known as far 
back as 1905. 

Organization of the Philadelphia department. Close coopera- 
tion with special departments has been encouraged. Specialists 
in subject matter are consulted to insure the best correlation with 
the course of study. Busses have been provided by the Board 
of Education for the transportation of children to museums; 
trucks transport materials to one-fifth of the schools each day. 
Materials distributed include: 16-mm. film, 35-mm. film, still 
films, film slides, glass slides, stereographs, and historical prints. 

Teacher training. Teachers in service and undergraduates 
are given special training in visual education. The state director 
has sent out a syllabus to the teachers' colleges. A laboratory 
of equipment is maintained in the normal school. Frequent 
bulletins are sent to teachers. The director personally demon- 
strates visual methods in schools. 

The personnel of this department consists of a director, 
special assistant in instructional field, five clerical assistants (a 


chief assistant, a museum clerical assistant, a glass-slide clerk, 
a motion-picture clerk, a still-film clerk), three museum teachers 
permanently attached to the Commercial Museum and one 
assigned to the Art Museum, and three mechanical assistants 
and operators. 

Roach, Charles (Director, Visual Education, Los Angeles 
Schools) "Visual Instruction Service in a City System: 
Abstract." National Education Association Proceedings, 67: 
942-3. 1929. 

Visual aids, including pictures, home-made charts, stereo- 
graphs, and lantern slides, have been used generally since 1913. 
In 1920, a motion-picture service was added. The visual-educa- 
tion department should not be a subject department but a serv- 
ice bureau where teachers, principals, supervisors, and super- 
intendents may come for assistance in visual problems. 

In the Los Angeles system, the director of the department 
is subordinate to one of the eleven assistant school superintend- 
ents. There are three assistant directors and two teacher- 
assistants, all of whom are professionally trained, certificated, 
and hold teachers' credentials. The general administrative duties 
are distributed among them. The nonprofessional group con- 
sists of the usual clerical staff and six persons in specialized 
work, such as photography, art, and research. 

The department is divided into several sections, each one 
of which is in charge of a head responsible to the director or to 
an assistant director. The photographic section prepares photo- 
graphs and slides. In addition to a specially trained teacher- 
assistant, there are three photographers who work in the field 
or in the laboratory, a catalog clerk who prepares explanatory 
data to accompany and identify each illustration, and a file clerk 
who keeps the negatives, file prints, and card index in shape. 
The head of this section is the official photographer for the board 
of education. 

The assembly section accepts the responsibility for all details 
of binding slides, mounting pictures, and labeling, boxing, and 
packing material prior to circulation. Repairs and replacements 
are made by this section. 

The art section tints pictures and slides. The artist designs 
special posters or charts that are not otherwise obtainable. 


The editorial and research section checks all printed and 
mimeographed data that accompany the illustrative material. 

The division meets the teachers most intimately and most 
frequently in the circulation section. Everything other than 
motion pictures is stored, distributed, and returned by this sec- 
tion. The volume of business has increased to such a large 
extent that a clerk is now assigned to each grade to handle 

The motion-picture section is kept separate and distinct from 
the circulation section. 

Recommendations to other directors of visual education : 

1. Provide a means whereby teachers may learn methods 
of visual presentation before equipment is purchased. 

2. If at all possible, establish a photographic section with 
the best equipment for making slides and photographic enlarge- 

3. Analyze the film problem carefully. It is better to buy 
films than rent them. 

4. Provide a delivery service with a definite schedule for 
all schools. 

5. Tie all work positively and definitely to the course of 


The administration of visual aids should be systematically 
organized for the city as a whole, and with equal emphasis, 
within each school. It is important that visual aids be routin- 
ized so as to minimize the demands upon the teachers, and 
to remove any factor of novelty or entertainment. 

Hollinger, as city administrator, in the article summarized 
below, offers some worth-while suggestions for a system of 
administration within a school building. 

Hamilton's suggestions are based on his long experience 
in dealing with schools as the representative of a visual aid 
producing company. 


Hollinger, John A. (Director of Visual Education, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.) "The Administration of Visual Aids in Edu- 
cation." American School and University. 5 :210-14. 1932- 

For the effective use of visual aids in education, materials 
must be made conveniently available for teachers. Visual aids 
should not be confined to the assembly or extracurricular pro- 
gram but should be made an integral part of the classroom 

Equipment for classroom use should be permanently located 
in the school building and cataloged and indexed so as to make 
it easily available. There should be (1) cabinets for slides and 
stereographs, (2) library shelves for motion-picture films (buy 
only slow-burning acetate film), (3) folders for flat pictures, 
(4) cases for specimens, charts, posters, and the like. A compe- 
tent person should be in charge of materials and equipment. 
The school librarian is best fitted for such work. If there is 
no librarian, the principal and an assistant may take charge. 

The duties of the director of visual education include (a) 
prompt distribution of material, (b) prompt return of material 
to proper storage place, (c) recording of material as it leaves 
the building and when it is returned, and (d) the appointment 
of a licensed operator for projection of 35-mm. film. The 
operator may be a teacher whose duties will be to supervise 
proper storage of equipment for protection against dust and 
theft, to repair breaks in films, to keep all projectors in working 
condition, to moisten regularly the humidor containers for films, 
and to instruct other teachers how to operate the machines. 

Visual aids suitable for general instruction of a scientific, 
social historical, artistic, and vocational nature should be stored 
in the central office. 

Most of the material should be owned by the district and 
distributed to the schools. The longer the range of a distribu- 
tion system, the less effective and more expensive it is likely 
to become. There must be sufficient personnel and equipment 
for prompt and efficient service. It is best for schools to 
requisition material well in advance. 

The space reserved for the visual-education department 
should include a general office, with telephones, a projection and 
conference room, about 15 by 30 feet, with lighting and darken- 
ing facilities, and at least 800 square feet for storage and work- 


room. The department should be equipped with desks for the 
director and the hooker, a cabinet for filing reservations, and 
files for catalogs, correspondence, and the like. There should 
also be a packer's desk, a receiver's desk, a rewinding table, 
and a patching outfit for films. Slides may be stored individually 
or in sets. Films may be kept in the containers in which they 
are shipped. 

The minimum equipment as determined by the Pennsylvania 
state teachers' colleges, is available through Dr. C. F. Hoban, 
director of visual instruction, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Each school should have the following projection equipment: 
One lantern-slide projector for each floor, one 16-mm. projector 
for every twenty classrooms, one 35-mm. projector for the audi- 
torium, an outlet for each classroom, equipment for making 
slides, and a screen, from 30 by 40 inches to 6 by 8 feet. The 
screen can also be made from discarded window shades mounted 
on boards, or painted on a wall. 

The equipment recommended for the auditorium includes a 
projection booth with control of all lights from the booth, a 
reverse signal system from stage to booth, a screen, 12 feet wide, 
on a rigid frame, and opaque shades for darkening the audi- 
torium. A 1000-watt lamp is necessary for lighting, if the 
distance from the screen is not more than 70 feet, and a carbon- 
arc projector, if the distance is more. 

An annual appropriation of $1 per pupil is needed for carry- 
ing out properly such a visual-aids program. 

Hamilton, W. J. "Administrative Problems in Visual Educa- 
tion." Educational Screen. 15:208-10. September 1936. 

Those who have been interested in the sale of visual aids 
have been quite successful in getting them into the schools. 
School administrators have not been so successful in getting 
them used. A check of visual aids shows that many of them 
are seldom or never used. 

The correction of this situation rests with school administra- 
tors. The first step in an administrator's procedure for the 
systematic use of visual aids is a careful inventory of the visual 
aids which the school actually owns. This material should be 
carefully evaluated. Much of it may be found to be out of 
date or worn out. 


An attempt should be made to secure school-wide use of 
such facilities as the school possesses. Materials should not be 
in the possession of any one room or department, but should 
be available for the use of the entire corps of teachers. 

Teacher committees will be found useful in the adaptation 
of the aids to the courses and the curriculum in general. A 
definite time and place should be found for the use of such 
aids in the school work. The practice of appointing teachers 
to serve on committees for the evaluation and for the introduc- 
tion of methods to be employed for the use of visual aids, will 
result in an intelligent interest in carrying out the recommenda- 
tions made. 

The visual aids should be made as convenient for use as 
possible. Regular classrooms may be fitted up for projection 
purposes and the schedule of classes arranged to accommodate 
those classes desiring to use the projector. The projector can 
be housed in a cabinet with all connections made and with 
screen, sound equipment, and other details carefully tested and 
ready for use. 

Teachers should be trained in the operation of the projectors. 
This will result in an increase in the quality of projection, since 
projectors in untrained hands are often poorly used. 

Visual aids may be used at various stages in the progress of 
a unit of work: for introduction to the unit, for example, 
study, discussion, or review. The use will vary according to 
the techniques employed and the nature of the subject matter 
being presented. 

There should be a room in which visual aids may be stored, 
loaned for the use of individual teachers, and returned. A 
perpetual inventory may thus be kept and materials inspected 
and repaired. The larger systems should have a director in 
charge who devotes his entire time to visual aids. 

In some places, state and county units of distribution have 
been developed for films, lantern slides, and so on. Local unit 
distribution is usually more satisfactory, making it possible to 
get the material on short notice. 

School showings of films should be strictly educational, 
leaving the entertainment field to the local motion-picture ex- 
hibitors. The practice of booking educational films without 
regard to the units being studied and showing them to large 
groups is not to be recommended. It is better to select only 


those films that are of interest to pupils at a certain grade 
level and correlate them with the regular work of the class. 

A definite sum of money should be made available each 
year, in the regular budget, for visual aids. It is better to add 
equipment each year than to make a large sum of money 
available periodically for such purchase. 

As a refutation of the statement made above regarding 
the use of films for large audiences, a number of educators 
have published accounts of a technique which they consider 
satisfactory in making the motion picture of interest to chil- 
dren, and occasionally to adults, assembled in large numbers. 

Jones, A. H. (Director of Visual Education, Gary Public 
Schools, Ind.) "Visual Education in the Auditorium." Vis- 
ual Review. 1930:17. 

The visual education department includes three full-time 
teachers and two part-time administrators, one the supervisor 
of social sciences, and the other the assistant supervisor of art. 
The teachers go to all the schools in the city, transporting their 
motion picture and stereopticon equipment as they go. The 
topics chosen for the auditorium lecture-demonstrations are not 
correlated with the course of study, nor are they graded. This 
is done in order to provide enrichment of experiences outside 
of the regular classroom routine. 

The films used in the auditorium are : some industrials, a 
health film, "One Scar or Many?" on vaccination, a safety 
film, one on the structure and care of the teeth, one on the 
food value of milk. 

Besides this day school program, the department sponsors 
a community night program for every school center in the city. 

The rental and purchase of films is provided for by a budget 
allowance of $4,000. The per capita cost on this amount is two 
and a half cents. 

Stuart, Byron D. (Principal, Frand and Franklin Schools, 
Westfield, NJ.) "On the Use of Motion Pictures: Seven 
Years Experience Summarized." New Jersey Educational 
Review. 8:23. March 1935. 

The classroom teachers requisition those slides and films 
which they will use for the forthcoming year. The principal 


consolidates these plans to arrange a full schedule spread out 
evenly over the year. The films and slides are shown in the 
auditorium before the fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. 

The visual instruction period is looked upon as a genuine 
study period. This is emphasized to the pupils, not only directly 
by the teacher, but indirectly through follow-up tests and group 
discussions which follow the showing. A pupil or several pupils 
are given the responsibility of explaining in advance the back- 
ground of information necessary better to understand the film. 
When slides are shown, a pupil is made responsible for the 
thorough explanation of one or more slides. On other occasions 
the school nurse, the dentist, the supervisor, the principal, or the 
teacher explains the picture in such a way as to make it more 

Meola, L. K. (Chairman, Visual Education, John Hay High 
School, Cleveland, Ohio) "Noon Movies the New Educa- 
tional Tool." Educational Screen. 14:224-7. October 1935. 

Students are shown two reels of film per day, or ten reels 
per week. A feature film is run in serial fashion. The charge 
made is one cent per reel. The funds collected from this enter- 
prise have paid for a sound equipment unit in the auditorium, a 
two channel public address system with a loud speaker in every 
classroom and office, and microphone outlets in six vital places 
in the building, as well as expenses to send school teams in 
Stenography, Typing and Bookkeeping to state and national 

All films produced by leading motion picture producers are 
available to schools provided they comply with certain very 
lenient regulations. Film programs are rented weekly, and the 
average cost is $3.00 per reel. Selection is based on the Film 
Estimates and on advice of the distributors. Student and faculty 
recommendations are also followed. 

Some of the most outstanding films of the year are shown. 
Those only are excluded which contain gruesome or risque 
scenes. Some of the features are light, musical and recreational, 
while others are more serious. 

Application of the noon movies to classroom work is done 
directly and indirectly. The direct application is in the six 
weeks' course in motion picture appreciation offered as part 
of the 11A English course. The noon movie feature is the 
laboratory for discussion in this class. The fact that only two 


reels are shown daily helps greatly in the discussion. Good 
practice is afforded in rating films. Students in this class make 
recommendations to the program director for films they would 
like to have shown in schools. English students use the text- 
book, How to Appreciate Motion Pictures by Edgar Dale. 

The indirect tie-up comes in the application of the film con- 
tents to science, dramatics, oral English, art, home economics, 
music, etc. 

The House of Rothschild, for example, presented a concrete 
illustration of "family shield" which was mentioned in the 
Idylls of the King. Economics and business training classes 
found much valuable material in that film. Political science 
was clearly portrayed by the Napoleonic wars, tax collectors, 
religious oppression, court scenes. The home economics group 
and the art group found interesting information in the same 
film, as did the physics students through the phenomenon of 
Technicolor. The drama students and oral English students 
were delighted with George Arliss and the other members of 
the cast. 

The Barretts of Wimpole Street was also used to correlate 
school work with this recreational experience. Browning's 
poetry, the story of his life and of that of Elizabeth Barrett 
were studied. The characterizations, costume, furnishings and 
many other details were enjoyed by students of home economics, 
oral English and dramatics. 

One significant outcome of these noon movies appears to 
be a realization of the extensive research necessary to make a 
great picture play. 

The social values of this program are many. The students 
conduct themselves properly, eliminating the need for discipline. 
Surely there will result a discriminating taste in motion pic- 
tures, and a desire for guidance. 

Swarthout, Walter E. (Emerson School, May wood, 111.) 
"Recreational Motion Pictures in the School." Educational 
Screen. 14:978. April 1935. 

The assembly program of films was developed after a 35mm. 
projector had been purchased by the Parent-Teachers Associa- 
tion. The children contributed from 10 to 20 cents for the 
semester. A program of fifteen units to be shown twice a 


month was worked out, and each shown in two assemblies; 
one assembly for the lower grades and one for the higher 
grades. Appropriate pictures were shown in each case. 

Another phase of the motion picture program was purely for 
the purpose of developing a better taste in children for motion 
pictures. An admission charge of ten cents brought in enough 
money to pay for the rental of films and equipment, and finally 
for the purchase of sound attachments for the projector. 

Collier, Robert, Jr. (Chemistry Department, South High 
School, Denver) 'The Preparation and Presentation of a 
Science Night Program." Educational Screen. 14:219-22. 
October 1935. 

The Science Nights in this school were intended to "sell the 
school" to the community. They were planned well in advance 
and much publicity prepared. The art department, the mechani- 
cal drawing classes, news writing classes all aided in this phase 
of the program. Definite plans were formulated regarding 
traffic and seating of visitors. 

The chief departments cooperating in the exhibits were the 
Art, Biology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Physics, Psychology, 
Chemistry, Latin, Library, Home Economics, News-writing, and 
several extra-curricular groups. Each department was given 
exhibit space and students were encouraged to demonstrate 
material whenever possible. 

The Biology Department displayed microscopic collections, 
interesting pets, flower collections, and the like. 

The Mathematics Department displayed demonstrations on 
the slide rule, use of Pantagraphs and manipulation of Napiers 

The Astronomy Department constructed a Reflecting Tele- 
scope, the only one of its kind in the city. An exhibit of sky 
charts, models of the solar system, and charts on the phases of 
the moon were also shown. 

The psychology of a necktie was one exhibit which caused 
a great deal of comment. 

The Physics Department showed Black Light, Neon tubes, 
automatic telephones and switchboards, modern air conditioning 
of rooms, and numerous others. 

The Library contributed to every department by its display 
of books and reference materials. 


The Chemistry Department displayed 156 exhibits ranging 
from chemistry involved in tooth powders and cosmetics to a 
continuous demonstration of the effects of liquid air. Exhibits 
were limited only by student participation, rather than by lack 
of possibilities. 

The Home Economics Department arranged an attractive 
exhibit on "Consumer Education." This included discussion 
of the value of various breakfast foods, showing slack fills and 
mislabeling; samples of foods containing high and low food 
values and comparative costs; a demonstration on vitamins; 
samples of silk hose were compared ; the effect of various soaps 
on textiles as well as methods for removing stains from these 
textiles were shown. This training in proper buying is very 
helpful for the students and their families. 

The Latin Department displayed miniatures of Roman furni- 
ture, war implements, and bridges and a chart on Latin deriva- 
tions in the English language. 

In addition to these exhibits, there were several of a more 
or less "recreational" value. The school orchestra played concert 
music in the auditorium. Before and after the concert the film 
"Eyes of Science" was shown. A teacher demonstrated various 
phenomena of High Tension Electricity. A glass blower from 
the Denver Fire Clay Company gave a demonstration of his 

A hobby show was also arranged, revealing interests which 
had no connection with school work. 

Although this type of program requires a great deal of time 
and effort in preparation, it is felt that this is justified by the 
satisfaction shown by the taxpayers. 

The following summaries will indicate varying techniques 
of school administration by principals. They offer many 
helpful suggestions. 

Snyder, Elmer W. (Principal, John Marshall High School, 
Rochester, N.Y.) and Evaul, Clarence B. (Head of the 
Department of Science) "Administering Visual- Audio Aids 
in a High School." New York State Education. 24:616-17. 
May 1937. 

The John Marshall High School has a central sound system 
as well as equipment for 16mm. motion picture, stereopticon, 


and opaque projection. In order to encourage and distribute 
the use of this equipment, a service bureau was organized among 
the pupils under the direct supervision of a member of the 

The principal duties of the service bureau may be classified 
as follows : 

1. Radio Service 

a) Furnish operators for the central system 

b) Furnish operators for the portable system 

c) Care for equipment 

d) Maintain a radio bulletin board 

2. Visual Service 

a) Furnish operators for all visual equipment 

b) Operate equipment for assembly and stage presenta- 

3. Photographic Service 

a) Furnish photographers for school events 

b) Photograph school activities 

c) Make lantern slides for classroom and assembly use. 

Faculty members are requested to file a request card for 
materials, after consulting the lists of films and slides placed 
on bulletin boards and in departmental offices. As soon as the 
material arrives, the teacher is notified and a pupil operator is 

The boys assigned to the service bureau have benefited by 
their training and have been eager to continue as members of 
the squad. 

Smith, Harvey N. (Abraham Lincoln High School, New 
York City) "Organizing the Visual Instruction Program." 
High Points. 13:40-4. November 1931. 

A visual-instruction division has been organized in the 
Abraham Lincoln High School and placed under the direction 
of one teacher. A series of demonstration meetings for teachers 
held twice a month enables each teacher to learn the mechanics 
of visual instruction. The division assists and cooperates with 
the various departments using visual aids by facilitating the use 
and distribution of equipment and by collecting and classifying 
information concerning the material. 

An "optical squad" of nine boys has been organized which 
delivers the projection machine to the classroom. The teacher. 


however, does the actual mechanical work. Consignment cards 
that each user must fill out describe the time and place of use. 

Requisitions are called for at the beginning of the school 
term. Each department is asked to keep a list of the visual 
materials suited to its use. 

A central bureau of visual education for secondary schools 
is planned, similar to the one for elementary schools. 

Gross, Ella (Principal, Public School 133, Brooklyn, N.Y.) 
"Making Aids Available Within the School." National 
Elementary Principal. 13:171-4. June 1934. 

The plan followed by this school insures the use of all 
available visual aids at the time they are most needed. The 
school made an analysis of the course of study it was offering 
in all subjects, for all grades, and compared the analysis with 
the material available from the American Museum of Natural 

Preparing card indexes. The term plans for each grade 
were arranged by weeks. On Set A index cards, the work 
required for each week in each subject was listed; e.g., Nature 
study: first week in Grade 1 called for "seasonal changes" 
Grade 2, "seasonal changes"; Grade 3, "seasonal changes" 
Grade 4, "seasonal changes"; Grade 5, "household insects" 
Grade 6 "seasonal changes eclipse, equinox," and so on. An 
analysis of the catalog provided by the American Museum of 
Natural History showed that one set of slides, entitled "The 
Seasons," was suitable for fourth-grade nature study. This 
material was then listed on cards for Set B. The Set B cards 
were then placed behind the cards in Set A. By this arrange- 
ment the fourth-grade nature-study unit for the first week was 
enriched by the set of slides in the Museum. 

Preparing the school program. The school program is care- 
fully cataloged and scheduled at the beginning of the school 
year. This schedule is posted on every floor of the building for 
ready reference. The teacher then knows the exact nature of 
the material and the exact time of delivery (which is usually 
one day in advance). The schedule for the use of projection 
equipment is also posted, so the principal may know who is 
using the machines in each class period. 


Distributing aids and equipment. For each piece of mate- 
rial there is a card listing in order the names of the various 
teachers in the school who are going to use it. The monitors 
who deliver the material then know the route to follow. The 
material is returned to the principal's office when all the teachers 
listed on the card have used it. 

Two months before the end of each term, another requisition 
is made out, based on the criticisms and recommendations of 
teachers. Some of the materials are then eliminated and others 

McMillan, J. G. (Tulare Union High School, California) 
"The Routine of Motion Pictures in a High School." Edu- 
cational Screen. 5 :463-4. October 1926. 

At the beginning of the school year, the teachers are invited 
to indicate on request blanks the films they will want to use. 
Catalogs of films are on file in the school library for inspection. 
[Although there are catalogs from many organizations, the 
author prefers to deal with one source.] 

A committee of three faculty members assembles the request 
blanks and adjusts the list to equalize distribution among the 
departments. A schedule is made on the basis of one "picture 
day" a week. The tentative schedule is presented to teachers 
and then to the principal. The extension division of the uni- 
versity then receives this list and returns it to the school when 
the films have been checked. 

On the "picture day," classes are directed to the auditorium 
where film showings take place, according to the schedule. 

Chambers, Elsie I. (Dept. of Visual Education, Huntington 
Beach Schools, California) "Are You Interested in Visual 
Education?" Educational Screen. 12:122-3. May 1933. 

Visual education is a new field in name only. Visual aids 
have been used for many years, but it is now evident that to be 
really effective they must be used more scientifically. 

The supervisor selects equipment, gives demonstrations, pre- 
pares exhibits, and trains teachers. 

"Visual work, to be most effective, should have an allotted 
period on the program of every classroom and these periods 
should be as strictly observed as periods of any subject in the 


Rules for teachers : ( 1 ) Keep all equipment clean, attractive, 
up-to-date, and in good condition. (2) Prepare the class for 
the lesson, or correlate the film with the text lesson. (3) Rooms 
should be darkened and well ventilated, machines and chairs 
arranged properly. (4) Choose still pictures and charts of 
good quality (show few illustrations in one lesson.) (5) Use 
models, exhibits, and the like, as tools for physical education, 
social science, and vocational subjects. (6) Organize a form 
of activity (film strip, dolls, modeling, and so forth) which 
will emanate from a film lesson. (7) Take students on field 
trips whenever possible. 

Hoek, Floyd G. (Principal, Longfellow School, Teaneck, 
N.J.) "Organizing the Visual Instruction Program." Visual 
Instruction News. 4:11-12. March 1931. 

Definite advance planning of the visual aids to be used during 
the year facilitates the work in this school. After the films 
or slides have been selected for the year, the schedule is verified 
by the producers or distributors. Mimeographed copies of the 
schedule are then distributed to all the teachers in the school. 
Lesson plans and synopses of films, when provided, are given 
to the teachers well in advance of showing dates. Posting of 
the complete schedule of films has caused a noticeable increase 
in the use of the library prior to the showing of certain films. 

Appropriate music played during the showing of historical 
films apparently augments the effectiveness of the picture. 

The following school program was especially fitted to the 
objectives of a school for deaf children. 

Hester, M. S. "A Program of Visual Education for a Resi- 
dential School." Volta Review. 34:503-6. October 1932. 

This program for visual education is based on the results of 
the following studies: (a) A survey by Mimi Fandrei in which 
many schools report using their visual equipment for entertain- 
ment purposes rather than for classroom work, (b) A study in 
which advertising films were found to be less desirable than 
strictly educational films for which supplementary guides are 
furnished. A textbook plus a film also appeared to be more 
effective than the text alone. 


The Iowa School for the Deaf used films for geography, 
history, hygiene, and science with interesting results. The films 
were shown to two classes, one of average intelligence, the other 
of less than average intelligence. At the end of a unit, a test 
was given to both classes. 

Test Results 

Slow class Average class 

No film at all , 

, . . . Poor Average 

Film, with adequate preparation . 
Film no preparation 

Average Excellent 
, . . . Poor Average 

This school is also active in making amateur films. Films 
designed for lip reading are already available. The school also 
recommends slides, stereographs, and models as visual aids. 
A course for teachers on techniques for using visual aids is 

A program for schools of the deaf. A supervisor is se- 
lected. He collects literature on the subject and studies equip- 
ment and methods. His task is to organize and distribute mate- 
rials for the school and to instruct teachers on methods. The 
following equipment is purchased: a 16-mm. projector and 
screen (a 35-mm. projector might also be secured) ; a lantern- 
slide projector or a combination with opaque projector; charts, 
maps, models, a set of slides, stereographs and stereoscopes. 
A 16-mm. movie camera for making films is also worth con- 
sidering. A place is allocated for storage. A catalog of the 
visual aids in the school is sent to all teachers. The supervisor 
makes a list of all free exhibit material that is furnished by 


The section that follows should be serviceable, especially 
to the administrator who is setting up a system of organizing 
and distributing materials. The articles included here give 
concrete suggestions for filing, mounting, and cataloging 
materials. Klein's system is being used in the United States 
Government departments. It applies to extensive depart- 


ments. Dick, speaking from the point of view of a librarian, 
offers some worth-while methods for cataloging. 

Klein, Margaret A. (Director, Children's Bureau, U. S. Dept. 
of Labor, Washington, D.C.) "A Filing System for Visual 
Aids." Educational Screen. 12:103-4, 128-9, 161-2. April, 
May, June 1933. 

This article describes a system used by Government depart- 
ments for filing visual materials. Much of the work is based 
on multicolored cards for filing different types of material in 
different sections. 

The distribution file furnishes a record of shipments, a check 
on materials on loan, a history of material distributed during the 
year. The cards in this file, salmon-colored, are divided into 
five sections: 

1. "Send" section (31 blue guide cards for each day of the 
month). Behind each guide card are cards for the people 
material is to be shipped to. 

2. "Out" section (26 blue guide cards lettered A to Z). 
After the material has been shipped, the card is transferred from 
the "send" to the "out" section. 

3. "Closed" section. After the material has been returned, 
the card is transferred from the "out" to the "closed" section 
for the year, thus affording a record of that year's work. 

4. "Tentative" section, where requests pending further 
notice are placed. These cards eventually reach the "send" 
section (No. 1). 

5. "Future" section, in which shipments of a future date, 
often months in advance, are noted. 

The reverse side of each card is used to record information 
such as use of material, attendance at showing, criticisms, and 
so on. 

The stock file has as many divisions as there are types of 
materials. Salmon-colored guide cards separate the divisions; 
blue guide cards the subdivisions. Each piece of material has 
its own record card, such as the one illustrated below. 

The material available for loan may readily be seen by this 

The information file contains the card-information (a card 
index of the names of firms and the equipment they sell) and 


Motion-Picture Division 

"Diet" Bought, May, 1930 No. Ik 

Lent to; 





Ret. -Ex. -O.K., 

"Returned, Examined, O.K. 

the materials information (a file of circulars and catalogs of 
equipment). The cards are classified as to the type of material, 
with subheadings; for example, "Lantern slides, for geography, 
of France." A list of appropriate headings can easily be made 
up to fit the particular need of the system. 

The photographic file is a vertical file in which the photo- 
graphs and negatives are kept. One print is mounted on a 
guide card at the top of which is the title, number, and so on. 
Behind each guide card are additional copies of the photograph 
in an envelope, and the negative in another envelope. A caption 
should be printed on the back of each photograph. 

Dick, Grace I. (Librarian, Board of Education, Pasadena, 
California, Schools) "A New Opportunity for Librarians." 
Library Journal 58:772-3. October 1, 1933. 

This article describes, briefly but adequately, a practical plan 
for cataloging visual aids by means of the Dewey decimal 
system, which has proved so effective with books. Call numbers 
identify the type of material. The numerals are used as with 
books, i.e., 973.4-6, the -6 being the accession number. 

Six types of cards are needed for filing and charging visual 
aids. These are the title card, the subject card, the artist or 
producer card, the charging card, the visual-aid request card, 
and the shelf -list card. 

By this method it is comparatively easy for a librarian to 
determine what material is available for a given subject or by 


a given artist or producer, and which materials are in circula- 
tion. Subject headings are used according to the American 
Library Association, or the Library of Congress. The descrip- 
tive note for each visual aid should be repeated on each card. 
[For sample entries, see article.] 

Ireland, N. O. Picture File in School, College and Public Libra- 
ries. The F. W. Faxon Co. Boston. 1935. 89p. 

The purpose of this book is to aid librarians in organizing 
a picture file. The chapter headings are: How to Begin; 
Mounting; Picture Headings; Storage and Circulation; Uses 
and Publicity. More than half the book is devoted to a list of 
picture headings, beginning with ' 'abbeys" and ending with 

The section by English and Stratemeyer in the Eighth 
Yearbook of the Department of Supervisors and Directors of 
Instruction of the National Education Association is notably 
one written by and for supervisors. The writers give direc- 
tions for making storage equipment as part of the program 
of "organizing and caring for materials." 

English, Mildred and Stratemeyer, Florence B. "Selection 
and Organization of Materials of Instruction." Materials 
of Instruction. Dept. of Supervisors and Directors of Instruc- 
tion, N. E. A. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, 
Columbia University. 8:129-48. 1935. 

This article discusses the development of a materials bureau. 
Such a bureau may be a part of a central bureau for the school 
system, which may be located in the superintendent's office or 
in the office of some other designated person ; or it may be in a 
school, under the direction of the librarian or a committee of 
teachers; or in the classroom, in the form of a collection in the 
hands of the students. 

The writer offers many helpful suggestions for the organ- 
ization and care of materials. The filing system may be based 
on that in the American Library Economy, published by The 
H. W. Wilson Company, or on Knox's classifications. There 
should be one card file of authors' names, one card file by subject, 
and a vertical information file using the Dewey decimal system 


of classification, e.g., D Transportation; D Transportation, 
boats; D 2 Transportation, trains, and so on. All material 
relating to Transportation is then placed in folders marked to 
correspond with the cards in the subject file. 

The writer devotes a section to some very valuable sugges- 
tions for mounting and preserving material. 

We note here the sections of Rose Knox's book, School 
Activities and Equipment, that may have some implications 
for visual-education administrators. 

Knox, Rose B. School Activities and Equipment: A Guide to 
Materials and Equipment for Elementary Schools. Houghton 
MifHin Co. Boston. 1927. 386p. 

This book is one of the earliest on the activity program and 
contains concrete suggestions for securing and organizing mate- 
rials of instruction. No special reference is made, however, to 
visual materials. The sections listed below might be pertinent: 

"School Pictures," (still and screen), p. 229-55; "Problems 
Growing out of Materials and Equipment," (chapter 9) espe- 
cially the suggestions for the use and distribution of materials. 


The services of state visual-education departments have 
been analyzed and summarized by Dunn and Schneider. 

Dunn, Fannie W. and Schneider, Etta. "Activities of State 
Visual Education Agencies in the United States." Educa- 
tional Screen, 14:99-100, 126-7, 158-61. April, May, June 

Some form of state provision of visual materials has been 
reported from twenty-six states. The agency most often under- 
taking the service appears to be the extension division of the 
state university or of the state college of agriculture as indicated 
in the following list : x 

1 Univ. of Georgia, Macon; Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor; and Univ. of 
Vermont, Burlington have inaugurated a state-wide service since the publication of 
this report. . 


University of Arizona, Tucson. 

University of California, Berkeley. 

University of Colorado, Boulder. 

University of Florida, Gainesville. 

Indiana University, Bloomington. 

University of Iowa, Iowa City. 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, 


University of Kansas, Lawrence. 
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 
University of Missouri, Columbia. 
North Dakota Agricultural College, Fargo. 
University of Oklahoma, Norman. 
Oregon State System of Higher Education, Corvallis. 
University of South Dakota, Vermillion. 
University of Texas, Austin. 
University of Wisconsin, Madison. 
Washington State College, Pullman. 

State departments of education that undertake the service 
of distributing visual aids are as follows : 

Massachusetts Dept. of Education, Boston. 

Education Dept., University of the State of New York, 


Ohio State Department of Education, Columbus. 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg. 

The New Jersey State Museum, under the Department of 
Conservation and Development, Trenton, distributes visual aids 
as a library lends books. 

The University of Illinois High School at Urbana has a 
unique cooperative plan and acts as the agency for the state. 

Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, is the visual-edu- 
cation center for the state. This is a privately controlled institu- 

Indiana and Pennsylvania state teachers' colleges, and that of 
San Francisco, California, distribute visual aids among their 

Nature and extent of state services. Departments of visual 
education have two general purposes: (1) to furnish instruc- 
tional materials for classrooms, (2) to furnish entertainment 
for community groups. 


Material commonly distributed: glass slides, film slides, 
pictures and prints, still films, stereographs, motion pictures 
(16-mm. and 35-mm.). The most widely used are glass slides 
and film slides. Sixteen-millimeter films are increasingly pre- 
ferred to the 35-mm. size. Sound films, although not generally 
distributed, are growing in supply. 

States differ in the ways in which they assist teachers in 
the selection of material. Some issue catalogs and supplemen- 
tary bulletins or even give personal supervision. The usefulness 
of catalogs depends upon the care with which the materials 
included were selected, classified, and annotated. 

Films intended primarily for teaching purposes are called 
"strictly educational," and those issued for advertising purposes 
are called "industrial." Since the advertising films are usually 
free, they are extensively used. The Ohio State Department 
of Education takes a strong stand against the use of such films, 
while the University of Kentucky distributes them almost exclu- 

The Universities of Missouri and Kansas designate strictly 
educational films and industrial films by separate categories. 

States aid teachers to select cataloged aids by distinguishing 
strictly educational from industrial films (Universities of Okla- 
homa, Colorado, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Kansas, North 
Dakota Agricultural College, and Brigham Young University), 
by annotations in the catalogs (best are from the Universities 
of Texas and Wisconsin, and Indiana University), by organiza- 
tion according to subject matter (University of Arizona and 
Ohio State Department of Education), and by information in 
teachers' manuals (University of Wisconsin and Indiana Uni- 
versity) . 

The amount and type of material supplied vary according to 
the budgets of the different departments. Some departments, 
however, with comparatively small funds available are able to 
supply a large amount of material. This is done by cooperative 

The Illinois cooperative plan, for example, was developed 
at the state university under Dr. R. T. Gregg, assistant principal 
of the University High School. 2 Member schools pay $5 per year 
and contribute one 16-mm. teaching film to the library. This 
entitles the school to use of the 16-mm. films and glass slides 

2 Cooperative libraries have been established at Syracuse University, and Mis- 
sissippi and Arkansas are planning similar projects. 


for two years. At the beginning of the second year of the 
plan, there were 150 reels of film available to member schools. 
The state universities of Kansas and Colorado have pooled 
their resources and extended their service to other states as well. 
For a flat fee, schools in any state near by may avail themselves 
of the materials in both libraries. 

Costs to borrower. The Universities of Florida and the 
New York State Department of Visual Education offer free 
service. Only slides, however, are distributed. The New Jersey 
State Museum distributes all its visual aids to the schools of 
that state without cost. Free service for industrial films only 
is offered by the University of Kentucky and the University 
of Minnesota. 

A low annual registration charge for industrial films is made 
by the Universities of Texas, Oklahoma, Arizona, North 
Dakota Agricultural College, and the Oregon State Department. 
These institutions also permit individual orders. The Univer- 
sity of South Dakota makes a "per week" stipulation instead 
of the "per day" regulation of the other departments. 

Among films termed "rental," there are several types: (a) 
industrial films that have had to be procured by purchase, rather 
than by donation, (b) theatrical films that have been edited and 
transposed to the 16-mm. size for school use, (c) strictly educa- 
tional films, such as Yale Chronicles, DeVry Films, and the like. 
Educational films are usually accompanied by teachers' guides. 
The Yale Chronicles and some others are lent by the day. 

The Universities of Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, and Mis- 
souri charge flat annual registration fees for the use of all 
visual aids. Iowa State College, the Universities of California 
and Texas, and Indiana University rent sound films at about 
$2 a day. The Universities of Iowa and Minnesota distribute 
the physical science sound films made at the University of 

Services other than the distribution of visual aids. Some 
state departments offer helpful catalog arrangements. Seventeen 
of the departments issue catalogs of visual aids, but some 
catalogs are more carefully arranged than others. Visual aids 
may be organized alphabetically, or classified as to source or 
subject matter. Other departments offer advisory service in the 
purchase of equipment. 


Handbooks of visual instruction are issued by the following: 
Iowa State College, New York State Visual Instruction Division, 
Ohio State Department of Education, University of Wisconsin, 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and Brigham Young Uni- 
versity (E. C. Dent, Handbook of Visual Instruction.) Class- 
room guides are usually compiled by the producer of the film. 
Glass slides are more often accompanied by teachers' guides 
than are films. 

The department in Pennsylvania distributes monographs. 
New York State distributes lesson units, listing the slides that 
may be borrowed to supplement the teaching. Iowa State 
College issues mimeographs on the various phases of visual 
education, sources, recent developments, and so forth. 

Teacher-training courses are being given by many colleges 
and universities and have been made compulsory for teachers 
in the State of Pennsylvania. 

The article by Abrams, which follows, indicates the type 
of supervision which a State director of visual instruction 
offers to teachers in the schools. 

Abrams, Alfred W. (Former director of the Visual Educa- 
tion Division, New York State Education Dept.) "Admin- 
istration and Supervision of Visual Instruction." New York 
State Education. 19:558-62. March 1932. 

Some practical pointers for supervisors and administrators 
are as follows : 

Use care in the purchase of equipment. Compare various 
types before selecting. See that new school buildings make 
provision for projection equipment, electrical outlets, and so 
on. All equipment in schools should be properly conditioned, 
and teachers should be given adequate instruction in the hand- 
ling of equipment. 

Further suggestions result from a personal visit to numerous 
schools in the state : 

Stand at the screen and depend upon a pupil to operate the 
lantern. To concentrate the attention of the entire class quickly 
upon the feature to be observed, it is frequently advantageous 
for the teacher to point to the screen. Otherwise some of the 
pupils will not see the feature until too late. Furthermore 


there is an advantage in having pupil and teacher face each 

Make an adequate study of the picture before presenting it to 
a class. Be able to recognize the picture when it is projected 
without referring to its title. 

Analyze the picture in an orderly way. A picture cannot 
be seen as a whole. Each feature should be observed separately. 
Usually there is a major center of interest to which subordinate 
features are related. 

Use the picture so as to contribute directly to the development 
of the day's lesson. Do not ask "What does this picture show," 
and do not encourage pupils to report everything they see in the 
picture. Pupils should learn to select what is pertinent to the 
problem under consideration just as they learn to select in their 

Lead pupils to determine from observation what the picture 
represents. Giving pupils verbal information is of less value 
than leading them to observe for themselves. 

Avoid using too many pictures at one time. Otherwise the 
exercise is likely to be only a picture show. 

Use pictures as an early, direct means of instruction, rather 
than at relatively long and irregular intervals for review. 

Make questions specific and require definite answers. 

Expect pupils to give reasons and to draw conclusions, but 
first be certain they have clearly and definitely perceived the 
objective facts represented by the picture. 

Lead pupils to discuss the pictures freely and fully. As 
opportunity is offered, call upon pupils to make simple drawings 
on paper or at the blackboard; for example, let them indicate 
the position of an object or place relative to something else, or 
let them draw an oblique line to show the steepness of the slope 
of a mountain. 

Use the observation and discussion of pictures to motivate 
topical reading and the use of reference books. Have pupils 
make use of the textbook for reference when the lantern exercise 
is in progress. For such work the overhead lights can be turned 
on temporarily. 

Work with pupils in preparing a topical outline of what 
has been learned from a picture or groups of pictures. Make 
the lantern work, so far as possible, a study exercise. 


Abrams, Alfred W. "The Relation of a State Bureau to the 
School Systems." Visual Instruction News. 5 :13. March 

By preparing pictures and directing their use, a state bureau 
of visual instruction may accomplish results that are impossible 
if the selection and use of pictures are left entirely to individual 
schools or to school systems. All slides in the Visual Instruc- 
tion Division of New York are made from state-owned negatives 
selected by high standards for significance, authenticity, truth- 
fulness, and attractiveness. 

When a single state bureau supplies visual aids to the schools 
and educational organizations of the state, the cost is much 
less, in proportion to use, than when the visual aids are owned 
by individual organizations. 

The New York State Division now makes the possession of 
standard classroom equipment lantern, screen, and suitable 
stand a condition of loan in the case of most of the slides it 
furnishes. Teaching notes are furnished. No rental charge is 
made for this service. 

The growing need for cooperation within a state is per- 
ceptible from the Massachusetts report of a cooperative plan 
for the purchase of films and, in a different way, from the 
incorporation of two separate services in the state of Oregon 
into one well-organized center. 

Burt, U. S. (Director of Visual Education, Oregon State Col- 
lege) "Unified Department of Visual Instruction." Educa- 
tional Screen. 12:39. February 1933. 

The visual-education service of Oregon, formerly divided 
between the Oregon State College at Corvallis and the University 
of Oregon, was centralized in 1933 at the Oregon State College. 
All visual-aid material may now be obtained from the single office 
at Corvallis. "A more complete service at less cost to the user 
as well as more economical to the tax payers is possible through 
this combination plan." [The article continues with a detailed 
summary of this service.] 

"Educational Film Library Planned." Educational Screen. 13: 
252. November 1934. 

A cooperative plan for the purchase of films is being con- 
sidered by the Massachusetts schools. The plan was formulated 


by Chester F. Prothero, chairman of the Visual Education 
Committee, Beaver County Day School. 

Each of forty schools is to invest $24, yielding $960 for the 
purchase of teaching films. The films are to be deposited in a 
centrally located office. A total of forty films would allow one 
film to each school each week. A week's period is desirable 
because it permits the use of the film by several classes in the 
school. The membership rate would apply for one year. Subse- 
quent rates would depend upon whether other films were to be 
purchased, or whether only the handling expense for the original 
forty films would have to be covered. 

Fox, F. Wilcken (Secretary, Bureau of Visual Instruction, 
Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah) "A Wide Area 
Visual Instruction Service." Educational Screen. 14:252-4. 
November 1935. 

This article describes the origin and development of the 
visual-instruction service in the privately endowed Brigham 
Young University. Since its inception in 1932-33, the office 
has added to its staff and to its collection and is planning a 
more effective distribution of materials. 

The Bureau has realized the need for good instructional 
films and is attempting to solve the problem in a small way by 
experimenting with original films made on the campus. 

Kooser, H. L. "Visual Instruction Iowa State College." 
Educational Screen. 15 :241-2. October 1936. 

The visual-instruction department of Iowa State College is 
aided in its work throughout the state by a similar department 
in the Extension Division of the University of Iowa, Iowa City. 

A department such as that at Iowa State College has several 
well-defined objectives which may be listed as follows : (1) selec- 
tion and preparation of visual aids; (2) distribution of visual 
aids; (3) maintenance; (4) aid in developing the proper proce- 
dure in using visual aids; (5) preparation of materials incident 
to the established program of visual aids and information on 
projection equipment. 

Those visual aids such as sound and silent motion pictures, 
glass slides, and similar materials which lend themselves to 
physical distribution through a central agency, are included in the 
department library. The splendid quality of 16-mm. educa- 


tional films now available has greatly aided in the process of 
selecting films which may be coordinated with courses of study. 
The department has large collections of glass slides definitely 
related to the curriculum. 

All material is circulated on requests for use at a particular 
time. Nearly all orders are sent direct to the borrower from 
headquarters. Occasionally a subject will be sent from one 
person to another. Although this saves time in transit, it does 
not give the department an opportunity to check the film and 
determine its physical condition. The effort is to arrange the 
schedules so that subjects arrive in advance of the date on which 
they are to be used, so that there will be opportunity to arrange 
for their use 'in the most effective manner. Whenever possible, 
the material is left for a sufficient length of time so the school 
can use it most efficiently. The extension of the booking period 
contributes to more efficient use. 

Guides are available to accompany many of the department's 
better films. These are sent out for the use of the teachers. 
In cases where guides have not been prepared, the department 
has made up some material which will at least give the exhibitor 
an idea in advance of what the films contain. 

The department supplies films to groups other than schools, 
such as garden clubs, individuals, parent-teacher association 
groups, luncheon clubs, and the like. A printed catalog is dis- 
tributed every two years. A mimeographed supplement is 
issued in each intervening year. 

A great deal of film damage can be eliminated by educating 
those who use films to take proper care of them. The depart- 
ment has been carrying on a campaign to develop more careful 
handling of films. 

The department considers it a part of its responsibility to 
train teachers in the classroom use of films. Some of this can 
be done at state and district teachers' meetings. "We also do 
considerable correspondence and have prepared some material 
which we believe is of value. We have not thus far instituted 
courses in visual aids, but we are working toward this gradually. 

"We have many letters asking advice in buying projection 
equipment. We must, of course, be entirely neutral in our replies. 
We always go into the problem carefully, pointing out details of 
each projector, and suggesting that demonstrations be secured." 


The plan described in the article by Noble is a broad 
and most extensive one, under which the state administration 
of visual aids will be made to serve each school in the coun- 
try with maximum efficiency. 

Noble, Lorraine (American Council on Education) "Distri- 
bution An Aid to Visual Aids." Educational Screen. 15 : 
176-7. June 1936. 

There is need for strengthening and coordinating the various 
state and university motion picture distributing services in order 
that all schools may be able to secure films with minimum waste 
of effort. One of the possibilities is to extend film centers to 
reach teacher-training institutions, other state universities, state 
and public libraries with an equitable sharing of responsibility. 

There are three types of educational films which schools 
are called upon to use : first, those that a school should have on 
hand at all times, for reference and daily class work; second, 
those used as "background," and borrowed from time to time 
from a more distant distribution point or from a local film 
library or depository ; and finally, current films that should move 
rapidly through the schools, as for instance, films of special 
interest, current events, holiday films, etc. 

A state distributing center, after securing a motion picture 
would make it known to the various teacher-training institutions 
within that state. Demonstrations and other cooperative service 
might be offered to individual teachers. In a large city school 
system the center for information and advice would be the city 
film library. County units might develop a cooperative scheme 
for purchasing projectors and films. 

Perhaps the greatest advantage to be derived from a net- 
work of educational film distributing units is that the service 
would be of, by, and for the schools, familiar with their needs 
and with immediate entree therein. A state department or 
university would also have financial responsibility throughout 
the field, both for the safekeeping of the films and other aids, 
and for the payment and accounting therefor. A film producer 
should be less reluctant to deposit his films with such a group 
on a percentage basis. 

A program extending the use of films would call for ad- 
ditional personnel, more projectors, films, and the like. N.Y.A. 
assistance might well be used in the high schools and colleges. 


The burden for distribution and expansion of the use of visual 
aids under this plan would be where it properly belongs, among 
the educational organizations of the state. It is not fair to expect 
a commercial organization to carry all of the burden of promo- 
tion of visual aids, teacher-training, demonstration of materials, 
when such commercial organization has so small a market as at 
present exists in this field. 

Government help might assist in working out this plan so 
that it reaches not only the 48 state central depositories, but 
also the 1800 colleges, the 10,000 public libraries and eventually 
the 275,000 schools. Another suggestion is embodied in the 
possibility for three or four over-all regional depositories : one 
in the middle west, one in the south, one in the far west, and one 
on the east coast. 

There is need for a central clearing house, or a supply cor- 
poration operating from a point like New York City, to locate, 
produce, collect and make available appropriate educational 
films to fit the exact needs of the classroom. Such an organiza- 
tion would be representative of all the national educational 
agencies interested in this field, as well as of the commercial and 
professional film distributors and manufacturers of equip- 
ment and other visual aids. 


Plans for a national visual-education enterprise are few. 
The organizations outlined by Cummings, 1923, and Stone, 
1925, are valuable. The motion-picture exchange urged in 
an editorial in the Volta Review shows that the need for 
some national cooperative service is still evident. The 
British Film Institute set-up is outlined to show what can 
be and is being done in one country. 

Cummings, Carlos E. (Buffalo Society of National Science) 
"Suggestions for a National Exchange for Lantern Slides." 
Educational Screen. September 1923. 

A national exchange for lantern slides would have many 
functions. It might, first of all, collect and maintain a library 
of negatives for the preparation of slides. This library service 


would be extended to towns and cities where slides are not 

A national exchange might serve as a laboratory for the 
preparation of slides from negatives and would set up standards 
of technical quality. It would give advice to schools and indi- 
viduals on the purchase of projection apparatus and would 
provide valuable research data for manufacturers of apparatus. 

A national exchange would also serve as a central clearing 
house and bureau of exchange among its subscribers for duplicate 
lantern-slide material. One institution might exchange some 
desirable surplus slides for others contained in the national 
library. The exchange would provide as comprehensive ma- 
terial as possible along educational lines and would include, 
among other subjects, travel, Americanization, science, industry, 
history, art, Bible, and literature. In collaboration with educa- 
tional specialists, uniform educational sets might be prepared 
with a brief explanatory manuscript. 

All materials would be used for purely noncommercial, edu- 
cational purposes. The exchange would offer service to sub- 
scribers only. Such a foundation would have to be endowed, as 
it would not, under these terms, be self-supporting. 

Stone, George E. (Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey, Calif.) 
"Visual Education : A Retrospect, an Analysis and a Solu- 
tion." Educational Screen. 4:329-37. June 1925. 

In a note preceding the article, Stone says that he takes 
visual education as it already exists and makes no attempt to 
evaluate the effectiveness of films as compared with other aids. 
He is interested, rather, in the economics that control the pro- 
duction and distribution of visual aids. He concludes that there 
are fundamental economic limitations to the variety of material 
that commercial organizations can afford to carry in stock, and 
price limitations that prevent these organizations from producing 
the best type of material for scientific purposes. The solution, 
he believes, will be a foundation organized on the nonprofit basis 
that has been so successful with the Field and American History 

Stone has had some very interesting experiences in the 
production of educational films. The article itself should be 
read to appreciate why he arrived at the conclusions just stated. 

Some educational films produced by Stone are : How 
Life Begins (4 reels), Living World (4 reels), Flame of Life 


(1 reel), Food (1 reel), Malaria and Mosquito (2 reels). He 
also reports having made eleven one-reel films of cultural and 
entertainment value using the Prizma process of color photog- 
raphy and color sequences in dramatic productions. 

The plan expressed by Carlos E. Cummings for a national 
lantern-slide exchange inspired Stone's plan for a visual- 
education foundation. The plan follows. 

Organisation. Twenty-five trustees selected for wide cultural 
interest no salary a five-year term. The trustees will appoint 
their successors. There should also be a director, a technical 
staff, and a comptroller. 

Purpose. A depository for negatives of all kinds. The nega- 
tives will be filed by a librarian and stored under proper physical 
conditions. Negatives are to be acquired by gift, purchase, ex- 
change, and production. A psychologist and his department 
will keep in touch with the needs of teachers. [The duties of 
the technical staff are listed.] 

Financial aspect. Income will come from (1) membership, 
(2) gifts and bequests, (3) sale, (4) charges for technical 
assistance and storage. Profits will be used for an endowment 
fund, the purchase of photographs not otherwise available, and 
motion-picture production (the films to be sold at a small profit). 

Stone prophesies that this plan will be realized by 1935. 
To prove the effectiveness of such an organization, he points to 
the American and Field Museums, which accumulate and dis- 
play free to the public a wealth of material. The beauty and 
accuracy of these exhibits would be beyond the reach of any 
corporation depending on admissions alone to pay dividends. 
"No amount of business organization or efficiency of production 
will offset the fundamental economic handicaps which confront 
producers of educational films. . . . The production of films by 
institutions which are not expected to pay dividends, or to justify 
the outlay by advertising value, offers the highest possibility for 
public service through films." 

Good business management, Stone notes, has increased 
the endowments of the Museums. Pensions to employees have 
been established for long and honest service. Collections are 
housed under conditions that will extend their usefulness to the 
utmost and make available to future generations the knowledge 
and culture of the past. 


"Suggestions for a Motion Picture Exchange." Editorial. Volta 
Review. 37:76. February 1935. 

[This editorial was inspired by an article in the same issue 
containing an annotated list of films used in one school. The 
writers hoped the list would be an aid to other teachers who 
seek to use the best films as visual aids. ] 

The editor sees the need for a regular exchange service of 
this type. He suggests an exchange of mimeographed records 
of all films used for a year. Perhaps the Volta Bureau could 
use these records for organization into a single list to be pub- 
lished in time for the beginning of the school year. 

As a result of such a selective list, a library of the best edu- 
cational films, both free and rental, could be assembled and edited 
to fit the needs of the schools more closely (with special reference 
to the deaf). The industries might even finance such revisions. 
A distributing center might buy and adapt the educational films 
and distribute them to member schools, with perhaps a small 
handling charge. 

Conclusions. The motion-picture film is a real short cut 
in education, but a short cut only when enough of the good 
films available are known and fitted into teaching programs. 

The British Film Institute (4 Great Russell Street, London, 
W.C. 1). A descriptive leaflet issued by the Institute. For 
further information apply to the Secretary of the Institute. 

The British Film Institute belongs to the independent type 
of national institute; i.e., it is neither set up nor controlled by 
the State, though its aims and constitution have been approved by 
the Board of Trade. 

Control is vested in the chairman and board of nine governors 
chosen so as to represent equally the producers, renters, and 
exhibitors of films. Educational and cultural interests and the 
interests of the general public are expressed through the voice 
of the membership. 

The general aim is "to encourage the use and development 
of the cinematograph as a means of entertainment and instruc- 

A number of specific aims have already been projected. The 
Institute, for example, is prepared to supply up-to-date informa- 
tion and advice concerning apparatus, supply of films, and 


sources. It publishes a quarterly illustrated magazine for the 
purpose of describing experiments and encouraging discussion. In 
addition, a monthly bulletin of films suitable for educational 
purposes or of unusual merit is issued to all its members. An 
authoritative critical catalog of such films is being compiled. 

The Institute is endeavoring to build up a strong body of 
public opinion in support of films which possess artistic, educa- 
tional, scientific, or cultural value. It encourages investigation 
of the different special uses to which films can be put in the 
various subjects. It plans to build up a film library to prevent 
films of permanent artistic and documentary value from passing 
out of existence. It organizes an annual summer school for the 
purpose of training teachers. It is surveying sources of non- 
theatrical films. 

Dale, Edgar (Bureau of Educational Research, Ohio State 
University, Columbus, Ohio) "A Discussion Concerning the 
Proposed American Film Institute." Educational Screen. 
14:249-52. November 1935. 

The tentative objectives of the proposed American Film 
Institute are as follows : 

1. To develop a national appreciation of the potential con- 
tribution of the motion picture to the cultural life of America. 

2. To collect and distribute significant information concern- 
ing motion pictures in education at home and abroad. 

3. To stimulate the production and use of motion pictures 
for educational purposes. 

4. To promote the cooperation of all agencies interested in 
the production and use of motion pictures in education. 

5. To initiate and promote research pertaining to motion 
pictures and allied visual and auditory aids in education. 

Many educators are of the opinion that motion pictures 
deserve a much more significant and important place in the 
educational scheme. There is, however, no clearing house for 
information concerning the status or use of film in the schools, 
or the needs and difficulties of teachers and principals in develop- 
ing a film program. This information is particularly valuable for 
administrators and to producers of films and projection equip- 

Another important type of assistance that the Film Institute 
might render would be to set up committees of teachers and 


specialists to evaluate films. The Institute would aid in organiz- 
ing the committees and in guiding them. 

One undeveloped activity that is very important is the dis- 
semination of information regarding independent motion pictures 
produced by faculty members of various educational institu- 
tions. Such films, when produced, are not now made available 
to other institutions. The American Film Institute might help 
to organize a circulating system of "amateur," independent, edu- 
cational films. 

The American Film Institute might encourage vital research 
in its own field, e.g., the relative advantages of silent and sound 
films, contributions of motion pictures in various subject-matter 
fields, the use of talking and of silent pictures in adult education, 
research on methodology in the field of visual and sensory aids. 
Courses for teachers in the use of visual aids need to be organized 

The work of the Film Institute will not conflict with any 
movement now under way. It will not produce films. It will 
not censor films. It will not attempt to enter into any of the con- 
flicts in the entertainment field. It will serve only as a coordinat- 
ing and clearing-house center. 

During the past year the program of the American Coun- 
cil on Education with respect to its activities in the field of 
the motion picture in education has been completely reor- 
ganized. At the New Orleans meeting of the Department 
of Visual Instruction Hoban, who is associate in Motion 
Pictures in Education of the American Council on Education, 
summarized the plans and progress of the Educational Motion 
Picture Project to date. This plan has here been briefly 

Hoban, Charles F., Jr. "Services of the American Council on 
Education." Educational Screen. 16:117. April 1937. 

Since its inception in 1935 the Educational Motion Picture 
Project of the American Council on Education has undertaken 
a clearing house function for the wider and more effective use 
of films in the classroom. During the past year activities have 
been concentrated on (1) the development of conferences and 


programs related to the preparation of teachers in the use of 
motion pictures and other modern teaching devices, (2) the 
preparation of materials for publkation, and (3) the initiation 
of studies related to problems of motion pictures in education. 

1. Teacher training program. 

The proceedings from the conference held at the University 
of Wisconsin and that held at Teachers College in 1937 are 
available from the offices of the American Council on Education. 
The conference held at the University of Florida is being re- 
ported by Donald Bean of the University of Chicago Press. 

2. Publication program. 

a) Motion Pictures in Education: A Summary of 
Literature. A Source Book for Teachers and Ad- 
ministrators. Compiled by Edgar Dale, Fannie W. 
Dunn, Charles Hoban, and Etta Schneider. H. W. 
Wilson Co. N.Y. 1937 

b) Motion Pictures in Education: Status and Needs. 
American Council on Education. Washington, D.C. 

c) Teaching with Motion Pictures: Handbook of Ad- 
ministrative Practice. Edgar Dale and Lloyd L. 
Ramseyer. American Council on Education. Wash- 
ington, D.C. 1937 

d) New Approaches to Education Through Materials 
of Instruction. Henry Klonower, chairman, Com- 
mittee on Teacher Training in Motion Pictures in 
Education. American Council on Education. 1937 

e) Status of Audio-Visual Equipment in Schools. Cline 

M. Koon, and members of the American Council on 
Education. U.S. Office of Education. Washington, 

f) National Visual Education Directory. Compiled by 
Cline M. Koon and Allan Noble. American Council 
on Education. 1936 

3. Program of research studies. 

a) Patterns of distribution of educational motion pic- 
tures throughout the United States, with critical 

b) Evaluation procedures which are being employed 
by school districts for the selection and use of edu- 
cational films. An attempt will be made to evaluate 
check lists in order that a standard evaluation form 
may be developed. 


c) Production, distribution, teacher training, and class- 
room procedures with educational films in countries 
of western Europe, such as France, Italy, Germany, 
and England. 







In this section an attempt has been made to provide, in 
so far as literature in the field will permit, an account of the 
use being made by teachers and supervisors of motion pic- 
tures and other visual sensory aids. Some 400 titles were 
carefully examined, of which some were completely rejected, 
some are merely mentioned herein, and a large number have 
been summarized extensively. The basis for selection was the 
contribution of the article to an understanding of some of 
the techniques employed in using these new media of instruc- 

The greatest difficulty encountered in this research was 
the inadequacy of data contained in the articles concerning 
the exact use made of the materials. What usually occurs 
is this : a teacher develops a unit of work in what he or she 
considers to be an outstanding fashion. He writes a paper 
describing the unit, and submits it to an educational journal. 
It is then published as a testimonial of the value of visual 
sensory aids for instruction. Unfortunately, many of the 
articles are brief and sketchy, offering but few concrete sug- 
gestions for a beginner. 

There are certain minima of information which a teacher 
who is planning to use motion pictures would like to obtain 
from reading articles written by his colleagues. Following 
are the basic essentials which are desirable in a report dealing 
with teaching techniques i 1 

What are the objectives of the unit under consideration? 
What is the place of the motion picture in relation to the objec- 
tives of this unit ? 

1 See also "Outline to Guide a Teacher in Writing the Story of a Unit She 
Has Taught." Effie Bathurst. Quarrie Corp. Chicago. 1937. 


What grade level, mental level, or environmental circumstances 

in the lives of these children have caused limitations in their 

experiential background ? 
What are some of the conditions operating before and after 

the use of the motion picture? 
What other types of experience were provided in the unit, and 

what sequence did these follow? 
What was the teacher's past experience in using the motion 

picture ? 
Has the writer attempted to evaluate the motion pictures used in 

this unit in terms of the objectives to be achieved? 
What provisions were made for individualizing instruction? 
What were the reactions of the pupils? 
What leads were furnished for further activities or interests 

by their reactions? 

What technique for using films was found to be most desirable ? 
What were some of the problems encountered in securing or 

using motion pictures ? 
What conclusions has the writer drawn from his use of the 

motion picture as a teaching aid ? 
What suggestions would he make to others ? 
Has the writer been specific in reporting titles, sources, cost, and 

the like? 

Teachers should be urged to submit for publication the 
reports of valuable lessons or units of work with respect to 
the motion picture. In his recent book, How to Use the 
Educational Sound Film, Dr. M. R. Brunstetter makes the 
following statement: 

"The supervisor should encourage the publication, even if only in 
mimeographed form, of outstanding lessons which his teachers have 
developed. Such recognition of professional excellence not only encour- 
ages the creative teacher, but helps to bring others up to a higher level 
of skill, by suggesting film uses and procedures which might not have 
occurred to them." 

One of the major defects in much of the use which 
teachers make of films is the failure to evaluate properly 
either the film used or the use made of it. It is true that 
the interest of the pupils is one form of evaluation, yet it can 
be misleading. Furthermore, informational and factual tests, 
while in themselves important, have the same inherent defects 


in testing films as they have in other fields. In addition, 
unless one has pretested in the beginning, it is difficult to 
determine the number of facts which accrue as a result of 
seeing the film as compared with the ones which they had 
before the film was shown. The absence of critical evalu- 
ation in most of the accounts of the use of visual aids in 
teaching makes it difficult reporting. There is no virtue in 
the use of new means or methods of instruction if learning 
is not thereby improved. Certain it is also that the motion 
pictures available for school use are of exceedingly unequal 
value, and it is important that teachers select as well as 
possible in order to use instruction time most effectively, 
and report the bases of selection to aid the reader in de- 
termining the value of the new procedures. 


The purposes which visual aids serve may be regarded 
formally and pedagogically, or informally as a matter of 
current experience. Whether used in school or encountered 
at home, at the theatre, or elsewhere in the environment, pic- 
tures, sound or silent, motion or still, are for the child a 
means to at least the following ends : 

1. Getting facts, or as a direct source of information. 

2. Developing concepts, or a broader sensory development. 

3. Promoting thought. 

4. Developing attitudes and interests. 

5. Socialization. 

The teacher may reinforce these outcomes by review or 
summary, or evaluate them by testing, and thus an addi- 
tional end served may be stated : 

6. Review, summary, or test. 


Although accounts differ considerably in formality, or in 
descriptive detail, and although the reported procedures ex- 
press widely varying educational philosophies, in many if not 
most, there are certain phases of technique which appear to 
be generally applied: For example, it is more or less agreed 
that a film should be previewed before using; that a teacher 
should present it to the class as a definite tie-in with the work 
under consideration; that there should be some comment by 
teacher and/or pupils during a showing; that there must be 
some form of follow-up; that repetition of the film is desir- 
able only to clarify misconceptions; and that the material 
contained in the film should be summarized, or re-viewed in 
the light of the entire unit being studied. It should here be 
noted that most of the articles deal exclusively with the 
motion picture as visual instruction, though a few include 
other types of visual aids. Consequently most of the dis- 
cussion on technique here will be concerned with the motion 
picture. Where the technique for using a still picture or 
lantern slide applies equally to the use of films, such articles 
have been included. 

It is interesting to note the criticisms and cautions which 
Dransfield made a decade ago and to compare conditions 
which prevail today to determine whether any progress has 
been made in classroom teaching with films. We hope that 
some of the most serious criticisms have already been obliter- 
ated, and that other techniques will be developed with further 
intelligent use. The series of questions which Winchell 
poses in his article might well supplement those presented in 
our introduction. It is significant that he stresses the pupil's 
point of view in selecting motion pictures. In fact, pupils 
are keen judges of what is good for them and what they 
would like to see, growing keener, of course, with age and 
experience. Winchell and Walters 2 illustrate this point in 
their articles. 

2 Page 211. 


Horn and Gramet make the point that an educational 
motion picture is more than the "raw material of instruction" 
to be organized by the teacher. Horn believes that the motion 
picture should be a directive agency in itself, and may pos- 
sibly furnish a better organization for some lessons than 
could a verbal lesson. Gramet believes that a film lesson 
planned and produced in accordance with psychological and 
pedagogical principles will require little, if any, supplementary 
explanation or second showing. 

The suggestions for using pictures in the classroom, made 
by Sexauer, although intended for flat pictures, are equally 
applicable to the motion picture. Teaching procedures for 
using motion pictures as a major and a minor portion of the 
lesson whole, as described by Hollinger, are very suggestive. 
However, it should be noted that an evaluation of the motion 
picture cannot be measured by objective tests which deal with 
factual items alone. Gow points out that the teaching of 
facts, important though that may be, plays a small part in 
real education. The value of the cinema is not measured 
by facts, but by attitudes, awareness, sensitivity to conditions. 
It is not fair to measure these gains by tests for factual 

Unzicker and his committee have devised a chart for 
correlating the technique of teaching with visual aids with 
the elements of the learning process itself. This is an inter- 
esting comparison. The resolutions concerning the tech- 
niques of teaching with films adopted by the International 
Congress of the Teaching and Educational Film are next 
quoted. The execution of these resolutions, especially the 
fourth and fifth, requires teacher preparation and constructive 

Johnson and Calo have summarized effectively the general 
principles underlying teaching with films. 


A propos of the place of visual aids in the curriculum, 
Robertson points out that: 

"The greatest difficulty in the use of visual aids is the personal 
equation. A teacher spends several years training for her profession 
and receives only the rudiments of her art. She has to adjust, amplify, 
and delete to suit different types and nationalities of children. She 
adjusts the pedagogical art as taught in her training school to suit her 
own personality and ability. This should be remembered in using visual 
aids. Their use will strengthen her teaching process and it will im- 
measurably lighten the teaching burden, but it stands to reason that she 
will have to adapt it to her personal pedagogy. If the results at first 
do not come up to her expectations, the use of the aids should not be 
condemned. She should remember her early teaching experiences and 
the necessity she encountered of fitting her pedagogy to herself and her 
pupils. The same procedure followed when adapting visual aids to 
her teaching process will eventually enliven and ease her teaching efforts 
beyond her greatest expectation." 

The reference for this quotation, and other articles 
dealing with a general discussion of technique which have 
not here been summarized, are: 

Robertson, E. D. (Vice-President, Stillfilm Inc.) "Some 
Principles in the Use of Visual Aids." Los Angeles School 
Journal. 14:20-2. June 27, 1931. 

Gramet, Charles A. "Methodology of the Motion Picture 
Lesson." Educational Screen. 15 :304-5. December 1936. 

Reed, Paul C. (Supervisor of Visual and Radio Education, 
Rochester, N.Y.) "An Antidote for Verbalism." N.Y.S. 
Education. 24:139-40. November 1936. 

Hardie, John L. (London) "Classroom Methods." Sight and 
Sound. 5:no.20:154. Winter 1936-37. 

Lampe, Felix (Germany) "Geography Teaching with Films." 
International Review of Educational Cinematography. 4: 
253-62. April 1932. 

"A Note on the Methodology of Teaching by the Film." Inter- 
national Review of Educational Cinematography. 5 :772-5. 
December 1933. 

Gregory, W. M. (Director, Educational Museum, Cleveland) 
"Modern Aids of Experiences in Learning." Eighth Year- 
book. Department of Supervisors and Directors of Instruc- 
tion, N.E.A. 1935:102-3. 

Weber, Joseph J. "A Suggested Methodology for the Use of 
Informational Motion Pictures." Educational Screen. 7:8- 
10. March 1928. 


Hollis, A. P. (DeVry, Inc.) "A Tentative Plan for a Motion 
Picture Lesson." In Motion Pictures for Instruction. 
Chapter VI. p 146-61. 

"Pedagogic Reforms and the Film." International Review of 
Educational Cinematography. 5 :798-9. December 1933. 

Dransfield, J. Edgar. (Principal, School No. 3, West New 
York, NJ.) "Is There a Technique for the Use of Motion 
Pictures in Schools?" Educational Screen. 6:121-2. March 

The motion picture as an educational adjunct has probably 
suffered more than any previous innovation through unskillful 
enthusiasm. It did not develop as an educational factor, but 
as a recreational, theatrical one. After a period of crude, slap- 
stick comedy, someone saw the educational possibility in bringing 
the living world into the schoolroom. The film was then trans- 
planted bodily from the theatre into the school, but it did not 
fit since it was unpedagogical in arrangement and content, and 
it appealed only to the attitude of entertainment. 

Producers of educational films have developed a series of 
films suited to the curriculum. But how are they used? Do 
they arrive at the proper time for application to the particular 
subject being studied, and for the particular topic of that sub- 
ject? Or, do they come on a circuit system regardless of the 
curriculum organization? How are the films selected? Who 
does the selecting? How are they shown? To the particular 
group studying the subject? To the school en masse? In the 
classroom? In the auditorium? What is the attitude of the 
pupils toward them? Entertainment? Interesting side line to 
the regular work? A part of the classroom procedure with a. 
learning attitude and open discussion? 

These offer but a few questions to be answered by the 
educator who is using educational movies in his school. They 
are involved in a technique for the use of motion pictures in 

It is amazing to find how little of technique there seems to 
have developed. In the larger communities where there is an 
established library of films, the schools are on a circuit. A school 
is given a certain day for "movies" and pictures arrive on that 
day. There is no adaptation to the curriculum, to class units, 
or to the learning attitude. The pictures are shown after school 


or at any auditorium period with as large a group as the room 
will seat, participating. Entertainment develops as the sole 
result. Many times the principal or other person in charge 
does not know what picture is coming, has never reviewed it 
and has had little or no choice in the selection of it. If the 
picture of Yellowstone Park comes at the time that the grades 
are studying the industries of New York State the school is 
called to assembly and they see it. 

More often than not, the equipment consists of only a large 
powerful machine in a fireproof booth in the auditorium thereby 
restricting at once the type of work and the quantity of work 
to be done in that unit, requiring expert and licensed operators 
before any work can be done. This alone results in increasing 
costs to such extent that everything but mass work is out of 
the question. 

There seems to be no widespread tendency toward introduc- 
tion of motion pictures in schools. There seems to be a decided 
paucity of authoritative literature in the field. Very few institu- 
tions for teacher training offer courses in a method for the use 
of motion pictures, and the normal schools offer practically no 
training for the classroom teacher-to-be. Is there a technique 
for the use of motion pictures in schools? 

Dransfield, J. Edgar. "A Technique for the Use of Motion 
Pictures in Schools." Educational Screen. 7:165-8. April 

The problems of motion picture use and projection must 
be carefully studied in the light of their availability to the class- 
room teacher. The teacher is often bound to a time schedule, 
too busy to organize materials, untrained in the use of machines. 
Yet administrators do not make provisions for these things 
when they purchase expensive equipment. 

To be educative in the sense that it teaches a specific thing 
as does the textbook, the motion picture must be used in a 
class unit, in the particular subject being taught and at the time 
that it is taught. To show pictures on a circuit basis, when 
they happen to come around, denies to them the value which 
they contain and introduces the entertainment function which 
is deadening to the educative value, except in a purely vicarious 


The projection of slides or films must be reduced to a routine 
arrangement whereby a minimum of time is spent in darkening 
rooms and setting up the machine. A corner of the assembly 
may be marked off with black curtains to permit a class to see 
films in one part and other classes to be studying in other parts 
of it. Most of the films shown in the class require small group 

Films in geography, history, nature study, or science must 
be used as an adjunct to classroom teaching. When shown 
immediately after the study, the facts will be clinched by the 
visual image. 

A desirable procedure for planning the use of films is to 
insert in the schedule for the term the films which would be 
helpful. The principal takes the schedule and attempts to comply 
rather carefully with the requisitions. A film is not shown far 
in advance of the study of the unit it covers, since there is no 
opportunity for intelligent preparation. 

Comment during the film showing is necessary, although 
to a limited degree. This insures that the children will note the 
important points of the lesson. 

Winchell, Lawrence R. (Head, Visual Education Depart- 
ment, Rutgers University) "What the Motion Picture Has 
Accomplished for the Schools." School Executive. 51 :248-9. 
February 1932. 

Criteria for using the motion picture from the pupil's stand- 
point : 

1. Do the pupils look at the film for enjoyment, or is there 
behind this a question for aid in solving their problem? 

2. Do the pupils accept the motion picture at face value, or 
do they make comparisons and weigh value? Do they check 
with textbook statements ? 

3. Are children's reports fragmentary, or do they organize 
their observations into cause and effect, relation to other informa- 
tion, the basis for a problem, or something similar showing 
thought in their answers ? 

4. Do the pupils see visual material of their own, analyze 
it, or evaluate it and offer it in class? Do they do independent 
thinking when such is shown ? 

5. Do the pupils have definite problems in mind, the answer 
to which they expect from the film ? 


6. Does the film material fit the work being done by the 
class ? Is extraneous material shown ? 

7. Are doubtful points explained as the film is shown? 
Are explanations pertinent? 

8. Is follow-up work carefully planned? Does it sum- 
marize what was shown and link it with other class work? 

Criteria for the teacher's evaluation of her procedure: 

1. Have I carefully previewed the film so that I can meet 
any situation that may arise? 

2. Is everything in readiness so that a minimum of time is 
spent between the introduction and the pictures ? 

3. Is the lesson well planned? A stereotyped plan for use 
with every picture will cause the lesson to be a bore rather than 
a pleasure. 

Following are some suggested methods, but the effectiveness 
of use is dependent on the enthusiasm of the teacher and the 
type of material. 

A. Show the picture through without comment. Discussion 
should follow the film and there should be a second showing on 
the following day for clearing up misconceptions. 

B. Show the picture in units to fit topic of discussion. The 
film may be stopped at end of units and discussions carried on. 
Stimulate interest in the lesson before the film showing. 

C. Plan films as an integral part of the course of study, 
but they should not be formal. 

D. Unless the element of motion is necessary, motion pic- 
tures are not necessary. The teacher must discriminate. 

E. It is important that interest be carried further than 
just the initial spurt which dies out soon after. Stories, charts, 
cartoons, pictures and motion pictures are all effective means 
of stimulating interest. The last, because they give life, color, 
atmosphere and personality, and maintain interest for a longer 

F. Though the motion picture has a peculiar niche in the 
wall of visual aids, we must not blind ourselves to the fact that 
it is not always practicable. 

Horn, Aaron. "A Neglected Aspect of the Educational Film/' 
Educational Screen. 6:411-12. November 1927. 

The motion picture has been thought of as "the raw materials 
of instruction otherwise inaccessible to the teacher," but its 
organization into the teaching unit should be left largely to the 


teacher. The chief concern of educators has been the content 
of the film. Is the content acceptable in the course of study? 
Does it correlate with specific classroom work? Can the indi- 
vidual scenes of the picture be organized about a specific lesson 

Although this aspect is important and worthy of consider- 
ation, there is another which has been suppressed. A motion 
picture should furnish more than the raw materials of instruction 
it should furnish as far as it can the organization of the 
lesson as well. 

This makes of the film more than an aid, it is a directive 
agency in itself. This attitude recognizes that the film may 
possibly furnish a better organization for some lessons involving 
old perceptions than could a verbal method. 

This does not mean that with the organization of the film 
into teaching units the teacher will eventually be displaced. As 
long as individual differences among pupils exist, it will remain 
impossible to dispense instruction from celluloid or paper 
without necessary adaptation made by an educated teacher. 

This screen language has arisen as a secondary means of 
expressing thought in a definite symbolism. It does not, nor 
will it ever, challenge the position of verbal language. It is, 
however, an invaluable supplement to it. It has a field of 
expression which, while at present infinitely narrower than that 
of verbal language, overlaps it at many points. It has displayed 
a power to direct the thought processes into channels which are 
almost completely foreign to verbal language. It may possibly 
be able to serve at some points as a check upon the vagaries of 
thought by ''sub-vocal or vocal speech." 

Sexauer, Myrtle (Frick Training School, Pittsburgh, Pa.) 
"Some Uses of Pictures." Educational Screen. 12:58-9. 
February 1933. 

Some uses of pictures are : 

1. A group of carefully chosen pictures may be used for 
orientation or a reconnaissance survey. In such a case there 
would be a fairly large number of pictures. Care should be 
exercised to choose several pictures showing the most important 
kinds of activities and only a few showing the activities of less 
importance; this will help the child place emphasis upon an 


interpretation of the activities that are characteristic of the 
region, rather than lose himself in the details of minor activities. 
The relationships suggested by pictures used in this way should 
be further strengthened by maps, other pictures, and reading. 

2. A motivation lesson based upon an intensive study of 
one or two pictures showing activities that are characteristic of 
a region is an interesting way of introducing a unit. Such 
ideas should likewise be strengthened by maps, statistics, and 

3. Pictures may be used to introduce a new concept, espe- 
cially if the understanding of the concept would involve a 
lengthy word-picture. 

4. Pictures can be used as a problem-raising and problem- 
solving device, and no use of pictures is of greater value than 
this. Intensive picture-study often reveals disconcerting data 
and helps the child raise worthwhile problems. If the child uses 
the suggestions in the picture to help solve the problem he 
raised, he is reading out of a picture suggested relationships of 
man's activities to his natural environment. If he uses another 
picture or another source of information to help solve the 
problem, he is reading into the picture suggested relationships. 
This use of pictures readily trains the child, not only to raise 
good thought questions, but to seek their solution, first in the 
picture itself and then in other sources of information. 

5. Pictures may be used as a check upon information gained 
from maps, graphs or statistics, and reading, or vice versa. 

6. Pictures may be used as a testing device. Tests take 
on a form of definite teaching when pictures are used as a 
source of information, and they change from the dreaded formal 
tests to ones the children enjoy. 

Hollinger, J. A. (Director of Nature Study and Visualiza- 
tion, Pittsburgh, Pa.) "How to Teach with Motion Pic- 
tures." Ohio Schools. ll:ll. January 1933. 

When motion pictures are used in the classroom they should 
be integral parts of lesson plans. A motion picture may afford 
the major part of specific content material, conveying most of 
the information to be presented and stimulating reflective think- 
ing along various lines; or it may occupy a minor position in 
the lesson plan, merely illustrating points that might not be 
made clear to the learner in any other way. Motion pictures 


should not be expected to do all for the learner. Skillful teach- 
ing, with motion pictures as aids, is essential. 

When a motion picture occupies a major position in a teach- 
ing plan the procedure should be somewhat as follows: 

1. In introducing the ideas contained in the picture to pro- 
vide proper mental set or desire to learn, the teacher may, before 
presenting the picture : 

A. Ask a few leading questions 

B. Stimulate some discussion among the pupils 

C. Conduct directed or supervised study 

D. Give a short introductory talk 

1. This may be illustrated by means of 

(a) flat pictures or photographic prints, (b) 
stereographs, (c) lantern slides, (d) charts, 
maps, etc. 

2. Give a pre-test when a motion picture is presented as a 

A. To fix attention upon the important ideas in the 

B. To stimulate a desire to know or to develop skill 

3. Present the motion picture immediately after the pre-test 
(A reel of 35mm. or 16mm. film requires from twelve to fifteen 
minutes for presentation.) 

4. Follow immediately the presentation of the picture with 
a test to determine how much has been learned. This test 
should be the same as the pre-test. 

5. Compare pupils' individual scores made on the pre-test 
with those made on the follow-up test. 

A. Determine from those scores what ideas need further 
emphasis by : 

1. Repeating parts of the picture as needed 

2. Definite reading assignment or other research 

3. Class discussion (socialized procedure) 

4. Questions and answers 

6. Reorganize ideas in review 

A. Pupils' reports 

B. Teacher's comments 

C. Pupils' statements of their own conclusions 

D. Notebooks 

7. Final test (mastery test) 


When the motion picture occupies a minor position in the 
development of a learning unit it may be presented either in 
parts or as a whole. 

1. Only that part of the picture should be used at a given 
time which illustrates the particular points under consideration. 
This may be 20 feet, 50 feet, 100 feet, more or less. For 
review, show the whole film. 

2. The entire picture may be presented as a preview at the 
proper time in a development plan. 

A. When used in this way the teacher should be careful 
to avoid listless, passive reception by pupils. 

1. There should be intellectually active attitudes. 

2. Pupils should be held responsible for ideas pre- 
sented by the motion picture and for reflective 
thinking stimulated by it. 

Gow, Ronald (Altrincham, England) "The Educational 
Use of the Cinematograph." Educational Screen. 6:71-3. 
February 1927. 
The value of the cinema is limited, but this value is so 

high that it justifies the purchase and acquisition by each modern 

school of films and equipment. 

Tests and results: There is no lack of statistical evidence 
that lessons taught with the aid of the cinema are superior in 
result to those without, but there is a tendency in these tests 
to ignore the real function of the cinema. Examinations and the 
allotting of marks seem the only way we have devised for 
testing the results of teaching and the scientific investigator must 
concern himself with facts assimilated and properly reproduced 
in order to estimate the value of any particular method. If, 
however, the method under examination is not designed for, 
or unsuited to the teaching of facts, to apply the usual tests is 
obviously unscientific. 

Moreover, the teaching of facts, important though it may 
be for the purposes of examination, plays a small part in real 
education. It is unfair to claim a certain value for the cinema 
and to justify it by testing a completely different value. 


Unzicker, S. P. (Chairman, Visual Education Committee, 
Wisconsin Education Association) "Classroom Technique in 
the Use of Visual Aids." In Visual Education. Wisconsin 
Education Association. November 1935. Chapter V. p. 19-25. 

After carefully selecting the appropriate visual aids that cor- 
relate with the regular classroom work, it is necessary for the 
teacher to preview the visual aids and plan the method of 

The preview of visual materials will reveal specific details 
and indicate changes that should be made in the lesson plan. 
Such changes may be any one or more of the following: 

1. Furnish additional information to enable the pupils to 
make the connections and see the relationships between the 
illustration and previous teaching. 

2. Develop an introduction to the visual aids. 

3. Devise intermittent or running comment. 

4. Select or eliminate definite parts or details of the visual 
aids if such changes will provide better learning conditions. 


(These relations are reciprocal, interacting on each other) 
Visual Aids Technique Elements in Learning Process 

Selecting visual aids Kinds of impulses 

Intensity of impressions 
Readiness (stage of development) 

Preparations for use of Intensity of ) Forceful launching 
visual aids impressions ) Interest factors 

) Mind set 

Readiness ) Continuity of 

(pupil) ) impressions 

Use of visual aids in Connecting the new with the old 
teaching Strengthening previous impressions 

Interaction and correlation of ideas (pupil 


Pupil expression (discussions, quizzes, proj- 

"Resolutions Adopted by the International Congress of the 
Teaching and Educational Film. First Commission, 
Methodology of Instructional Films." International Review 
of Educational Cinematography. 6:335. May 1934. 

As to the methods to be used for school films, the Congress 
states : 


1. That the use of the cinema should not interfere with 
the educational influence of the teacher, nor with the effect of 
his words. It is he who should put the questions, explain, 
comment, inspire and direct the activity and the response of 
the pupils. 

2. That consequently the teaching film should not be sound 
or talking, but a silent film in which the commentary is made 
by the teacher except where the sound or talking film may 
usefully complete and strengthen the visual impression. 

3. That the use of the film should not induce a passive 
absorption of rapidly succeeding scenes, but that it should be 
used to stimulate the activity of the child in every kind of 
scholastic work. 

4. That during the projection of the school film the teacher 
should have the opportunity of intervening, in order to illustrate 
points which require special explanation and that he should take 
into account the fact that lantern slides are very often very 
useful, either by themselves or together with motion pictures. 

5. That the subjects to be used for school films should be 
part of an organized didactic plan, which has been previously 
studied by pedagogues and approved by the school authorities 
in accordance with the school curriculum and which may be 
modified according to new possibilities which the use of the 
film presents. 

Johnson, Robert S. (Acting Executive Secretary, Depart- 
ment of Visual Instruction, University of California, 
Berkeley) "Use of Film in Education." Sierra Educational 
News. 29:41-2. March 1933. 

There are two places in the school where motion pictures 
can be used to advantage. These are the auditorium and the 
classroom. Each place requires its peculiar type of film and 
peculiar method of presentation. 

1. The film as a teaching aid in the classroom: 
The film must be regarded as an aid to, not as a substitute 
for verbal instruction. Far from relieving the teacher, it re- 
quires more planning and more ingenuity than if the class were 
conducted without it. 

A. The motion picture must be selected to aid in solving 
a particular problem. 


A film is used incorrectly in a classroom when 
it is shown merely because it is related vaguely to the 
general course. 

The use of a film because it may be obtained free 
of rental charge is false economy, when its applica- 
tion to the curriculum is indirect. 

A film which might be valuable in one class might 
waste time if shown in another class in the same 
school. The presence of a film in the school should 
not influence other teachers to use it when not needed. 

B. The peculiar nature of the motion picture assigns 
to it a particular function as a visual aid. 

The film is used best either to introduce or to 
summarize a problem requiring from several days to 
several weeks of study. Sometimes it may be used 
effectively both at the beginning and end of the study 
of a certain problem. 

C. The showing of the film must be timed accurately. 

To show a film a few days earlier or later than 
its proper time in solving the problem destroys much 
of its value. When administrative procedure requires 
a change in date for showing the film, the lesson 
plan must be altered so that the films may be used 
profitably at the available times, or they should be 
eliminated completely. 

D. The film and verbal instruction must be integrated. 

Teachers' manuals which accompany films should 
be carefully studied by the classroom teacher well 
in advance of the film showing. 

E. Special effort must be made to fix in the memories 
of the students the material presented by the film. 

The film so rapidly presents a great amount of 
material that the memory must be given assistance. 
It may often be found advantageous to stop the film 
several times while projecting. Discussion, quizzes, 
and themes are several devices which may be used 
to aid the students to retain the knowledge presented. 

2. The film as educational or cultural entertainment in the 
auditorium : 

A. A well-balanced schedule should be made for such 

B. These programs should be as timely as possible, 
especially with respect to holiday programs. 


C. Subjects for programs should be grouped and the 
programs follow each other as orderly as possible. 
Hit-or-miss ordering should be avoided. 

D. In general, industrial films make poor auditorium 

E. All teachers should be given in advance a schedule of 
auditorium programs. Classroom work should be 
related to these programs wherever possible. 

Calo, Giovanni (Professor of Pedagogy, University of 
Florence) "Cinema and Teaching Methods." International 
Review of Educational Cinematography. 6 :353-8. May 1934. 

The greatest criticism of the motion picture from the point of 
view of method is that the use of luminous projections in 
schools constitutes in certain respects an improvement of the 
purely intuitive method, rather than the active method which 
is now in the ascendant in didactics and the contemporary 
school. This does not imply that films have nothing in common 
with the active method, but the interest and curiosity which may 
be aroused through the projected image is active in a wide sense. 
But, where it is possible to see everything, then there is less 
field left and less impulse is available to stir the fancy and 
allow it to have a free form of expression. 

What is undoubtedly true in every sense and in all circum- 
stances is that the motion picture, especially if it becomes an 
end in itself, when it is not subordinated and enclosed, so to 
speak, in a teaching method which exists outside of it, and does 
not allow it to act alone on the child's spirit, inevitably tends 
to draw with it in a kind of fascination the child's interest, 
leaving it much less capacity for personal examination, control, 
self-criticism and various mental elaborations in a much greater 
degree than the lantern slide. What is especially excluded by the 
very nature of luminous projection, is the child's initiative, its 
oral capacity for work, its tactile and muscular experience of 
the object, its possibilities for "doing it," modifying it and 
making use of it. It is this which constitutes the essence of 
the active method, especially in the lower teaching grades, and 
to a certain extent and in certain forms and subjects, also in 
the higher grades. 


Practical Suggestions for Using Films 

1. Luminous projections should not be used in schools for 
those objects which can be adequately observed in 

2. Preference should be given to a graphic or plastic repre- 
sentation of the objects taught, unless there is some 
real distinct advantage to be gained in showing the 
particular reality in movement, or unless it be deemed 
advisable to obtain with fixed projection special effects 
for understanding. 

3. The use of both lantern slides and motion pictures ought 
to be much restricted in elementary schools, and increas- 
ingly employed in the higher grades. Documentary 
films in the wide meaning of the term, and pictures 
having a recreational-educational scope could be used 
with a certain frequency and periodicity even in elemen- 
tary classes and in pre-scholastic institutions. 

4. In general, the use of the luminous image as a visual 
aid ought not to be too frequent if only to prevent the 
pupils' acquiring harmful mental habits and submitting 
to hygienic disadvantages. The film should not be 
shown for long on each occasion of a projection, in 
order that it may not interfere with the teacher's regular 
teaching and risk causing a confusion of the real aims 
of instruction. 

5. The teacher's word should always set forth the problem 
which may later be illustrated by the film giving the 
pupil cognitions and ideas beyond those immediately 
before his eyes. Sub-titles, explanatory comment, and 
printed matter should not be used with children. 

6. The use of lantern slides should be considered preferable 
to motion pictures as an educational means for increas- 
ing the child's powers of observation. 

7. The teacher ought to regulate the rhythm in motion 
picture projections, and be able to repeat certain parts, 
stop the projector and insert slides between the running 
off of the film, so that the best possible advantage may 
be taken of the visual instruction. 

8. Teaching films should always be produced with the 
collaboration of pedagogues, according to the educational 
purpose they are intended to serve. 

9. Better than complete darkness is provision for a small 
illuminated zone near each pupil to enable him to take 
notes or read. 


10. It is necessary to obtain with all possible means the 
active collaboration of the child and draw its active 
attention to objects thrown on the screen, such as graphs, 
models, etc. 

11. The pupil ought always to be invited to make a verbal or 
written reconstruction of what he has seen after the 

At a recent meeting of the Department of Visual Instruc- 
tion, Moore made some very worth-while suggestions with 
respect to the art of questioning students after showing a 
film or slide. He stresses the technique of "thought question- 
ing" and suggests certain types into which such questions 
might be classified. 

Moore, H. K. (Thomas A. Edison High School, Cleveland, 
Ohio) "Test Questions of the Thought' Type in Visual 
Education." Educational Screen. 16:113-14. April 1937. 

Following are some suggestions for formulating questions 
to be used with pictures to produce thought instead of teaching 
facts. This classification is not systematic, but is an expedient: 

1. Organization of material. This involves questions which 
develop the ability to exclude the irrelevant and to select just 
those things necessary for answering the question. 

2. Meeting of situations. The solution of a problem re- 
quires an examination of the situation in which one finds him- 
self, the calling up of various possible solutions, the testing of 
these solutions, and finally their verification. Strictly speaking, 
this classification includes all the others but here it will be 
restricted to problems of the 'if type, such as: "If you lived 
in New England in 1630 and wanted some fuel to keep you 
warm, what would you do?" The student would select the 
answer from one of the following: phone for a ton of coal, light 
the gas, chop some wood, use an electric stove, or light the oil 
stove. This question would be based on the motion picture of 
life of the Puritans. 

3. Comparisons. Thought is required when one compares 
the things seen in the film with knowledge he already has, or 
when data from two or more films are considered together. A 
question of the type, "Which of the following employments 


usually offers the greatest independence? miner, farmer, factory 
worker, cotton picker, engineman," would suggest thinking by 

4. Applications. These include questions which involve the 
personal or civic application of data, such as 

Which one of these do you think best describes the Columbus 
of the film you saw? wavering, perseverant, pleasant, cautious, 

The distinction is made between thought and memory ques- 
tions as follows: 

1 . We think with things that we have remembered ; facts 
are the material of reasoning. 

2. Thought problems studied by a class may become memory 
questions on a test. 

3. All "why" questions are not thought questions ; some 
"what" questions are of the thought type. 

4. A question might require considerable reasoning for 
one pupil, and mere recall for another. 

5. A question might require thought in grade seven, and 
mere memory in grade eight. 

Some criteria for selecting thought questions are: 

1. The question should be worth thinking about. The 
teacher should examine each question and then ask himself: 
"So what?" or "What of it?" 

2. Definite application to the pupil's own problems or to 
community problems should be made whenever possible. 

3. The original selection of material for study is important. 
It is easier to find thought questions in live material than to 
strain at promoting useful thought about useless data. The 
question, "So what?" might be asked of the material itself. 3 

4. Those who are successful in solving their own problems 
are more likely to be helpful in leading others to think. 

5. Visual education material is more than just another way 
of stuffing a pupil with information; it is more than a supple- 
ment to other sources of subject content; it can be a stimulus to 

By way of summary, then, the combined judgment of the 
writers represented in the preceding pages includes the follow- 
ing suggestions for using films in school : 

3 This leads to a consideration of criteria for selecting materials, for which see 
Part Three. 


A. With respect to selection and the purposes to be served: 

1. The teacher must have a clear idea of the contribu- 
tion of the film in relation to the unit as a whole. 

2. There must be provision for previewing by the teacher. 
A teacher's guide is no substitute for the preview, but 
should be used as an aid in planning the film lesson. 

3. Films are very effective as an orientation of a unit, since 
they contain the concrete ideas basic to any organized 
thinking or reflection. 

4. Projected pictures should be used only when recourse 
to the actual object or identical experience is im- 

5. Teachers should use visual materials in accordance with 
their philosophy of education. 

6. Sound in motion pictures should only be used when it 
is necessary to the concept to be conveyed. Inter- 
polated music is often unnecessary. 

7. Teachers should have an established set of criteria from 
which to select films and other materials. 

8. The use of visual sensory aids need not wait upon the 
expenditure of much money, if any. By developing 
keen powers of observation in the pupils many experi- 
ences may be gained at little cost. 

9. The use of visual aids is not an isolated teaching method. 

B. With respect to methodology : 

1. Pictures are not a substitute for language, and verbal 
expression should be encouraged wherever possible. 

2. Picture lessons should be followed by activities of various 
types, such as reading, manual activity, sketching, writ- 
ing, dramatization, and so on. If a film is worth show- 
ing at all, it is worth following up. 

3. The routine of presenting a film should be such as to 
eliminate completely any distractions. 

4. Comments during the showing of a film will vary greatly 
depending on the film, on the class, and on the objectives 
to be achieved. 

5. The teacher should express verbally to her pupils the 
purpose of the film showing. 

6. Films may be shown in their entirety or in part, depend- 
ing upon the objectives of the lesson, and upon the pupils' 

7. The teacher should vary his technique in using visual 
materials, and avoid routine procedure. 


8. The questions presented in the informal discussion 
period following a film showing should be as concrete 
and as pertinent as possible. 

C. With respect to the preparation of the teacher: 

1. Teachers desiring to improve their technique in using 
visual aids must be willing to give serious thought and 
ample time to planning, evaluating, and reporting their 

2. It is very desirable for teachers to undertake the pro- 
duction of a simple educational film which will conform 
to accepted psychological and pedagogical standards. 
Such an activity will better enable teachers to evaluate 
existing films, and to clarify their own criteria for 
selecting educational films . 


In this section the digests have been arranged according 
to the subject in which the material was developed. Where 
reference was made to other subjects or levels of instruction, 
these have been mentioned in the index. Although an at- 
tempt has been made to be as specific as possible further 
analysis is difficult, for, as has already been pointed out, the 
articles are often lacking in specifics. 

In reading the following summaries of lesson units, it 
would be well to bear in mind the extent to which the writer 
has answered the questions listed in the introduction. 4 

From these articles it may be deduced that visual mate- 
rials may be used in practically every subject of the cur- 
riculum; that with intelligent use they are suitable for a 
progressive, activity type of school, as well as for the formal 
type of curriculum; that teachers are convinced of the value 
of using visual materials, but that the best procedure is still 
to be determined by experimentation. 

The most practical type of guidance with respect to the 
use of motion pictures on various grade levels and in many 

4 Pages 111-12. 


fields of learning is provided in the new book by Brunstetter. 
It is hoped that this book will be made available to every 
teacher seriously interested in improving his teaching tech- 
nique with motion pictures. For this reason, the summary 
of the book which is given here is very brief, merely indicat- 
ing the areas in which illustrations are provided. 

Comments by classroom teachers regarding the value of 
films are found in the summaries which follow. The Visual 
Education Committee of the New York State Association of 
Elementary Principals has listed some of the comments made 
by teachers in that state. The Bulletin containing these com- 
ments should similarly be in the possession of supervisors 
and teachers. 

The Willey article summarizes the results of an investiga- 
tion in which the teachers of the University of Denver Train- 
ing School cooperated with their principal to determine the 
value of the silent film as a teaching aid. An examination 
of the judgments of these classroom teachers will reveal 
many significant points of view which were developed after 
careful deliberation and practice. The active participation of 
the pupils in many of the lessons gives further testimony of 
the intelligent way in which these teachers organized the use 
of motion pictures to fit the curriculum of a modern school. 

Teachers in the primary and non-reading grades have 
expressed the need for guidance in using motion pictures 
for their children. The digests of articles by Brerault, Eads, 
Keliher, Cook, the Pittsburgh, Pa. Handbook, Lampe, and 
Rowland will furnish concrete suggestions for using motion 
pictures on that level of instruction. 

Poole reports her findings from an investigation in a 
school in Akron, Ohio to determine the effectiveness of vari- 
ous teaching techniques with silent films. Her conclusions 
are interesting. 

Dorris applies the use of motion pictures to her phi- 
losophy that no subject should be taught in any grade as a 


thing apart, but rather as a contributing factor of the great 
mass of valuable knowledge which tends to enlighten and 
enrich life. 

The use of Eastman Teaching Films in primary and 
elementary nature study, social science, elementary geog- 
raphy, reading, health, and history has been interestingly 
described in a report by Baumeister. The reader is referred 
to the original article. 

Emery makes the point, which a few other writers have 
stated in one connection or another, that certain motion pic- 
tures lend themselves admirably to "sensitizing" pupils to 
conditions prevailing in various life situations. After show- 
ing industrial films, such as Through Oil Lands of Europe 
and Africa, Hunting Big Game zvith a Camera, and others, 
the author concludes that these films were successful in im- 
parting attitudes and social values which cannot be measured 
by objective tests. It is this intangible influence of the motion 
picture which research workers have so far neglected. He 
considers this a most important aspect, and one which 
teachers should emphasize to a larger extent. 

The article by Dieffenbach describes how he has made the 
use of motion pictures in his school a socially significant 
activity for interested pupils. 

In conclusion, the point might be made that teachers will 
develop effective techniques for using new materials of in- 
struction only insofar as constructive supervision and guid- 
ance is provided by the administration. Yet administrators 
will make provision for supervision only insofar as teachers 
express interest. It is obvious that pressure must come 
simultaneously from both ends to achieve maximum efficiency 
from the educational motion picture. 

Brunstetter, M. R. (Teachers College, Columbia University, 
N.Y.) How to Use the Educational Sound Film. University 
of Chicago Press. 1937. 174p. 
This book is based on studies made since 1935 in school 

systems and schools of varying size, so selected as to furnish 


a cross-section of the educational field, and where an extended 
experimental program was set up to discover effective teaching 
and administrative procedures of an audio-visual program. 

The chapter on "Teaching Purposes for Which the Sound 
Film May Be Used" contains the following suggestions: 

1. Teacher preparation for the use of the sound film. 

The skillful teacher should consider the following points 
when preparing to use sound films: 

A. What are the objectives of the unit? 

B. Which sound films will be most helpful in achieving 
these purposes? 

C. How well do I know this particular film ? 

D. What supplementary printed materials are available 
to help me in its use ? 

E. At what point in the unit shall I introduce the film ? 

F. What do I expect it to accomplish at that point? 

G. What activities and projects might be started as an 
outgrowth of the first showing? 

H. How many times shall I use the film, and for what 
purposes ? 

2. Some of the purposes for which the sound film may 
be used are: 

A. To provide a basis for reading material 

B. To aid in spelling and language work 

C. To stimulate interest in art work 

D. To add to our "store of information" 

E. To stimulate group feeling and cooperation 

F. To develop further the reference habit 

G. To serve as a basis for arithmetic 

3. The place of the sound film in the unit of instruction: 

A. To initiate a unit of instruction 

B. To present the facts and concepts of a unit of instruc- 

C. To enrich or extend a unit 

D. To provide a rapid survey or general background 

E. To summarize or review 

F. For club programs and special projects 

G. For assembly programs 

H. For teacher-training projects 

I. For parent-teacher and other community group meet- 


In the third chapter, "Techniques of Teaching with Sound 
Films," case studies are cited to illustrate the following prob- 

1. Frequency of showing a film. 

2. How to introduce a film in the day's lesson to avoid 
excessive motivation. 

3. How to adapt a film to the current interests and capacities 
of a class. 

4. Varying techniques for manipulating the film showing. 

5. Some techniques for following up the film showing. 

An analysis of the ways in which sound films were used 
under many conditions reveals the following shortcomings in 
technique : 

Faulty procedure in film lessons, in general, may be at- 
tributed to poor administrative procedures, or to a lack of 
familiarity with the medium on the part of the teacher. 

1. Where direct teaching through the use of the film is to 
take place, it is probably unwise to show more than one or two 

2. It is undesirable as well to use a group of more or less 
unrelated films at one sitting. 

3. Showing of a film at the improper psychological moment 
is another poor teaching technique. 

4. A single showing of a film where repeated showings are 
needed is poor teaching technique. 

5. Too great dependence upon the teachers' manual 
accompanying the film may lead to a very formal and uninterest- 
ing lesson. 

6. Some teachers fail to introduce the picture in its proper 

7. Limiting the use of a film to a single occasion during the 
lesson or unit is another shortcoming. 

8. Poor selection of a picture for the lesson or unit is 

9. Aimless discussion is carried on after the film showing. 

Committee on Educational Progress, Visual Aids Division. 

Visual Aids in the Schools : A Report of Present Uses and 
Suggestions for Improvement. New York State Association 
of Elementary Principals. Bulletin IV. December 1935. 

Following are some of the comments made by teachers to 
the committee with respect to the use being made of motion 
pictures in the classroom: 


1. It makes geographical facts come to life. While showing 
the film, I make comments as is necessary. After the film is 
shown the children are questioned about it to determine what 
new information is gained and to review facts with which they 
should already be acquainted. In addition to this, I use the 
film as a basis for oral and written English. It gives the children 
something to tell about. It forms a good topic to use in writing a 
friendly letter. 

2. Children cannot fully appreciate the study of foreign 
people and conditions by facts that are given in textbooks alone. 
The 16mm. silent picture is an excellent means of presenting 
information, and of great value in forming correct mental con- 
cepts in the minds of the pupils. These films arouse thinking 
on the part of the child. 

3. Films function very effectively as an introduction to a 
new topic which is not within the experience of the child, as 
it stimulates interest in this new field of work. 

4. Films develop the powers of observation on the part 
of the pupils and make them eager to produce or recreate their 

5. The film is most helpful in all kinds of geography, health 
and nature instruction. 

6. Our project was Japan. Several reading lessons were 
given first, in which necessary vocabulary was developed and 
associated with pictures of the text. At this time, children 
decided to work out a Japanese village on the sand table. Here 
I used a film dealing with Japanese life. I allowed the children 
to view the entire film without comment. The following day they 
viewed it again after having made an outline of the points to 
look for which would help them in their plans. 

7. We use films to introduce the study of transportation. 

8. Films are shown whenever I feel that the child needs 
something my words or still pictures cannot give him, for 
instance, when studying the mining of coal and its uses by man, 
when discussing the interdependence of the world today, when 
trying to develop world-mindedness among the children who 
might otherwise think the customs and costumes of other peoples 

9. I live in a section of the state which is far removed from 
the ocean. Many of the children who are studying geography 
and history have never seen the ocean, the ships that sail it, 
or the beating of the surf. Motion pictures shown with a pro- 
jector borrowed from a local man of prominence helped the 
children in a way that only a person teaching in a situation 
similar to mine can understand. 


10. My children, who have been working on a clothing unit, 
have used many films dealing with the evolution from seed to 
cloth of many plants from which the raw materials are obtained. 

11. We have been studying the foods and foodstuffs of the 
nations of the world. Living as we do in an agricultural com- 
munity, this unit has been of great interest to the children. 
Motion pictures showing the raising of foodstuffs with which 
they were unacquainted and their processing provided an eye- 
opener to these children. 

12. The Yale Chronicles of America Motion Pictures Series 
has given us an understanding of the life and activities of the 
men who founded, fought for, and developed our country that 
no other medium has been able to provide. 

13. Before we write a historical play as a group unit we 
review as many motion pictures dealing with the period as we can 
obtain. These we examine in the light of our research of a 
reading and still picture nature. Discussions are frequent, as 
points of disagreement as to events, customs, or other facts are 
found. I use these disagreements to bring out the differences 
between primary and secondary sources. Then we do our best 
to determine the truth of the matter. A critical, analytical atti- 
tude has resulted, as well as a habit of suspending judgment until 
all evidence is in. 

Willey, Gilbert S. (Professor of Education, Principal of 
Training School, University of Denver) The Silent Film As 
a Teaching Aid. Akin and Bagshaw, Inc. Denver, Colorado. 
1935. 21p. 

This project was carried on at the University of Denver 
Elementary Training School to determine some values of the 
silent film as a teaching aid. The school consists of eight 
regular teachers who serve as critic teachers, twenty-five student 
teachers, and nearly three hundred elementary pupils from 
kindergarten through sixth grade. A total of 75 reels of edu- 
cational films was used by the teaching staff during the four- 
month period ending May 31, 1934. At the beginning of each 
month a committee of two or three teachers selected the films 
to be used during each of the following four weeks. Available 
films were studied carefully and films were chosen which 
appeared to correlate closely with the phases of subject matter 
to be presented in the classrooms. The films were shown in a 
room fully equipped for showing films. The schedule was de- 
signed to give the children of each room opportunity to see at 


least one film per week. Frequently the same children saw 
two or three films per week, depending upon the number of 
available films correlating with the course of study. At times 
children of two or three rooms came together to see films of 
general interest, such as Mount Vernon, or Abraham Lincoln. 

No attempt was made to make a scientific experiment of the 
project, nor were tests given to check on results. The purpose 
of the project was to attempt to discover the various problems 
involved in the effective use of films in the classroom, and con- 
sequently teachers' judgments and reports were considered satis- 
factory evidence. During the progress of the project, the 
teachers kept notes on pupil reactions, and on various film 
techniques which resulted in improved pupil responses. 

Several faculty meeting discussions were centered around 
techniques for effective use of the classroom film. These were 
in the main an exchange of experiences on the part of the 
staff members in the use of films. 

At the close of the four-month period, each teacher was 
asked to give her opinion of the film as a teaching aid under the 
following five heads: (1) types of films found to be most 
helpful; (2) how films may be used effectively to supplement 
classroom teaching; (3) effective classroom techniques; (4) 
values derived from the use of films; and (5) limitation of 
films for effective classroom use. 

The teachers used motion pictures effectively to supplement 
classroom teaching in several ways: to terminate a study, to 
introduce a new study, to follow a class discussion, to precede 
a class discussion and thus furnish an enriched background, 
as a quick means of review, as a graphic portrayal to reinforce 
knowledge and understandings already gained. 

The following statements were made concerning effective 
teaching techniques in the use of motion pictures: 

1. The teacher must be thoroughly familiar with the film 
before permitting the pupils to see it. 

2. The teacher should discuss with children in advance the 
points to be looked for. 

3. When possible, children should be prepared for the film 
through discussions, stories, or still pictures. 

4. The subject matter in films should correlate with the 
classroom work, and films should be shown only as the need 


5. As the film is shown, points of importance may be 
stressed by the teacher. This depends somewhat upon the type 
of film. It is possible for certain pupils to make a "preview" 
of the film, and make comments as the class views it. 

6. Certain films, given for purposes of appreciation, should 
be run without comment. In cases of this kind, pupils must be 
carefully prepared for the film. The technique is similar to 
that of the appreciation lesson in art or music. 

7. With some films it is profitable to stop the machine at 
certain places for discussion, and then go back over parts of it 
to observe points missed by a majority of the class. 

8. With most films it is profitable to have discussions im- 
mediately following the showing, or within the near future. 
Frequently these discussions call for a re-showing of the film 
to "clinch" certain understandings. 

9. Children should be held responsible for information 
gained through the film. This eliminates the idea that motion 
pictures are for entertainment only, and gives the pupils a better 
attitude toward the film as an educative agency. 

10. Pupils should not be shown films too frequently or for 
too long a period. If properly prepared, pupils are at a com- 
paratively high state of concentration while viewing a film, and 
fatigue will cause a waning of interest within a relatively short 

Some of the ways in which motion pictures were correlated 
with classroom work in various subjects and in many grades are 
briefly summarized as follows: 

1. Beavers. The teacher used the story of beavers from 
a book on forest friends. The children related their experiences 
and also gave information which they had relative to the beaver. 
The teacher read to them the story. She then introduced the 
film, Beavers and asked them to look for those things they 
knew, and to be ready to point out the new things they found 
out. A conversation followed (not directly) the showing of the 
film. Much interest was manifested throughout. 

2. Story of Milk. The teacher reminded the children of 
their study about food in 4B. She told them that they would 
get to see a film about milk one of their most important foods. 
Teacher evaluation states that such a film be used with other 
films on the same subject, since it only deals with the use of 
milk as a food. 


3. Events in the Life of Lincoln. Children were asked to 
see in the film on Lincoln's life those things which they had 
read about and seen in programs for Lincoln's birthday. The 
motion picture used was criticized by the teacher for not having 
enough of Lincoln's childhood in it, and not enough of his 
acts of kindness. 

4. Washington. The showing of the film followed con- 
versation, stories, and use of pictures in the classroom. Many 
of the places where Washington spent his boyhood, as shown in 
the film, may be visited today. This film was also found wanting 
in scenes of the early life of Washington. 

5. Some Friendly Birds. This film was used to show how 
birds build nests in the spring, and how they care for their young. 

6. Children of Other Lands. Films used relating directly 
to the social science subject matter of these lands were: Houses 
of the Arctic, Wanderers of the Arabian Desert, The Nether- 
lands, Houses of the Tropics, and The Little Wood Carver. The 
children's attention was directed to the particular points of 
interest, to especially appropriate action, to significant scenes or 
backgrounds. Frequently the teacher listed four or five questions 
on the board which the film would answer. 

During the showing, the films were frequently stopped in 
order to direct attention to a significant point, or to provide 
opportunity for discussion. The films were discussed freely 
in the home classroom. For instance, after seeing the film 
on the houses of the Arctic one pupil asked, "But after those 
dreadful storms, how do they push open the ice doors when the 
snow has banked up all against them ?" 

This led to discussion, further reading, and a re-showing 
of the film for a possible answer. The children are not asked 
to write reports of the film. I think that knowing that an expres- 
sion has to be written interferes with the child's spontaneous 
and whole-hearted entering into it for the sheer interest in the 
activity itself. 

In studying Indian life, we found these films helpful: Na- 
vajo Indian Life, Little Indian Weaver, The Indian Village 
at the Century of Progress, and Santa Fe. Such comments as 
these from the children followed the showings. 

"I've read and read about looms, but I never have understood before 
how a real one looks." 

"I was interested in the clothes. Even when they wore modern 
clothes they always had something Indian mixed with them." 

"I'd like to see that picture a few more times and then maybe I'd 
understand how they weave the design in." 


7. Cotton. The film, Cotton: Dixie's Great Crop helped 
to make more vivid the processes of soil preparation for cotton, 
planting, gathering, and methods of delivering cotton to the 
gin. The pupils were prepared for the film by asking them to 
observe the following three points as they viewed the film: 
What did you like best in the picture? What was the most 
interesting thing shown? Why? Look for something new that 
has not been found in our social science reference material. 

The parts they liked best, according to their responses, were : 
picking the cotton; man carrying bag hitched to suspenders; 
weighing of cotton; comparison of amount of cotton grown in 
U.S. with other countries. 

The most interesting scenes in the film to the children were: 
Negro living quarters, where they worked, and the duties of 
the supervisor ; the spreading of poison by airplane to kill the 
boll weevil ; and kinds of harrow used in cultivating fields. 

New facts obtained through the film were : weighing of cotton 
at the end of each row in order to learn how much each row 
produced; seeing the boll weevil attempting to enter the bud 
of cotton; how cotton is cared for day and night; and how soil 
is prepared for growing cotton. 

8. Conquering the Desert. This film is a picture of giant 
cacti being cleared from the Arizona desert in the Salt River 
Valley, the harvesting of the cotton crop by the Mexicans, and 
the shipping of cotton to Connecticut. The entire process of 
carding, spinning, and weaving is given in detail. This picture 
was shown to the class when the study of weaving and dyeing 
was begun. The film aroused the pupils' interest in weaving. 
It correlated nicely with our study, as one father had brought 
into the room a box of samples showing the various stages in 
the spinning process. Following are some questions asked by 
the class after the film showing : 

Why do they not spin cotton by hand ? 
Why did the man stretch the cloth ? 
How did he stretch it so far ? 
Why was the cloth so strong ? 

Why did the bush move when the ground was being cleared? 
Why didn't they make thread before they wound it into 
balls of cotton? 

Why are two strands of thread put together? 

How is thread colored ? 

Why did they press cotton in a box ? 

What was the thing pressing the seeds? 

How did the people cook on such small stoves ? 

Why was the Egyptian on the rocks ? 

Why was the picture shown in Egypt first ? 


Brerault, Jean. "Report on the Use of the Cinema in Primary 
Teaching." International Review of Educational Cinema- 
tography. 6:429-41. June 1934. 

1. Place for projection. If the film is to be part of the 
lesson, it is important that it be shown at the opportune moment 
in the classroom. If the pupils are obliged to get up and go to 
another room to see the picture, it is clear that the rhythm of 
the lesson will be broken. 

2. Film showing. The technique will vary with the purposes 
to be achieved. One or more showings may be needed, depend- 
ing upon the subject at hand. 

3. Comment. It may appear advisable to comment while 
a film is being run. This is an error, however, which in prac- 
tice will not fail to give unsatisfactory results. Verbal comment, 
when used, must be made at just the right moment, and not a 
second earlier or later. The teacher should usually make his 
comments before the projection rather than afterwards. 

4. Sound. Where explanations are needed to accompany 
a film, the addition of sound is more efficacious than the teacher's 
words. The use of natural sounds, such as cries of animals, 
noises of machines, etc. may justifiably be made for primary 
teaching. But a teaching sound film ought not be 100 per cent 
sound. Unlike the situation in the theatre, it is unnecessary to 
fill in silent intervals with music. 

5. Explanatory notes. Teachers' guides can be very help- 
ful when they contain a description of the scenes, with sub- 
titles or spoken comments. They may suggest the form of 
lesson and place in the curriculum in which the film might be 
used, but merely suggest. Such a manual might also give the 
circumstances under which the picture was made, its date, and 
some episodes connected with the shooting of the film. It might 
also give a list of lantern slides for supplementation. 

Eads, Laura Krieger (Erpi Picture Consultants, Inc.) 
"Utilization of Talking Pictures in the Primary Grades." 
In A Program for the Utilization of Audio-Visual Teaching 
Aids in Evansville, Indiana. Erpi. N.Y. 1935. p. 66-71. 

Some general principles underlying the use of sound films for 
primary instruction are : 

1. The talking picture is most effective in the primary 
grades when it is used as an integral part of a broad and well- 


planned unit of instruction and when it is well integrated with 
classroom activities. 

2. The talking picture should be presented several times 
during the study, at various phases of the unit of instruction. 

3. Each child should have in mind a specific objective for 
each film presentation. 

4. The teacher should have a distinct purpose for presenting 
the film each time. 

5. Before the first presentation it is important to introduce 
the unit to the pupils. 

6. Especially after the first presentation, the children 
should be allowed to discuss the pictured material immediately. 

7. Unusual types of photography should be explained to 
the children. 

8. The filmed objects and series of scenes should be ex- 
plained whenever necessary for a correct interpretation on the 
part of each child. 

9. Do not teach the pictured material alone. 

10. It is essential that the teacher be thoroughly familiar 
with the film before beginning a unit. 

Keliher, Alice (Progressive Education Association, N.Y.) 
"Visual Aids in Beginning Reading." American Childhood. 
14:no.7:16-18. March 1929. 

Excursions, classroom exhibits, lantern slides, photographs, 
stereographs, and pets may all be used effectively to provide a 
common experience to all the children and stimulate their 
interest in learning to read. It is preferable to use the actual 
experience whenever practicable, and resort to the pictured repre- 
sentation of it only when the actual experience is beyond reach. 

If the teacher shows the proper degree of interest in visual 
aid material she will find that the children will never tire of 
bringing materials to school. Children will bring to school those 
things for which they care most, and from which much reading 
should evolve. 

Cook, Gertrude S. (Edison School, Pasadena, California) 
"How We Are Fed." Educational Screen. 10 :73-6. March 

In a first grade class the work in social studies was enriched 
as far as possible by the use of field trips, specimens, illustrated 
stories, and a motion picture. 


For example, the unit on wheat was introduced by a specimen 
of a head of wheat. The processes of growing wheat in former 
times and in foreign countries, and how wheat is converted into 
bread were then discussed. Pictures of flour mills, grain 
elevators, freight cars, etc. were shown. Children brought 
samples of other grains. A grain of wheat was placed in a 
tumbler of water and its germination followed. The growing 
of other grains, such as rice, was described. The class took 
a trip to a flour mill and then to a bakery. Upon its return to 
school, the class related the things seen. The teacher recorded 
these experiences, which were placed in booklet form, becoming 
the children's first experiences with reading. 

In connection with the unit on dairying, the children had 
occasion to be exposed to many experiences. A two-reel motion 
picture on dairying stimulated interest in how ice was made. 
A trip to an ice plant resulted. 

At the end of the semester each child had a typewritten copy 
of the class' "First Book," relating all the experiences of the 
term. At the last primary assembly period, one of the children 
read the story to the other children. 

"Third Year Nature Study Lessons." In Handbook for the 
Use of Visual Aids. Bulletin No. 18. Board of Public 
Education. Pittsburgh, Pa. 1929. p. 49-53. 

A third year nature study lesson treats of animals at the 
zoo. Pictures of the animals are used prior to the excursion to 
the zoo. Following the trip, the children discuss where each 
animal lives; they learn to recognize the name of each animal; 
they tell a story for each and write short sentences ; they attempt 
to show the animal in his natural environment through drawings ; 
they see lantern slides, and as a review of the unit a motion 
picture, Babies of Wild Animals, is used. 

Lampe, Felix (Germany) "Films in the Schools." Inter- 
national Review of Educational Cinematography. 5 :12-19. 
January 1933. 

Motion pictures shown to young children proved to be very 
effective. Pantomime was promptly interpreted for what it was 
supposed to represent. The children were able to make deduc- 
tions along the desired lines merely from seeing a film. 


Motion pictures can be used to develop powers of observa- 
tion and seeing relationships. The incident is described wherein 
a group of young boys were shown a film of elephants, which 
they had never seen in any form or picture. After the picture, 
the children were asked to describe what they had seen. They 
gave what they thought was the expected reply. "The African 
elephant has four toes in the forefeet, and three in the hind- 
feet." The motion picture had been on the Indian elephant and 
had not given any occasion for noting the toes of the elephant. 
Instead of recounting what they had seen, the children were 
merely calling to mind some particular fact from the general 
number of facts which they had succeeded in remembering. 

These children were living examples of the utilization of 
a purely mechanical memory without any independence of mind, 
without initiative in the matter of experience; things which as a 
matter of fact can only be obtained through a patient use of the 
faculty of observation. 

Rowland, Lida (Teaneck, N.J.) "Visual Aids for Kinder- 
gartens." International Review of Educational Cinematog- 
raphy. 6 :7-8. January 1934. 

When using motion pictures for young children, projections 
should be brief, sub-titles should be suppressed, and where 
talking is introduced into the film, the comment should be suited 
to the mentality of the child. Sound and music, when included, 
should not be excessive. The pictures should deal with very 
simple phenomena, especially those which directly concern the 
child's life, such as community situations, or pictures of animals. 

Poole, Irene (Akron, Ohio) "The Motion Picture in the 
Classroom." Educational Screen. 10:169-71. June 1931. 

This study was conducted in an Akron elementary school in 
1930 to determine the best methods of presenting motion pic- 
tures to mixed elementary groups. In approaching the study, 
it was assumed that educational pictures may conform in sub- 
ject matter and purpose to at least one of three general classifica- 
tions: (1) those which illustrate certain definite facts and 
processes; (2) those which present new experiences to the 
observer; and (3) those which entertain, either by narration, 
amusement or aesthetic appreciation. The tests in this study 


measured only retention of facts, since it is obviously impossible 
to tabulate the degree of entertainment, appreciation, or new 
experience attained. 

Six possible methods of presenting motion pictures were used 
with fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children : 

1. Informal discussion by children while viewing the film 

2. Lecture by the teacher during the presentation 

3. No talking or discussion at any time in the classroom 

4. Discussion of the film subject, directed by student chair- 
man or teacher, preceding the presentation of the film 

5. Discussion of the film, directed by student chairman or 
teacher after the presentation 

6. Combination of these last two. Pointing out things to be 
noted and discussion of the subject before filming, with 
discussion of the materials presented after the filming 

Each film lesson provided for fifteen to twenty minutes of 
discussion. Objective tests were given after each discussion 
period, and approximately one week following the viewing of a 
film uniform tests to measure retention of facts were given to 
all the groups. 

The results obtained from the five tests, covering eighteen 
different situations, seem to indicate that facts observed in 
motion pictures are better retained by children if there is no 
introduction to the subject of the film, but a review and discus- 
sion of the material presented after the film has been shown. 

If the children are to receive the fullest benefit from the 
moving picture, we must assume that their teacher shall have 
previewed the film and made herself thoroughly familiar with 
the subject matter presented. Then it will rest with the arbitrary 
decision of this teacher whether or not any mention of certain 
outstanding facts is made before the children view the film. 
The tests described gave no conclusive evidence that fourth 
grade children were able to grasp proportionately more facts 
than the sixth grade groups in situations involving introductory 

Some older children of the seventh and eighth grades still 
like to feel that movies are primarily for the purpose of enter- 
tainment. They prefer no discussion of the picture whatever 
in the classroom. There were some children who preferred 
discussion of pictorial material. 

Whether the discussion is led by a student chairman a 
capable one, of course or by the teacher matters little in the 


opinions of the children. However, some comments on this 
point were: 

"We sometimes waste a lot of time by repeating or talking about 
things that are not very important." 

"The teacher can ask better questions." 

"The teacher has been places and can tell us more about them." 

"If a chairman knows a lot about the picture, he can have a good 

Although there is some drill in speech and parliamentary 
procedure when using a pupil chairman for discussion, the 
advantage of the teacher's wide reading, varied experience, and 
broad travel should not be overlooked. 

Dorris, Anna V. "Visual Instruction in Other Subjects." In 
Visual Instruction in the Public Schools. Ginn and Co. 
1928. Chapter VII, p. 307-68. 

This chapter considers the use of visual aids in natural 
science, primary grades, health education, literature, intermedi- 
ate, secondary subjects, fine arts, and household arts. In all 
subjects of the school, the plan of attack should be informal and 
the interest developed in one subject should be carried into 
related subjects as well. No subject should be taught in any 
grade as a thing apart as a separate subject but rather as a 
contributing factor of the great mass of valuable knowledge 
which tends to enlighten and enrich life. Nature study, for 
example, can carry over into art, music, and literature. 

The use of visual instruction should enrich the experience 
of the pupil, substitute concrete images for indefinite ones, and 
furnish new backgrounds for future comparisons. This type of 
teaching demands forethought and planning on the part of the 
teacher, but the effective results more than justify the extra 
time and energy expended. 

Baumeister, Emeline (Principal, Campbell School, San- 
dusky, Ohio) "Classroom Films in Use." Classroom Film, 
1 :no.5, 2:no.l. December 1935, February 1936. Available 
without cost from Eastman Teaching Films Division, East- 
man Kodak Co. Rochester, N.Y. 

See the original article for ways in which silent films were 
used in the teaching of nature study, social science, geography, 
reading, health, and history. 


Emery, James Newell (Principal, James C. Potter School, 
Pawtucket, R.I.) "The Motion Picture As a Classroom 
Aid." Educational Screen. 9:164. June 1930. 

Dieffenbach, Charles T. (Principal, J. Hull Browning School, 
Tenafly, N.J.) "Student Activity in a Visual Aid Program." 
Educational Screen. 16:11-12. January 1937. 
A motion picture club, organized as an extra-curricular 
activity, constitutes the projection force of the school. The 
projection force is made up of forty boys and girls of fifth and 
sixth grades who have been recommended by their respective 
teachers, not for high scholastic ability, but as students who 
would be valuable to the club, and whose membership in the 
club would be valuable. In addition to the after-school meetings, 
the members learn the operation of projection equipment, and 
of radio equipment. They are assigned to assist those teachers 
who desire such assistance, in the operation of equipment. The 
projection force delivers all the necessary materials to the 
classroom, prepares the room for projection, and later returns 
the apparatus to the proper center. Each member strives for 
the rank of first class operator, radio operator, stage manager, 
or lantern slide operator. 

This plan is considered feasible because it fits the philosophy 
of education of the principal, by motivating learning through 
intrinsic values ; by a self-controlled rather than a super-imposed 
plan; by its use as a practical period for character-molding. 
Further, materials are received and returned to their sources 
promptly, all of the staff knows all of the material available 
weekly, and a record of values is permanently obtained. 

Motion pictures have been found useful occasionally in 
developing certain skills. Drawing skills whose basic element 
is motion may be effectively taught through especially adapted 
motion pictures. The article by Perkins in this section, and 
that by Ulp 5 will be suggestive for the teaching of drawing 

e Page 234. 


Perkins, Elizabeth Ward (Woodbury School of Applied 
Observation, Boston, Mass.) "Drawing from Motion Pic- 
tures." Educational Screen. 10:105-7. April 1931. 

A drawing class at the Children's Art Centre in Boston, 
consisting of beginning students of all races and ages, was given 
films from which to draw. Later they were asked to draw 
from moving animals at the Zoo, which would have been im- 
possible without the previous training in drawing from a moving 

This technique was used in a Summer School conducted by 
Charles Woodbury, and in the Massachusetts Art School in 
Boston, under Royal Farnum, 1927. The results in the latter 
case were so satisfactory that a course in Mental Training 
through drawing was established, based on and illustrated by 
drawing from motion pictures. In 1929, the method was initi- 
ated in all the classes at the School of the Chicago Art Institute. 

The results, with able teachers in charge, were important 
both for a continuous training in the arts and in coordination 
with other school subjects. It was proved that talent is not 
necessary in order to be able to use a graphic language. If moti- 
vated by interest, anyone can draw, according to his capacity to 
think clearly about what is seen. 

An example of the procedure used in drawing from a mov- 
ing object is to have a class of boys drawing from a football 
film. When the drawings were exhibited, questions were asked 
in connection with the football tactics illustrated. "Is that a 
good tackle? Is the man with the ball running fast enough 
to make a touchdown ? " 

Although the proportions of the figures may be inaccurate, 
they possess a living quality, or they do not, and the boys are 
keen judges. A discussion on proportion will usually develop, 
and improvement in proportion follows of necessity after the 
action has been expressed. 

Some of the objectives of teaching drawing with films are: 

1. To focus attention 

2. To make quick choice of essentials 

3. To gain power of feeling and expressing motion 

4. To prove observation 

5. To prove and improve memory 

6. To gain a standard in proportion 


7. To improve the quality of line 

8. To demonstrate lack of information 

9. To remove the fear of drawing in beginners 

10. To bring the world into the classroom 

11. To advance the time when expression in line will be as 
common as in speech and writing 

12. To force students to think for themselves. 

Many advantages are claimed for the use of visual aids 
in the social studies. These advantages include gains in 
information, increased interest, stimulation of thought, stim- 
ulation of curiosity, changes in attitude, and the like. Skinner 
reports an experimental study in which slides, stereographs, 
and movies were involved. 6 He concludes that the more 
varied the forms of visual aids, the greater the gains. 

The unit of work as conceived by Hoke illustrates the 
desirability of careful planning on the part of the teacher 
as to the exact role of each motion picture used. It indicates 
in a most concrete fashion the way in which films may be 
used to promote socially desirable objectives and independent 

The use of films, supplemented by slides or other types of 
visual aids, for geography instruction is discussed in several 
articles. Courtney gives six guiding principles for using 
visual materials, and some of the outcomes of a study of 
Yellowstone National Park in which these principles were 
applied. Bishop found pupil-made slides, Keystone slides, 
photographs, and films helpful in developing a unit on Asia. 
Myers has published several lesson units in geography using 
slides and films. An outline of the unit on the Panama 
Canal is here summarized, and additional lesson units cited. 

A lesson plan for the study of the beef industry, reported 
in the Pittsburgh, Pa. Handbook shows clearly the integration 
of the excursion, stereographs, slides, and motion picture in 
the development of the unit. The article by Ramsey similarly 

6 See also analysis of this study in Chapter 5 on Research page 365. 


presents a well-rounded unit using the visual aids available 
from a museum for teaching life in the African Congo. 

Visual aids which are not projected are discussed in the 
article by Dexheimer. It is interesting to note the quotations 
from pupil reactions to picture reading in geography. The 
article also includes a listing of some uses of still pictures for 
the teaching of geography, and some guiding principles for 
the teacher. Proudfoot states that photographs are an ef- 
fective medium for developing "reasoned memorization" of 
facts. He uses photographs to provoke questions, and thereby 
to contribute to a balanced understanding of the "cultural- 
natural adjustment complex" of the region being studied. 
He uses photographs to test factual information. It is doubt- 
ful whether this stress upon memorization, whether it be 
reasoned or unreasoned, is still widely held by educators. 

The course of study for geography of the London Board 
of Education has divided the teaching of geography into three 
stages. The Central Information Bureau for Educational 
Films points out how films may be used in the development 
of each of these stages. 

Skinner, Charles Edward (Miami University, Oxford, Ohio) 
and Rich, Stephen Gottheil (Essex Falls, NJ.) "Visual 
Aids in Geography : An Experiment." Elementary School 
Journal. 25:700-5. May 1925. 

This experiment was conducted in 1923 in two New York 
City schools in a congested Jewish section of the city, one a 
junior high school and the other an eight-year elementary school. 

The experiment was carried on during February, over ten 
teaching periods of forty minutes each, and three resting periods 
of equal length. In the first school, one class was taught with 
text alone plus some wall maps; another class by textbook, 
stereographs, and lantern slides; a third had all these aids and 
the addition of moving pictures. All the classes used the same 
text and were taught by the same teacher. The "text class" 
met the first period of the school day; the "slide class" met the 


second period after an arithmetic lesson; and the "movie" class 
met the fourth period after a spelling lesson. 

In the second school only two groups were used, a text class 
taught during the third period after a lesson in grammar, and 
the slide class during the same period after word-study. The 
first class was taught by a woman teacher, the other by a man. 

Conclusions. Although the difference in attainment due to 
the use of visual aids is very small, the gain in retention of 
information, interest in geography and in pupil morale was dis- 
tinct. The more varied the forms of visual instruction, the 
greater the gain. Nevertheless, differences between teachers, 
and between the texts gave rise to at least as great differences 
in results as did the presence, variety, or absence of visual aids. 
The gain due to thorough visual instruction, using all the visual 
aids, is sufficiently great to warrant expenditure of school money 
on them. 

Hoke, G. W. (Eastman Teaching Films, Inc.) "Planning 
Instruction with Classroom Films." School Executives Maga- 
zine. 52 :265-7. April 1933. 

The series of lessons outlined in this paper indicate one way 
to plan instruction to promote the acquisition of a sequence of 
ideas that will help the learner to understand life about him and 
to adjust himself to it. 

As an illustration, a junior high, school teacher of social 
science decides to develop a unit of instruction leading up to 
the idea of personal responsibility for the faithful discharge of 
economic duties. With this as a starting point, and the goal 
towards which the instruction is to be directed, the teacher 
thinks back, step by step, to a beginning point for the instruction 
that is well within the range of experience, interest, and ability 
of the members of the class. 

After due deliberation, a line of thought somewhat like the 
following may be developed: 

Personal responsibility is a consequence of interdependence, 
set up by the exchange of goods and ideas produced through 
division of labor, in round-about processes of compensating for 
a scarcity in nature, of the things that satisfy human wants. 

This analysis yields a sequence of seven ideas. From the 
idea of human wants as the beginning point of instruction, there 



is a continuous progress in difficulty and complexity up to the 
idea of personal responsibility. 

This sequence of ideas may be developed through language, 
object lessons, field trips, laboratory work, and classroom films. 
A series of motion pictures are selected by the teacher which 
will help to introduce each of the seven ideas. Each film may 
then be seen to illustrate all seven ideas. The relationship 
between the films and the seven objectives may then be charted, 
somewhat as follows: 



































































A Pueblo Dwellers 

B The Arid Southwest 

C Irrigation 

D Wheat 

E Gold 

F The Automobile 

G Pig Iron to Steel 

1. Human Wants 

2. Scarcity in Nature 

3. Round-about Processes 

4. Division of Labor 

5. Exchange 

6. Interdependence 

7. Responsibility 

Each film, then, would be presented to illustrate one out- 
standing human relationship; and incidentally, each of the other 
six relationships might be distinguished to show that all of these 
ideas are inter-related. 

The following suggestions and questions indicate something 
of the richness of the instruction material charted: 

Presentation-. (1A. Human Wants Pueblo Dwellers) 

1. Approach. Have the members of the class discuss what 
they know about human wants for food, shelter, tools, 
and safety. 

2. Discussion. What evidences are shown in the film that 
Pueblo Dwellers want food, shelter, tools, and safety? 

Presentation-. (6F. Interdependence The Automobile) 
1. Approach. Have the class discuss how the exchange of 
goods and ideas makes people dependent upon each other. 


2. Discussion. What evidences of the interdependence of 
people are shown in the film of The Automobile? 

Reorganisation Review : 

(Fl) What human wants are satisfied in the manufacture 
and use of automobiles ? 

(F2) Cite some of the things not supplied by nature that 
had to be produced before automobiles could be built. 

(F3) What round-about processes are involved in the manu- 
facture ? 

(F4) How has division of labor made possible the produc- 
tion of automobiles on a large scale? 

(F5) How would it affect the manufacture of automobiles 
if the materials used had to be secured through 

Integration : 

(6A) Why is there so little dependence of Pueblo Dwellers 

on the rest of the world? 
(6B) What evidence as to interdependence, or the lack 

of it is shown by the Navajo Indians in the Arid 

Southwest ? 
(6C) In what ways are people living on an irrigation project 

dependent upon each other, and upon the outside 

world ? 
(6D) In what ways is there an interdependence between 

large scale wheat farmers, on one hand, and railroad 

men, bankers, and teachers on the other hand? 
(6E) In what ways is gold mining dependent upon other 

industries ? 

These and many other questions are suggested as concrete 
Jllustration of the way in which a sequence of ideas may be 
promoted by challenging active participation in the discussion 
of specific situations. This medium of instruction makes it 
possible for the learners to do the discussing, the function of 
the teacher being primarily to direct attention, to afford oppor- 
tunities to all for self-expression, and to encourage a readiness 
to revise old ideas as experience ripens. 

Courtney, Grace A. (Principal, Halls Grove School, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.) "Class Demonstration: Fifth Year Geography." 
N.E.A. Proceedings. 1934:779-80. 

A lesson in fifth grade geography on the topic, "Vacation 
Trip to Yellowstone Park" was supplemented by slides, maps, 


pictures, and films. Lantern slides were used to introduce the 
unit, motion pictures to present the content material, reading 
references to interpret and discuss the film, and a check up on 
the unit made through test slides. Some of the outcomes of 
this unit were: 

1. A desire to visit Yellowstone 

2. An appreciation of the pleasures offered there 

3. An appreciation of the opportunities of all national parks 

4. Interest in and appreciation of the natural beauty of the 
United States. 

In utilizing these visual aids, six guiding principles have 
been formulated: 

1. Visual aids should supplement the course of study. 

2. They should be grouped around a central theme. 

3. Each type has its place in the teaching process and may 
be used to enrich it. 

4. Too much illustrative material may cloud rather than 
clarify the concept to be developed. 

5. Use of visual materials should not be allowed to over- 
develop passive receptivity. 

6. Pupils should be held responsible for definite reactions. 

Bishop, Sue (Wollaston School, Quincy, Mass.) "A Geog- 
raphy Lesson with Visual Aids." Educational Screen. 12 : 
90-1. March 1933. 

Lantern slides made by the pupils, Keystone slides, and 
a motion picture were used in an intermediate geography class 
for studying Asia. The general theme to be developed by the 
unit was that in Asia much of the work is done by animals and 
people, rather than by machines. 

The immediate aim of the lesson was to get acquainted with 
different types of labor in the Orient. The ultimate aim was to 
discover that these types of labor depend largely upon the 
surface of the country, climate, density of population. The 
methods used to develop the unit were lantern slides, films, 
geographic pictures, note book work with an oral check-up, and 
a written test. 

The unit was introduced through questions and listings on 
the blackboard of the animals commonly used for labor, and 
the places where coolie labor is prevalent. The children then 


made slides illustrating a ricksha, furniture mover, beating out 
grain, a sedan chair, a yak, a Chinese wheelbarrow, and the like. 
Keystone slides were projected to demonstrate the sawing of 
lumber in Manchuria, road making in China, Chinese boys 
plowing in Northern China, etc. 

A motion picture was presented to show the contrast in 
methods of labor between the East and the West. Such proces- 
ses as irrigating rice fields, loading boats, hauling lumber, haul- 
ing freight, and carrying mail were compared. 

The children kept a note-book on the unit and reported orally 
on the materials included. A written test was given to check 
on the extent to which the aims of the lesson unit had been 

Myers, Stella E. "How Trees of the Forest Are Changed 
into Lumber." Educational Screen. 5 :48. January 1926. 

Myers, Stella E. "How the White Milk of a Tree Is Made 
into Black Rubber." Educational Screen. 5:110-13. Febru- 
ary 1926. 

Myers, Stella E. "Wheat and Other Grains." Educational 
Screen. 5 :242. April 1926. 

Myers, Stella Evelyn (Forest Park, Illinois) "A Visual 
Study of the Panama Canal." Educational Screen. 7:30-2. 
March 1928. 

The following lesson plan was used to develop a unit in 
geography on the Panama Canal, in which about a week was 
allotted for preparing the students for the content of a motion 
picture on the subject. Reference books and stereographs were 
used in the preliminary work. One girl constructed a salt relief 
map. A boy transferred the information thus acquired to map 
slides. Children selected slides from the Keystone set to il- 
lustrate the unit, and other children prepared oral reports on 
the slides, using the syllabus. All this served as preparation 
for the film. 

There were three forty-five minute class periods for this 
preliminary work, and much of the work done by the children 
was done at home, in the library, Or during supervised study 
periods. There is danger, however, in letting this period of 
preparation drag, for the child's interest lags and then spon- 
taneity and enthusiasm are lost. 






Geographical Features 

Historical Features 

b) The film introduces 
ex-President Roose- 
velt as the champ- 
ion of the project. 
He appoints Gener- 
als G o r g a s and 
Goethals on the 
Canal Commission. 

Housing and Sanitation d) Film shows admin- 
Problems istrative features ; 
employees, housing, 
sanitations, etc. 

Engineering Features 

f) Film shows drill- 
ing, digging, cars 
loading and dump- 
ing dirt. 

h) Locks, dams, etc. 

j) Landslides 
much labor. 


1) The concluding por- 
tion of film reveals 
task of cleaning up 
the slides, and open- 
ing of Canal. 

a) Slides 1 and 2 made 
by children ; and 
shown before film. 
No. 18. Map of 
Canal Zone. Report 
by one or more 

c) Slides 12, 13, 11. 
Generals Goethals 
and Gorgas ; French 

Slide 10 or 249. 
Old French Dwell- 

e) Slides 10 or 249. 
Slides 14 or 255. 

Slides 15, 16, 17. 
Battle Alley, Drip 
Barrel, Builders' 

g) Slides 19, 31, 33, 
34, 35. Digging thru 
a hill, Steam shovel, 
Digging in Gaillard 
Cut, Deepest part 
of Cut. 

Slides 41, 28. Ce- 
ment mixers. 

i) Slides 20, 21. Spill- 
way. 22, 23, 24, 25, 
27, 42, 30. Turbines, 
Gatun Locks, boats 
in locks, emergency 

39, 40. Pedro Miguel 
and Miraflores 

k) 36, 37. Beginning of 
slides at Gaillard 

m) 44, 47, 48, 49. 

"Projects Enriched by the Use of Visual Aids." In Handbook 
for the Use of Visual Aids. Bulletin No. 18. Board of 
Public Education. Pittsburgh, Pa. 1929. p. 67. 


A fifth year lesson plan for teaching a unit on "Our Beef 
Industry" to fifth year geography students includes various 
types of visual aids, correlated with the city course of study, 
with specific reference to the materials available from the 
Pittsburgh Department of Visualization. 

The lesson plan would have a sequence somewhat as follows : 

1. Preparation for a trip to the Pittsburgh Stock Yards 

2. School journey to the stock yards 

3. Discussion of the trip 

4. Motion picture film, A Cattle Ranch, to show beef 
cattle in their natural environment, to show the daily duties of 
cowboys, to illustrate skill in the round-up of cattle, the use 
of the lasso, branding of calves, and the like. There is provision 
for preliminary and follow-up discussion of this film. 

5. Supervised study period in which stereographs, reference 
books, and outline maps are used as preparation for the social- 
ized recitation to follow. 

6. Life on the cattle ranch. A discussion lesson, using 
six Keystone slides, and three from another set. 

7. The by-products of the meat-packing industry. 

8. Conclusions from this unit, based on the materials used. 

Ramsey, Grace Fisher (Associate Curator, American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York City) "Integration 
of Motion Pictures with Other Visual Aids." National 
Board of Review Magazine. 11 :4-5. March 1936. 

The following lesson unit is suggestive of the ways in which 
some of the visual aids available to teachers in the New York 
City schools from the American Museum of Natural History 
may be integrated into a meaningful lesson on life in the 
African Congo. 

In order to study the problems of climate involved in tropical 
countries, it is impossible to use the field trip. But speci- 
mens of materials used by natives of the African Congo are 
available from the museum, including a piece of bark cloth 
made from the inner bark of a wild fig tree, a very short grass 
skirt, a brass armlet, a head ring for carrying burdens, a field 
basket used in bringing back to the village the plantains and 
the manioc roots which form the staple food of these people. 


Iron axes, spears, and daggers made by native iron workers are 
also available, as are musical instruments. Another type of 
visual material which may be used is a miniature habitat group 
or a diorama, showing a native village with tall forest trees, the 
inhabitants engaged in various activities, such as pounding out 
bark cloth, forging iron, making pottery, beating the large 
wooden drum to broadcast messages to other tribes, and so on. 

A motion picture is used to show a native in the act of 
pounding a piece of bark into shape, and the smelting of iron 
ore to be pounded into a knife. This medium, together with 
the specimens which the students may handle, and a few se- 
lected, well-colored lantern slides projected to furnish a more 
realistic background for these Congo peoples, and some photo- 
graphs and stereographs will provide an integration of visual 
aids that will result in a true conception about how the natives 
of the Congo adjust themselves to their climate and succeed in 
their problem of living. 

The use of pictures, both still and motion, with intelligent 
understanding and guidance by the teacher and the introduction 
of realia from the museum will give a reality and meaning 
needed in all of our education today. 

Dexheimer, Lora M. (Supervising Teacher, Illinois State 
Normal University, Normal, Illinois) "Systematizing the 
Use of Pictures in Teaching Sixth-Grade Geography." Year- 
book of the National Society for the Study of Education. 
32:507-19. 1933. 

The following account describes an attempt to combine 
picture study with text and reference work, with the definite aim 
of stimulating the pupils' interest and of making more real the 
life and places studied. The work was done during an eighteen- 
week period in which the continent of Europe was studied. 
There were eighteen sixth-grade students, taught entirely by a 
student teacher in the sophomore year under the guidance of 
the supervising teacher. 

Standards for selection of pictures. These were, roughly, 
(1) Does the picture show some phase of man's activity in 
relation to his environment? (2) Is it simple enough for the 
pupils' comprehension? (3) Does it help to illustrate, verify, 
extend, explain, or compare knowledge already gained? (4) 
Does it stimulate further inquiry or inference concerning the 


subject illustrated? and (5) Does it contribute to geographic 
thinking; that is, does it cultivate the ability to see and interpret 
relations between man's activities and his natural environment? 

Some methods used with pictures: 

1. To introduce a unit. Children were given a set of pic- 
tures of various countries of Europe, and asked to tell some 
kinds of work that people do there. Among the comments were : 

"This picture is in England. There are sheep and there is a 
shepherd driving them. That tells me that they don't have a lot of 
traffic on this road." 

"In this picture I see two men harvesting oats in Russia with an 
American harvesting machine." 

"In this picture they are loading wheat for export from Russia. 
This makes me think that they raise more wheat in Russia than they use." 

2. Pictures used to supplement study. After some study 
of how Europe feeds its people, with short written reports on 
what they had learned, pupils were asked to mention any new 
information which a series of pictures offered. Some of their 
comments were: 

"My picture shows that in countries of Europe many women work 
in the fields. I guess they get less pay than men do." 

"I learned that in the Balkan countries cattle are used to tread the 
grain out of its hull instead of thrashing it. That is a slow and back- 
ward way to do it. It's not very clean either." 

"Children work in grain fields in central Europe. Just as soon as 
they are able to do some duty it seems that they take their places in 
the fields. This must be where the grain is raised by hand work. The 
fields look small." 

3. Pictures used as an aid in making a summary. 

4. Pictures to begin a topic. 

5. Pictures for group work in outlining a study. 

6. Pictures used as a test. 

7. A journey with pictures. 

8. Pictures to give a rapid preview. 

9. Organizing a sequence with pictures. 

10. Projected pictures for review. 

11. Pictures for comparison with other countries. 

12. Pictures used to develop ability to relate what is already 
known to new situations. 

13. Use of pictures for entertainment, in which projected 
slides are used before an audience to illustrate the work of the 


Comments and conclusions: 

1. The pictures used were almost wholly of the type show- 
ing man's relation to his environment. They were always 
chosen because of some bearing upon the unit of study, and 
when necessary, to show sequences. 

2. Picture study was made meaningful, not a mere diversion. 
Each pupil or group was held responsible for a definite result. 
An attempt was made to provide a common experience through 
pictures for understanding the discussion. 

3. The teacher was constantly aware that this was a lesson 
in the geography of Europe, not simply pictures. 

4. Place geography and map exercises supplemented the 

5. The number and variety of pictures used in any exercise 
were limited. A few pictures, definitely assigned and thought- 
fully studied, are best used. 

6. The use of pictures was not the only means of instruction 
for geography, but it was an important means. 

7. Picture exercises lack sequence and completeness and can 
only show man's activities with his environment. An interest 
in people and their use of environment with young pupils, 
however, can develop further interest toward a more exhaustive 

8. There were two types of pictures: those showing clearly 
some definite meaning, and those suggesting or stimulating 

9. Better results in understanding came from using pic- 
tures showing simple rather than complex processes. 

10. The pupils were greatly stimulated in this study to an 
appreciative use of the pictures in their texts. Textbook illus- 
trations are often unrelated to the text, representative of excep- 
tional situations rather than everyday life, and fostering a 
provincial "superiority complex" rather than a sympathetic 
understanding of other people. 

11. From the standpoint of the teacher's purpose, the pic- 
tures may be classified as: (a) those calculated primarily to 
arouse interest and a desire to investigate further; (b) those 
selected to aid in an interpretation of texts; and (c) those 
chosen for checking and testing acquired knowledge. 

12. Legends with pictures were variously used. 


13. Some of the advantages claimed with this use of pic- 
tures are: (a) pictures give details which supplement and 
vitalize printed statements; (b) they help children to develop 
powers of geographic thinking; (c) they facilitate the learning 
process by an appeal to curiosity; (d) they develop a habit of 
studying and evaluating textbook illustrations; (e) they make 
all learning more effective, but especially that of children with 
slow reading ability; (f) they provide concreteness to classroom 
discussions; (g) the degree of interest and enthusiasm, the 
clearness of the images, the growing realization of distant 
peoples as workers like ourselves, the avidity with which pupils 
and teacher attacked new problems made the geography hour 
an anticipated pleasure in each day's work. 

14. Suggestions for further investigation: 

(a) The types of studies most aided by using pictures 

(b) The methods of assignment and study most efficient for 

(c) Exact means of evaluating results 

(d) Question of learning vs. entertainment 

(e) Most effective ways of using legends 

(f) Suitable classifications of pictures 

(g) Use of pictures to overcome reading handicaps. 

Proudfoot, Malcolm J. (University of Chicago) "The Use 

of Photographic Material in Teaching Elementary Geog- 

. raphy." Journal of Geography. 31:381-90. December 1932. 

Central Information Bureau for Educational Films, Ltd. 
"The Film in Relation to the School Curriculum : Teaching 
of Geography." In Film Progress-, a supplement to the 
National Encyclopedia of Educational Films. July 1936. 
London, England. 

The Board of Education divides the teaching of geography 
into three stages, each of which may use educational films in 
achieving its objectives : 

1. "To awaken the children's interest in their surroundings, both in 
the phenomena of nature and in the lives and habits of the people, and 
to compare with these the lives and habits of other peoples living 
amongst different surroundings." 

An attempt should be made in this stage to include typical 
scenes from the main climatic regions of the world, rather than 
from one single region, and show how food-getting, clothes, 
houses, and travel differ. Constant use of well selected pic- 


tures, photographs, lantern slides, etc. and of natural specimens 
should be encouraged. By no means of which we know can the 
lives of other nations be brought so vividly to the minds of 
small children as by journeys to other countries through the 
motion picture. 

2. "In the second stage he (the teacher) will endeavour to impart 
a general knowledge in broad outline of the geography of the world. 
The children should, for example, gain some knowledge of the distribu- 
tion of land and water, become acquainted with important types of land 
relief and climate, and acquire incidentally some preliminary notions 
about the industrial and commercial relations between one part of the 
world and another." 

The Central Information Bureau for Educational Films is 
cooperating with Kodak, Ensign, and other firms of the educa- 
tional film industry in the formation of a library of films to 
accompany the geography syllabi. 

3. "In the third stage the aim should be to give a clear impression 
of the world as a whole together with some definite knowledge of its 
most important regions, especially the members of the British Com- 

Films have been found to be helpful in stimulating further 
activity on the part of children. 

The most widely used series of films for the teaching of 
American history are the Yale Chronicles of America Photo- 
plays. The following summaries indicate some uses made 
of these films in elementary and junior high school history 
classes. Delp has made a point of the critical way in which 
students viewed the films to make the experience meaningful. 
Lesson plans published by McAteer and Evans, and the 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Handbook have here been briefly indicated. 

Dolezal has extended the use of one of the chronicles, 
Pioneer Woman, to sensitizing a group of young girls of 
retarded mental ability to the great part which women played 
in establishing our nation. This awareness was related to 
experiences in the life of the girls, and the results were 

Hoek, through a service study in his school, established 
the value of the Chronicles for children below the junior 
high school level. 


Delp, I. W. (Canton, Ohio) "An Effective Use of the 
'Chronicles of America.'' Educational Screen. 7:241. 
November 1928. 

Each year the seventh and eighth grade classes make an 
intensive study of one or more of the Chronicles bearing directly 
upon the history instruction. 

The picture is run, with or without comments as the occasion 
demands. Pupils take notes. After the showing they fully 
discuss what they have seen, raising questions as to accuracy, 
whether possible to have been pictured at the actual site, what 
other episodes might have been included, what others had better 
have been shown, what new ideas were noted, and what old ideas 

Where there is a doubtful point, the film is run over again to 
be certain of the story. If the disagreement continues, the 
search is made through reference books. At one time a boy 
raised the question whether glass should be shown in a Penn- 
sylvania log house, as the film clearly showed. It was an inter- 
esting chase after facts which revealed much more than that glass 
was used at a certain place at a certain time. 

Before the picture is introduced, the pupils make a list of 
picturable episodes. These episodes are then checked against 
those listed on the synopsis sheet. 

After the final showing and discussion, the class prepares 
a lesson plan or study sheet. 

McAteer, Ercel C. and Evans, Marian. "Daniel Boone : A 
Film Lesson." Educational Screen. 5 :261-3. May 1926. 

A unit on the early westward movement in American history 
for seventh and eighth grade involved reading, study of 
vocabulary, film characters to be seen in the film, and thought 
questions following the film showing. Some pupil activities 
and dramatizations are suggested. 

"Seventh Year History Lesson." In Handbook for the Use of 
Visual Aids. Bulletin No. 18. Board of Public Education. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 1929. p. 57-62. 

The lesson plan includes suggestions for motivation, follow- 
up, socialized recitation, and an objective test for use with the 


Declaration of Independence in which emphasis will be placed 
upon checking the content of the film with information in refer- 
ence books. 

Dolezal, Rose M. "Socialization from the Classroom Moving 
Picture." Educational Screen. 11:121-2. April 1932. 

An eighth grade class of girls who were very retarded in their 
mental capacity was used in this study. The mental ages of 
the girls in the class were eight, nine, or ten years, whereas the 
chronological ages were actually fourteen and fifteen years. 

After studying the movement of the first settlers into the 
West during the eighteenth century, and especially the settle- 
ment of Kentucky and Tennessee, a film was presented, Pioneer 
Woman, in which the part played by the pioneer woman in the 
settlement of Boonesboro is depicted. 

At the next class meeting the film was discussed in an in- 
formal manner. The girls realized, according to this discussion, 
that "men did not win battles alone." They realized that it 
would have been impossible to win the wilderness and hold it, 
if it had not been for the quiet and plodding toil of the brave 
pioneer women at home, performing their duties even when the 
dangers and disappointments were great. 

A discussion of character and social traits was the outgrowth 
of this history lesson. The talk centered about the value and 
need for simple household tasks, the sacrifices which have to be 
made in order to pave a way. This film tended to show the 
simplicity of the pioneer women and the undesirability of much 
jewelry, cosmetics, and elaborate clothes. 

A committee was ultimately formed to assist girls who came 
to school improperly attired, or with highly colored complexions. 

Hoek, Floyd G. (Principal, Longfellow School, Teaneck, 
N.J.) "An Enrichment in a Course of Study." Educational 
Screen. 13 :22-5. January 1934. 

The three fifth grade classes in the school, after measure- 
ment by standardized tests, were divided into three groups 
according to mental ability. The work in American History 
was divided into three units, each of which was presented in 
the three classes in the same way. The teaching in each class 
was carefully checked and reading material pertaining to each 
unit was controlled so as to provide a fair basis for comparison. 


At the conclusion of each unit of work, one class was shown 
a motion picture on the subject, a second class was shown slides, 
and the third class was given no instruction with visual aids. 
This was immediately followed by a test in all three grades. 

Conclusions : 

1. .The lower group, when shown a film which supplemented 
the teaching of the unit, were brought up almost to the level 
of the superior group that had had no visual work. 

2. When the superior group, however, saw a film, such a 
marked improvement was not shown. The most logical reason 
for this seems to be that the pupils of the superior group, having 
greater reading ability, reach their capacity for absorption of 
subject matter prior to the film showing. Even in this group, 
however, the results of the test showed the class to be more 
homogeneous as a result of visual instruction. 

This experiment establishes the Yale Chronicles as a possible 
aid for intermediate grades, whereas they had always been recom- 
mended for junior and senior high schools. 

In health education one of the most important problems 
is the development of desirable attitudes toward such things 
as diet, sleep, cleanliness, and the like. Geary has used a 
health film to introduce a unit, in which a series of school 
journeys was the outstanding teaching aid. Lindquist 
describes the successful use of certain health films with a 
group of children living in a crowded section of New York 
City, following some of the principles set up by the new 
progressive school. 

Hoke has clearly stated what objectives of health educa- 
tion were to be achieved by using motion pictures, and how 
these films succeeded in fulfilling the objectives. The tech- 
nique for using films is compared with that used for teaching 
silent reading. 


Geary, Catherine E. (Elementary Supervisor, Lebanon Pub- 
lic School, Lebanon, Pa.) "A Successful Visual Teaching 
Program How It Operates." Nation's Schools. 11:39-42. 
February 1933. 

Motion pictures are used with children of second and third 
grade to develop habits of healthful living. The films used are 
rated as particularly well adapted to the interests, experience 
and understanding of these children. The action of the stories 
is sufficiently slow and uninvolved to make it possible for the 
children to get a full understanding, while the captions contain 
words that already are a part of the children's reading 
vocabulary. The story characters are boys and girls and pets, 
and persons who are a part of normal child life. 

On the first day of developing a unit on Milk, the teacher 
receives a film guide with suggested pocedures for using and 
following up a film on the subject. At no time is the teacher 
told how to proceed. The following day the film is projected 
by a post-graduate high school student in the classroom. During 
the first showing the teacher makes some pertinent remarks, but 
when the film is repeated shortly after, it is run through 
without comment. Each teacher's initiative is challenged to carry 
on the most interesting and efficient learning activities in con- 
nection with the unit. A few days later, the children are taken 
on a school journey to a dairy farm, fruit stores, or similar places 
where the processes of collecting and distributing food are 
carried on. 

School journeys are always carefully planned. The teacher 
visits the place herself before bringing the children to become 
acquainted with the things to be seen, in order that the children 
may be prepared in advance for things to look for. During the 
trip, the teacher or a representative of the management point 
out things of interest. 

Such activities as reading, oral talks, dramatizations, or the 
preparation of reading booklets usually follow a film showing 
and a school journey. The children construct miniature farms, 
dairies, or stores. They make cheese and butter in the class- 
room which they share with children in other grades. They 
plant cereals in window boxes and watch them grow. They 
relate their stories through pictures, poems, riddles, or songs. 
All the so-called subjects and learning become part of the health 


activity unit. The year's work culminated in a dramatization, 
"The Garden of Health/' 

The results of this program are so satisfactory that it should 
be continued throughout the school over a long period of time. 
The children learned to know more about milk, bread, cereals, 
fruits and vegetables than ever before; they appreciate the uses 
and values of these items to a greater degree, and they have 
carried back to their homes the lessons they have learned. There 
is strong evidence that the children were actually making the 
knowledge part of themselves. The reaction of the children to 
the whole activity, and toward the culminating playlet indicated 
the keen interest and appreciation. 

Lindquist, Margaret A. (Elementary School Principal, New 
York City) "A Film-Aided Cleanliness Program." Class- 
room Film. vol. 2, no. 2. June 1936. Eastman Teaching 
Films, Inc. Rochester, N.Y. 

The following unit was developed along the lines of the 
principles set up by the new progressive schools, in a fourth 
grade class in a crowded section of New York City. 

The problem was approached during the morning inspection 
period. The special needs of the class for cleanliness were 
discussed and a list placed on the board. An attitude toward 
cleanliness was developed, especially with reference to the after- 
noon gym period. The Eastman film, Clean Face and Hands 
was shown. A discussion was held on the technique of cleanli- 
ness as shown in the picture. Among other things the children 
discussed the articles necessary to maintaining cleanliness. 

At another lesson a set of posters on clean face, hands, neck, 
nails, etc. and the articles used to acquire these were introduced. 
The posters had been made by a commercial art class in one of 
the city high schools. The motion picture, together with these 
visual aids, resulted in the development of two plans. First, the 
class was going to procure soap and paper towels for use after 
the game period; and secondly they were going to obtain toilet 
articles necessary for use at home. One of the children sug- 
gested that they build their own health kits. 

The teachers permitted the children to order the desired 
quantity of materials, to distribute them, and supervise their 
use. Arithmetic was integrated with it by problems on cost 
per child per term of twenty weeks. The towels come 150 to 


the package, and 25 packages to the carton, priced at $1.99 
per carton. The children were also allowed to write the letters 
ordering the goods, and to keep the inventory records up to date. 

The students checked one another on the extent to which each 
was keeping clean at home. Each child was expected to secure 
and use a personal face cloth, towel, comb, nail brush, tooth- 
brush, and tooth paste. This was difficult, since many could not 
afford them. Toweling was purchased by the yard, face cloths 
were made by the children from discarded towels, the pupils 
learned to wash and dry their own cloths. Orange sticks and 
sterilized cotton were used as substitutes for a nail brush. Many 
bought files. Where combs, nail brushes and tooth brushes 
could not be procured by the pupils, sample sizes were bought 
from the manufacturers for the cost of shipment. 

When the kits were completed, they were taken home and 
weekly scores kept of their use. The truth of the statements 
on these scores was easily verified by inspection results. 

As an outcome of this unit, a technique for wash-up with 
limited facilities after a football game has been developed for 
the 4A grade. These children, having now progressed to the 
4B, continue their hygiene habits. The new 4A class has been 
invited to send representatives to observe the procedure of their 
predecessors. The 4B class has advanced to a new study, 
utilizing the film, Clean Clothes. 

The teachers of the 4A undertake this health activity each 
term, this being the school level at which the aid is most needed. 
Some children report a family interest in the cleanliness habits, 
and the original classes have undertaken a survey of the extent 
to which other members of families own and use individual 
toilet articles. 

The fact that the interest continues unabated is proof that 
the activity has its roots in a vital local problem. The unusual 
analysis of the techniques of cleanliness is directly traceable to 
the understandable logic of the motion picture, without which 
the benefits from the film would never have been derived. 

Hoke, Georgia C. (Former Director of Health Education, 
Maiden, Mass.) "Classroom Films in Health Teaching." 
Education. 54 :223-8. December 1933. 

The objectives of health education are : In the lower grades 
the teaching problem is focussed on the how of health behavior. 


In the upper grades it is focussed on the why. By planning 
health instruction that will challenge the child's interest, his 
attention will be directed on the matter in hand, and he will 
be provided with impressions that are direct, vivid, rapidly 
acquired, and accurate. One medium is through language, a 
medium used throughout life for the purpose of communication. 
A compensating device for the limitations of language is the 
classroom film. 

In using a film, the teacher should so direct attention before 
screening that the children will note the pertinent facts as the 
film is shown. Children will be directed to such matters as, 
What is it like? How does it work? What is its purpose ? The 
motion picture should be short and pertinent. 

There should be few, if any, comments by the teacher during 
a film showing. This is the practice followed when children are 
engaged in silent reading, and is similarly applicable to film 

Because of the varying richness and difficulty of comprehen- 
sion in the materials of classroom film for health instruction, no 
set rule can be made as to the length of film to be shown, or 
as to the exact procedure in relation to other classroom aids. 
In some cases the entire film may be shown first as a whole, with 
subsequent showing of parts of it. In other cases the subject 
matter of the film may be so rich in new material that pupils 
cannot pay attention to, or profit from a showing of the complete 
film first. In such cases it is best to show parts first, and later 
show the entire film for purposes of review or summarization. 

The science area has probably been better supplied with 
good motion picture material than many of the other sub- 
ject matter fields. Experimental studies show clearly that 
films can make a very definite contribution to science instruc- 
tion, especially on the secondary level. A few references 
dealing with elementary science teaching have been included 
below to indicate some of the practices in schools. 

The Neuner article is an admirable indication of the 
way in which a supervisor has analyzed the potentialities of 
the educational film with relation to the elementary science 
program. This is one of the basic problems now facing the 


visual education movement, and one which can be overcome 
only when all supervisors of instruction have taken the time 
to evaluate the motion picture as it applies to their situation. 
The nature study lesson plan from the Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Handbook suggests the use of a varied assortment of visual 
aids, of which the motion picture is recommended to be used 
for reviewing the unit. The lesson plan which Brunstetter 
includes in his new book was prepared by a New York City 
teacher, Miss McCarthy, using sound films in a science unit. 
Whittinghill describes the cooperation which his Department 
of Visual Education offers to teachers of general science in 
properly editing and correlating suitable motion pictures. 

Neuner, Elsie Flint (Supervisor of Elementary Science, 
New Rochelle, N.Y.) "Films as a Supplement to Experi- 
ence in Elementary Science." Classroom Film. March 1937. 
Eastman Teaching Films Division. Rochester, N.Y. 

The teachers and supervisors of science in the elementary 
schools of New Rochelle have planned the elementary science 
course of study around the central idea of the child living in 
an ever-widening environment. In the lower primary grades 
the child is aided in evaluating his early surroundings, such as 
his .school, the nearest store, his neighbor's and his own back 
yard, and pets. By the end of the third grade his environment 
has extended to include a much larger horizon. He is interested 
in children of other communities and other countries. He wants 
to know where his food comes from, who makes his clothing, 
how do animals at the Zoo live in their native habitat, what 
makes plants grow, and what makes the sun shine? After the 
completion of the intermediate grades, the child begins to ask 
questions beginning with "why" and "how" with more frequency 
than questions beginning with "what." 

The ideal way to study our environment in any of its many 
aspects is to gain first-hand experiences, to answer questions by 
direct observation. It is impossible to devote the time and the 
effort necessary to understand all the aspects of science through 
direct experience. It is therefore desirable to rely upon vicarious 
experiences for enrichment. The motion picture in the hands 



of the elementary teacher in her own classroom, with her own 
class, offers one of the best substitutes for the "real thing." 

The New Rochelle schools purchased five films for science 
instruction. It was found that these could be used in many 
different situations, and in connection with a number of different 
units on various grade levels. It is therefore unnecessary for a 
school system to own a large number of films in order to begin 
to fill vicariously the gaps in actual experience. 

A chart is offered to illustrate the varying uses which can 
be made of fifteen films recommended for a minimum library of 
science films. Each of the films is analyzed in its relation to 
the entire course of study for elementary science in New 

Care of Plants at 
Home and School.... 

Living Things Round 
About Us 

Baby Animals , 

Some Common Birds . 

Seasonal Change .. 
Care of Pets . 

The Conservation of 
Wild Flowers .. 


Foods . 

The Sun, as the 
Giver of Life 
the Source of 

Forms of Water 
Effects of Water .... 

















Stars -and Constella- 

if e of the Past 


.Necessary Factors of 
the Environment .... 


>Trees and Forest* 

The Solar System 

^Weather and Climate.. 

^Life Histories of 

Insects .' 


'he Balance of Na- 

k Progress In Science 
and Invention 
Since Colonial 

.The Changing Surface 
of the Earth 

k Energy Transforma- 

CHART II A minimum film library, and its application to an elementary science program. 

"Third Year Nature Study." In Handbook for the Use of 
Visual Aids. Bulletin No. 18. Board of Public Education. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. p. 49-53. 

Already reviewed on page 160. 


McCarthy, Kathryn (Elementary School Teacher, Brooklyn, 
N.Y.) "Outline of a Typical Unit Taught with a Sound 
Film/' In How to Use the Educational Sound Film, by M. R. 
Brunstetter. University of Chicago Press. 1937. p. 142-50. 

The first lesson provides for a general overview of the study 
of erosion, the showing of an entire film, followed by short 
compositions, poems, and the beginnings of a picture collection. 

In the second- science lesson, the discussion is focussed upon 
unusual land formations. Compositions on erosion are read 
before the group. The meaning of the term, "pothole" is illus- 
trated by showing of a portion of a sound film. The pupils 
then discuss the formation of rocks, rivers, falls, canyons. They 
decide to make a canyon. 

In the third lesson the first part of the film is re-run as a 
silent picture to review the concepts already learned. The work 
of rivers is then introduced through a film. The dust storms 
currently sweeping through parts of our country are cited. With 
reference to the expression, "meandering streams," the class 
is asked to write a composition, and if possible, illustrate it. 

The last lesson on "Work of Running Water" is devoted 
to a special consideration of Niagara Falls. The ways in which 
the rocks under the Falls are worn away provides concrete illus- 
tration of the work of running water. The class is then asked to 
complete its booklet on the unit. 

Whittinghill, W. W. (Department of Visual Education, 
Detroit, Michigan) "General Science Film Program in the 
Detroit Intermediate Schools." Educational Screen. 5 :205- 
6. April 1926. 

After an examination of the twenty science units listed in 
the course of study in General Science, a list of sixty reels of 
motion pictures was recommended. These films were then 
adapted and graded to the development of the pupils in seventh, 
eighth, and ninth grades of the intermediate school. A synopsis 
of the film is placed in the hands of each teacher and suggestions 
made for correlating each film with the units of work. 

The value of the motion picture in developing written and 
oral expression is so well established that writers take this 
for granted and pass on to other values. Most teachers 


reporting their use of films mention, in connection with the 
gains made by a film-aided lesson, that oral and written 
composition were improved. But few articles have been 
found that relate to the exclusive use of motion pictures for 
language work. 

Otto has given the details of a unit on the development 
of the lamp, in which a motion picture was used to intro- 
duce a unit and lantern slides made by the children were 
used to illustrate the knowledge acquired during the study. 
The frame in which the film was used is clearly presented 
in this article. 

A few articles by teachers in schools for deaf children, 
and by two teachers of abnormal children reveal the distinc- 
tive contribution of the motion picture in developing fluency 
of expression with such children. 

Safety education, although not treated as a separate 
subject-matter field in most courses of study, may be the 
topic for a unit in English, as pointed out by Lee, in which 
a motion picture motivated the making of slides. The inten- 
sive safety campaign now going on in the New York State 
schools is greatly enriched by the use of various types of 
visual aids. Stack describes the types of materials used, 
how they are selected, and how they are presented. 

Otto, Elsie I. (Grade 4, School 9, Buffalo, N.Y.) "Motiva- 
tion of English through Films, Slides and Pictures." Educa- 
tional Screen. 14:39-41. February 1935. 

The topic of the unit which was developed in this fourth grade 
class was, "The Development of the Lamp." A motion picture 
entitled, Light of a Race, was used as an introduction. A 
study of vocabulary preceded the film showing. Discussion 
followed it. The children were encouraged to talk freely about 
the different ways in which artificial lighting is created, and 
their talk followed the order of development. The reference 
books on the reading table were used to study intensively each 
type of lamp. A collection of mounted pictures was used to 


illustrate individual reports by the pupils. The class developed 
an outline, guided by the teacher. Oral and written stories 
followed. Home-made slides were prepared to accompany these 
stories. Fifteen of the best drawings were selected to be made 
into slides. The teacher found the children unusually apt in 
making slides and large colored illustrations. 

"Language Teaching by Cinema." Popular Educator. 41 :143. 
November 1923 (Quoted from the London Times) 

An administrator in the national deaf and dumb institute 
in Paris undertook to cooperate with a film producer in making 
films to answer his needs. He wrote scenarios based on the 
7,000 most commonly used words which deaf and dumb children 
would be apt to need in lip-reading. The sentences spoken in the 
dramatizations were short and appropriate to the scene. The 
teacher, after each scene, is expected to stop the projector, and 
by the illumination from a small lamp, repeat the sentence. 

These films were found helpful for language work in the 
mother tongue, as well as for students of other countries study- 
ing French. 

Beauchamp, James B. (Kentucky School for the Deaf) 
"Language from Moving Pictures." Volta Review. 33 : 
123-4. March 1931. 

Carefully selected educational films are found to be most 
helpful for language work in this school. Each Friday morning 
at 8 o'clock, the pupils from second grade up assemble in Chapel 
to see two or three reels of pictures. After the showing the 
pupils return to their classrooms, and follow-up begins. Although 
the films treat of historical, geographical, scientific or other 
material, their content is used mainly for language work. 

Composition work, grammar, and other types of language 
work were found to be aided through the use of films. Some 
classes do more follow-up work than others in the way of defining 
terms, explaining objects or processes, and the like. Some 
teachers plan their geography work to concur with films correlat- 
ing with their work. Smaller children are given drill in speech 
reading after the showing. The teacher asks questions based on 
the film, the answers are spoken and then written into notebooks. 

An example is given of the way in which a film was used 
to teach time clauses in grammar. From the film, Our Daily 


Bread, children were asked to finish incomplete and elliptical 
sentences as follows : 

As soon as the wheat was ripe 
Before the wheat was ground 

before the reaper was invented, 
while the men were threshing the 


The people used a flail to thresh the grain (before, after) the 
thresher was invented. 

Prudhommeau, M. "Utlizing the Cinema for Teaching 
Abnormal Children." International Review of Educational 
Cinematography. 6:747-61. November 1934. 

These recommendations are based on experiences with chil- 
dren in a government school for the improvement of abnormal 
children. The school comprised all types of mental deficients. 
One of the first observations to be made is that the collective 
reactions of abnormal children who are full of interest are the 
same as those produced on normal children under the same 

Some observations from the use of the cinema : 

1. The abnormal child's faculties of understanding and 
perception are very limited. The teacher must take care to avoid 
errors which might be unimportant for normal children, but 
against which such children would have no proper defense. The 
teacher must, then, be sure that the children are in a state to 
understand as far as it is possible, what they will see on the 
screen. The teacher should use the film as a tool, and the chil- 
dren should be made to realize that films can be a source of 
error. The success or failure of a lesson aided by a film depends 
to a large extent upon the amount of preparation on the part 
of the teacher. 

2. Should showings be in the classroom or in special halls? 
Either is desirable, although one or the other is preferable at 

3. Should the film be shown before or after the lesson ? 
Although the opportunity is not always afforded for preparation 
where a film is shown outside the classroom, it is usually desirable 
for the teacher to prepare the children for what they are going 


to see. The film showing may be continuous or interrupted by 
comment. Everything depends upon the nature of the film, the 
result aimed at, and the reactions of the children. 

A teacher of "improvement" classes is fortunate in having no 
other object than education. He has not to bother about ex- 
aminations and their results. This gives him plenty of latitude 
in the choice of his means of teaching and the subjects to be 
dealt with. 

Teachers' manuals cannot take the place of a preview of the 
film itself by the teacher. Such manuals should not tell how 
the teacher should prepare the class, or what questions to ask. 
It ought to contain for the benefit of the teacher, an analysis 
of the film, with particulars of its various parts and the explana- 
tions for a proper undersanding of certain passages. 

4. Silent or sound films? Although the sound film has 
a special attraction for children and exercises a profounder 
psychological influence than the silent picture on many pupils, 
some silent films exercise such a great attraction on these ab- 
normal children that sound is unnecessary. The interest which 
leads a child to follow the action from beginning to end is so 
powerful that it can be transferred from the film itself to the 
person who presents the film. This strengthens the contention 
that it is not the film which teaches, but the teacher. With 
respect to talking films, the remarks of the teacher are preferable 
to the mechanical commentator. Even films where natural sound 
is used are disappointing, since the sounds are dubbed and music 
is usually inserted to fill in an interval. 

5. Fixed or moving projection? Fixed projection should 
be employed in cases where no movement is necessary. Slides 
do not contrast with motion pictures; indeed they supplement 

Parnes, Jean (Burnet School, Newark, NJ.) "The Use of 
Visual' Aids for the Subnormal Child." Educational Screen. 
10:76-7. March 1931. 

Motion pictures, exhibits, slides, and specimens from the 
Newark Department of Visual Education were very helpful in 
guiding desirable social attitudes, fostering self-confidence, and 
developing fluency of expression among subnormal children. 


Lee, Ettie (Mt. Vernon Junior High School) "Highway 
Safety." Los Angeles School Journal 14:16-19. June 27, 

i: As the result of a serious accident which befell a student of 
the school, the safety activity was stimulated. The showing 
of the Yale film, Daniel Boone, served to carry this interest 
still further, because Boone was depicted as a safe adventurer, 
one who took every precaution to protect himself and his com- 
panions from unnecessary exposure and danger. 

The children planned an "all-singing, all-talking, all-color" 
production to bring to the foreground their attitudes on safety. 
Among the activities which this production involved were : 
making maps to scale, constructing bridges to illustrate educa- 
tion, engineering, and enforcement in safety, knowledge of 
safety laws, science, biography, arts, language, playwriting, 
editing, typing, and other subjects. 

Stack, Herbert J. (Director, Education Division, National 
Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters) "Teaching 
Safety through Visual Education." Educational Screen. 15 : 
82-4. March 1936. 

The program of safety education in the New York City 
schools has been enriched by the introduction of a great variety 
of visual aids which are presented by special WPA teachers. 
These teachers visit the classrooms of a number of schools and, 
with the aid of motion pictures, slides, and posters they tend 
to develop habits of precaution among the children. 

The use of slides involves a definite teaching technique. 
Slides should be accompanied by pupil participation. Each 
set is accompanied by a manuscript, which contains stories to 
be related or read to the children. In some cases pupils are 
called on to relate or read the story, or this opportunity is given 
after the visual lesson. 

When using motion pictures, the teacher is provided with a 
synopsis. After some preparation, the film is shown, check 
tests given, and classroom discussion provided. This technique 
involves three steps in the educational process: a felt problem, 
the consideration of the problem in the film, checking knowledge 
acquired, and coming to conclusions through the check test or 
through the discussion. Copies of the check tests for each 
film are available to other teachers who desire them. 


Certain cautions are offered to the safety teachers when 
using visual materials : 

1. Pupil participation through discussion results in greater 
learning than a lecture furnished only by a teacher. 

2. Slides should be used seasonally, stressing the kind of 
safety most important during the current month. 

3. Films should be used in classrooms rather than with 
large groups in the assembly hall. Teachers should be provided 
with facilities for previewing, and manuals as well as check tests 
and questions for discussion. 


A consideration of the trends in using motion pictures 
and other visual aids in secondary education must recognize 
two conditions which prevail in most situations : first, that 
secondary education is departmentalized and teachers are 
subject-matter specialists in their respective fields; and 
secondly, that this departmentalization has tended to segre- 
gate the work of each class to the extent that an indication 
of teaching with visual aids in one subject in a given high 
school is no evidence that this trend applies to other depart- 
ments of the school, or to similar departments in the school 

One of the advantages of having a subject-matter special- 
ist in the secondary school is that such a person makes an 
effort to be kept informed of developments in his field, and 
when convinced of the value of using supplementary teaching 
materials, is alert to the importance of initiating a visual 
education program. Teachers of science, including the 
natural and physical sciences, have, according to the available 
articles, used the motion picture in most systematic fashion. 
The reason for this is apparently that science has always been 
taught by the laboratory method and the motion picture, 


lantern slide, or filmslide are substitutes for an actual demon- 
stration in the laboratory. The funds for laboratory equip- 
ment in science departments usually make provision for the 
purchase and maintenance of projection equipment, and sci- 
ence teachers, having acquired a facility for manipulating 
mechanical apparatus, are less likely to be apprehensive of 
a motion picture projector than would other teachers. 

The next subject matter field in popularity is that of 
geography and the social studies on the secondary level. 
Teachers of commercial subjects, vocational and industrial 
classes, secondary English classes, and foreign language 
classes are increasingly becoming interested in using these 
materials. However, there is no way of knowing to what 
extent these articles actually represent school practice. They 
are only what has appeared in print. 

The articles which were reviewed for this section repre- 
sent an improvement over those of the preceding one, in 
that teachers have been more specific in supplying the infor- 
mation which their teacher-readers need. The objectives to 
be served by visual aids, the sources of materials, their value 
and practicability have been indicated more often by secon- 
dary teachers, as the following pages will illustrate. 

The articles by Rosenblum, Skimin, Hotchkiss, and Lynch 
are particularly noteworthy. 7 

The reports indicate that in general, secondary teachers 
are more aware than are elementary teachers of materials 
already in existence, and when they find such materials want- 
ing, they are increasingly resorting to the production of new 
materials which will have recurring use. The practice among 
elementary school teachers is to make the construction of 
materials a culminating class activity for a unit of work, 
whereas the high school teacher will use such materials as a 
teaching aid or source of information. The articles by 

7 Pages 189, 187, 191, 219. 


Rosenblum, Williams, Skimin, and Gramet 8 indicate such 

Secondary school teachers use motion pictures and other 
visual aids to serve the following purposes : 

1. As background for a unit 

2. To stimulate interest or develop an appreciation 

3. As actual teaching aid, or direct source of information 

4. To sensitize students to social problems 

5. As aids to pupil activity 

6. As review of a unit 

7. For testing 

This section has been classified by subjects. Where an 
author made mention of other subjects of the curriculum, 
these have been cross-referenced in the index. 

An interesting survey was made a few years ago by Bard 
of the extent to which secondary school teachers of Ohio 
received and used projection equipment and materials. His 
findings with respect to teaching techniques are here sum- 
marized because the trends may be applied to other school 
situations in a similar way. 

Bard, C. L. "A Study of the Administration of Projector 
Apparatus in the Secondary Schools of Ohio." Chapter VI. 
Unpublished M.A. thesis. Ohio State University. Columbus. 

A detailed questionnaire submitted to a number of secondary 
schools in Ohio revealed the following information regarding 
techniques of use : 

Many high schools permit pupils to operate their projectors. 
Some prefer to hire an outside operator. Such money could 
be more efficiently used for purchasing and renting materials, 
and high school pupils trained to operate the projectors. 

Kinds of films shown: Of the 215 high schools reporting, 
99 stated that they showed general educational films. Specific 
educational films were shown by 79 schools, 58 reported that 
they showed films for entertainment, and 22 reported that they 
showed films to develop an appreciation for good pictures. 

8 Part Four, page 295. 


To whom the films are shown : Of the high schools answer- 
ing, 34 reported that they always show pictures to the whole 
school at once. In 77 instances it was reported that both methods 
of showing to the whole school at once and to special classes 
were used. Film showings for homogeneous groups were always 
used in 30 schools, and sometimes in 48 schools. Thirty-three 
schools show films at Parent-Teacher meetings. 

When films are shown : Fifty-two of the schools use motion 
pictures at a definite period each week. Forty-two present films 
according to a schedule that meets class needs. Forty high 
schools report showing motion pictures sporadically, 36 show 
films only in the evening before the public, and 5 show them to 
pupils at noon. Many schools reported using films for special 
classes, such as agriculture, biology, chemistry, commercial sub- 
jects, English, and the like. 

Number of minutes per week devoted to motion pictures: 
In 17 of the schools reporting, films are shown fifteen minutes 
per week. Thirty minutes per week were allotted in 42 schools, 
and forty-five minutes in 14 schools. Six high schools reported 
that they devote more than 150 minutes per week to motion 
pictures. These latter, incidentally, were all city high schools. 

Preparation for film showings: Twenty- four high schools 
reported that teachers preview the films before showing them. 
Lesson plans (when available) are used by 45 schools, occa- 
sionally by 40 schools, only when urged by 8 schools, and never 
by 25 schools. 

Preparation of pupils for film showings: Many schools 
did not answer this question, but some of those reporting do 
not require special preparation for film showings. Some form 
of preparation, ranging from fifteen minutes to sixty minutes 
was required in 68 per cent of the cases. 

Methods of explanation before a picture is shown: A large 
per cent of the high schools give the pupils a general explana- 
tion of the film before showing. Many lecture during the show- 
ing. This method is satisfactory only when the projector can 
be stopped while the teacher takes time to explain certain points 
of especial interest. Many of the schools use textbook correla- 
tion. Other methods used were: general explanation before 
showing, merely pointing out the main points, and in some cases, 
no explanation at all. 


Discussion after a picture is shown: Nine schools did not 
discuss a picture in class after it was shown. Discussion for 
about fifteen minutes was permitted in 53 schools, for thirty 
minutes in 25 cases, for forty-five minutes in 13 schools, and 
for sixty minutes in 3 schools. The majority of the high schools 
require some discussion of the films after they are shown. 

The extent to which motion picture information is included 
in final examinations or final grades: The majority of the 
schools indicated that they did not base any of their final ex- 
aminations or final grades upon the pictures shown. About one- 
third of them base from 10 to 20 per cent of the final exam- 
ination or final grade upon the pictures shown. These results 
indicate one of two things, either most of the persons filling 
out this questionnaire did not understand that the use of motion 
pictures is a teaching procedure and should be regarded as 
such, or the use of films is still a comparatively young practice, 
and is as yet but little understood by the persons administering 

The article by Katz presents the aspects of art education 
which may be treated through motion pictures. The author 
has also given existing motion picture titles to be used in 
achieving the objectives of art education. Since the publica- 
tion of this article, several additional films have been pro- 
duced and indications are that more will be developed as art 
educators become aware of the potentiality of the motion 

Katz, Elias (Graduate student, Teachers College, Columbia 
University, N.Y.) "Educational Possibilities of Motion Pic- 
ture Films in Art Courses." Educational Screen. 13 :97. 
April 1934. 

There are many aspects of art education which suitable 
motion pictures can enrich : 

1. The teaching of the history of art, for which a few 
films have already been made, namely : 

Temples and Tombs of Ancient Egypt (Metropolitan 
Museum of Art), a travel film showing important 
existing monuments. 


The Hidden Talisman (Museum of Art), a historical 

film showing medieval life. 
The Pottery Maker (Museum of Art), a masterpiece 

of art showing the American art of the 1860's. 
Ten Commandments, King of Kings, M. Beaucaire, and 

other theatrical productions. 

2. The teaching of the appreciation of art, exemplified by 
such films : 

Twenty-Four Dollar Island, a travel film by Robert 
Flaherty showing magnificent views of N.Y.C. Con- 
tains fine arrangement of line, mass, and tone in archi- 
tecture. (Pathe) 

The Spectre, a historical film showing costumes and 
architecture of Colonial times. (Museum of Art) 

Etcher's Art, a biographical film of Frank Benson and 

Glass Blowing, with Specimens of Ancient and Medieval 
Glass, a process film giving a critical appreciation of 
glass ware. 

The Gorges of the Giants, a Fox Movietone of natural 
beauty, showing beautiful arrangements of moving line 
and tone. 

3. The actual practice of art may be supplemented by such 
films as : 

Models in Motion (Eastman), in which drawing is 

Animated lines or scenic effects may be demonstrated through 
films. In design and composition, abstract purposive films of 
natural beauty could here also be used. Films give a clearer 
insight into technical processes when simply demonstrated, and 
will indirectly aid in manipulation. 

The use of films for teaching certain skills in drawing 
has already been illustrated. Two teachers of typewriting 
and stenography have realized the possibility of using an 
original motion picture to illustrate proper technique for 
teaching the skills of their respective subjects. The articles 
by Skimin and Wood, furthermore, place the motion picture 
in its framework to fit the course in beginning typing and 


Rosenblum studied the findings of a survey on "Visual 
Aids in Business Education" and proceeded to make a unique 
contribution to his field by developing a series of filmslide 
lessons on certain topics in accountancy. These are used as 
drill materials. Two articles describing his work are sum- 
marized here. 

Skimin, Eleanor (Detroit, Michigan) "Motivating the 
Writing of Shorthand through the Use of Motion Pictures." 
Eastern Commercial Teachers Association Yearbook. 6 :232. 

A motion picture, Correct Shorthand Technique, was de- 
veloped by the writer at Washington State College. 

The broad objectives to be served by the film: There is 
a necessity for developing correct habits of writing in short- 
hand. The steps in the learning process as outlined by Morrison 
are: setting the model, imitation, criticism, and drill. On the 
part of the learner they are: getting an idea of what is to be 
done, trying to do it, finding out whether the effort is successful 
or not, and drill, drill, drill. The motion picture is used to 
set the model. 

Specific objectives to be served by the film: This film is 
in keeping with the philosophy that dictation should begin early 
in the shorthand course, and that the program should blend 
writing, reading, and transcription from the outset. Early dicta- 
tion, then, should give adequate attention to correct habits of 
writing, to guidance, and stimulation. 

Description of the motion picture: The position of the body 
and arms in taking dictation is an important factor in the 
beginning stages of learning shorthand, as are correct hand 
movements, rhythm, and repetition. These are all clearly shown 
in the film. 

Evaluation of the film in the light of these objectives : The 
film aids in developing from the outset correct habits of writing. 
The pupil is getting dictation down at the beginning at 60 to 80 
words per minute with the greatest ease and skill, yet the men- 
tion of speed has been given little consideration. His mind can 
be directed later to what is being written, but at the beginning 
he is intent upon how. The student is brought into the proper 


attitude toward his work, and transcription of his notes on the 
typewriter can and should begin from the first days of learning. 

Skimin, Eleanor (Northern High School, Detroit) and 
Wood, Ethel (State College of Washington, Pullman) 
"Motion Pictures: A Device in the Teaching of Typewrit- 
ing." Educational Screen. 13 :265. December 1934. 

The motion picture, Teaching Beginners How to Type- 
write, illustrates the fundamental typewriter operations, such as 
correct stroking, correct use of the shift key, proper carriage 
return, rhythm, inserting and removing paper, use of tabulator 
key, and so on. The picture also illustrates definitely that 
increased speed comes from increased finger action when writing 
habits are correctly established during the early learning periods. 

This teaching device will increase the effectiveness of in- 
struction over the oral class analysis of finger exercises letter 
by letter. The film facilitates the learning process, prevents and 
eliminates tendencies to incorrect learning, and controls the 
physiological and psychological conditions under which the pupil 
must learn. 

Rosenblum, Irving (Franklin K. Lane High School, Brook- 
lyn, N.Y.) "An Accounting Lesson on a Roll of Film." 
High Points. 19, no. 5 :60-4. May 1937. 

This article is a report upon the progress made by two 
teachers in the preparation of home-made films and slides for 
use as lessons in accounting and related subjects. Two com- 
pleted units were exhibited before the Association of Account- 
ing Chairmen by C. A. Gramet, first assistant in biology, and 
the writer co-authors of the accounting lessons. 

How the problem originated: The findings of a survey pub- 
lished in the Journal of Business Education in 1933 reporting 
available "Visual Aids in Business Education," revealed that: 

1. There were no films prepared for instruction in account- 

2. There were many that might be suitable for use in busi- 
ness training classes. 

3. The films were produced by business firms, chiefly for 
advertising purposes. Exception is noted in favor of the stenog- 
raphy and typing films by Skimin and Wood. 9 

g See articles above. 


4. Development of a film library, based on existing mate- 
rials, might be begun. 

5. Commercial subjects offer a fertile field for application 
of visual devices. 

The question is asked, "If a film is needed for use as a 
lesson, should it not be prepared with some regard for the 
recognized principles of pedagogy?" 

What has been done: 

1. An opaque projector is being used to correct homework 
in bookkeeping, eliminating waste of time in ruling forms on 
the blackboard. More time is thereby permitted for remedial 

2. Plans have been made for a series of films for use in 
business training classes. These plans are consistent with the 
courses of study in that field in the schools of New Jersey, New 
York State, Idaho, Virginia, and in the cities of Lansing, 
St. Louis, Denver, Philadelphia, and New York. Among the 
subjects already prepared for photographing are lessons on: 
Purchases Routine, Preparation of the Payroll, Shipping by 
Rail, Filing, and Business Papers. These lessons have been 
planned so that they may be applied to business arithmetic, 
bookkeeping, and business law. 

3. Certain topics in bookkeeping have been developed on 
film, such as: Interpretation of Financial Statements, Source 
of Bookkeeping Record, Closing Entries, and the Merchandise 

4. Lantern slides on law and two rolls of filmslide on 
accountancy were presented as an illustration of the technique 

What is to be done: A committee of commercial teachers 
should be organized to investigate the possibilities of visual 
education. Teachers should also be secured who would be 
willing to make experimental use of these materials. And a 
film library should be inaugurated at once as the starting point 
for a more extensive program. 

Rosenblum, Irving (Franklin K. Lane High School, N.Y.) 
"Film Slide Lessons in Accounting." Educational Screen. 
14:232. October 1935. 

With the cooperation of another teacher experienced in 
photography, a series of film slides was produced to assist in 


teaching the unit, "Closing the Ledger" in elementary and 
advanced accounting. They were prepared to fill a definite 
need on the part of a busy teacher for some condensed and 
permanent form of the various types of entries required in 
bookkeeping. The topic requires so many blackboard illustra- 
tions that it is seldom reviewed by teachers, but merely passed 
over with a casual remark. The film slide was used in prefer- 
ence to glass slides because a definite sequence was desired, 
and for its compactness and permanence. Although the cost is 
greater, the results justify it. 

The filmslide lesson shows clearly that the entire accounting 
procedure is merely a technical manner of recording and report- 
ing the elementary problem solved mathematically at the begin- 
ning of the lesson. A multiple approach, through arithmetic, 
through a statement of profit and loss, and through the ledger 
insures an understanding of the closing records. Three times 
in the course of the film lesson, opportunities are provided for a 
summary of the knowledge gained. The Sales Income account 
permits a review of the trading section of the Profit and Loss 
Statement, and the arithmetical computation of gross profit 
from figures of sale and cost. The Profit and Loss account 
affords a similar opportunity for discovering the relationship 
between "overhead" expenses and the operating section in the 
Profit and Loss Statement. A chart at the end summarizes the 
sequence of the transfer entries. 

A second filmslide lesson has been prepared for advanced 
classes in accountancy. 

The social science area on the secondary level presents 
many possibilities for the profitable use of films. The ex- 
periences of Hotchkiss in a Chicago school, where films were 
used as an integral part of a unit in American History, 
should prove unusually valuable to other teachers. The 
reader is referred to the original article for more adequate 
description than can be furnished by an abstract. 

The article by Sharpe reveals the many types of interests 
which can be developed and encouraged through an efficient 
social studies laboratory in a school using the activity pro- 
gram of instruction. 


Rothfuss, Halsey, Thralls, Olsen, and Williams have 
given fine evidence of the integrated use of all visual aids for 
developing their respective units. Rothfuss applied his mate- 
rials to a unit on Abraham Lincoln; Halsey used visual aids 
for a unit on the insular possessions of the United States; 
Thralls was concerned with developing, with a class in com- 
mercial geography, proper insight into the coffee industry 
in its world relations; Olsen, as curator of a school museum 
in a commercial high school, indicates how the materials for 
classes in economic geography vary from actual specimens, 
models, charts, and similar realia to the projected picture 
in the form of slides, filmslides, or motion pictures showing 
the processes involved in manufacture. The unit on New 
England capes, developed by Williams, is well integrated, 
indicating that ample opportunity was afforded for pupil 

Brown provides a summary of the methods used by 
twenty teachers in junior high school history. Many of 
these suggestions will be of value to teachers interested in 
promoting pupil activity in connection with visual aids. 

Hotchkiss, Grace (Hyde Park High School, Chicago) "The 
Use of the Motion Picture as a Technique of Instruction." 
Social Studies. 28:6-13. January 1937. 

The use of the motion picture as a planned and regular 
technique of instruction in U.S. History II classes was the 
subject of an experiment conducted at Hyde Park High School 
during the spring semester, 1936. 

Subject matter: The eight units of the second semester's 
work in American history were studied, and a list of films suit- 
able for each unit compiled. At the close of the course, one 
motion picture was used as part of the review work. The films, 
with one exception, fall into two general classes, first those 
pictures which trace historically the development of some aspect 
of the unit; and those which illustrate the characteristics of the 
unit or of some aspect of the unit. The motion picture Head- 
lines of a Century is in itself a review of the outstanding 


features in the social, economic, and political life of the Amer- 
ican nation for the last half century and was consequently used 
as review. 

Instructional activities: The motion pictures for the unit 
were listed as part of the reference material on the mime- 
ographed lesson sheet distributed to students. The special type 
of activity employed in the study of a picture was part of the 
preliminary instructions for the unit study. Some of the activi- 
ties which related to films were: a series of questions especially 
planned to show the relationship of the picture information to 
the unit ; a skeleton outline to be developed into an informational 
outline ; a summary, emphasizing the outstanding features of 
the picture and showing how the study of the film aided in the 
understanding of the unit; a list of general principles to be 
proved by illustrative material from the film, organized together 
with other references into a chart; a series of events to be 
arranged in time order; and maps, charts or graphs based on 
information in the film. 

Activities during the class hour in which the picture is 
shown can be managed in several ways. As a usual practice, 
the class watched a sound film through with no discussion unless 
some pupil asked for a second showing of a part of the film, 
or asked that the picture be stopped at a special scene for 
additional explanation. 

Some of the techniques used with the silent film were : lecture 
by one pupil; lecture by the teacher; informal comments by the 
teacher ; a committee report, with several pupils taking part ; a 
lecture by an authority from within or outside the school; a 
question and answer recitation, in which the questions do not 
detract from the film. 

Follow-up procedure : It is imperative that some class time 
immediately following the showing of the film be devoted to 
a discussion. Especially is this -true for the first few pictures, 
in order to offset the impression that movies are intended for 
recreation. There was no assigned method of recitation for the 
follow-up period. Whatever the type of procedure used, it must 
serve to realize one aim, that of broadening the concept of the 
unit through the illustrative material provided in the film. 

Testing: A brief class test, either new type or essay, is 
an excellent method to use in the follow-up recitation. It was 


customary in this experiment to give a test at the completion 
of each unit. The film material had a definite place in this test. 
Knowledge gained from the study of a picture was found to be 
more effectively reviewed if the pupil expected to be responsible 
for using it. 

Evaluation of results: The results of this experiment are 
difficult to separate in any scientific manner, since the number 
of pupils involved was small, and since the motion pictures were 
only one of several sources contributing to the mastery of the 
unit. One result, however, was the enjoyment of the pupils, 
bringing with it concentrated attention and interesting follow-up 
periods. Another result was the fact that a larger proportion 
of the class succeeded in answering those questions on the unit 
test which were based on the film than those based on the read- 
ings. An average of 85 per cent answered correctly questions 
based on class discussion, and an average of 91 per cent gave 
correct answers to questions based on the films. It was not 
possible to judge results as accurately for those questions which 
were based on a variety of experiences. 

Provision for individual differences: The superior students 
prepared lectures to be given to explain the silent film, or served 
as chairmen of committees making group reports. Students 
who did not have the ability to make sustained reports for an 
entire film gave very creditable talks in connection with com- 
mittee reports. 

New avenues of interest opened up by the movies were 
investigated by the abler students who volunteered additional 
reports. One girl followed up a picture on women in industry 
by correspondence with the Women's Bureau, which resulted 
in an illustrated report on "The Present Status of Women in 
Industry." A boy made a tour of CCC camps in the immediate 
vicinity to supplement the film on CCC camps. Two pupils, 
interested in the personnel of the TVA, carried on a cor- 
respondence with the president of Antioch College, who is also 
in charge of the Tennessee Valley Authority, with the conse- 
quence that these pupils entered Antioch College after graduating 
from the high school. 

Children of meager opportunity and slow intellect were 
especially aided by the films in learning the details of mass 
production, the influence of labor saving machinery, the preci- 


sion of modern manufacturing, the evolution of the airplane, 
and other such technicalities of modern industry. 

Socialising experiences: Very beneficial social experiences 
arise from the motion picture program. Through the film the 
classroom is broadened into a new, vivid world of which each 
pupil becomes a part. The motion picture as a form of recre- 
ation can be considered, the cultural appreciation of art and 
music can be broadened. A film on American Art, for example, 
served to introduce the foundation of understanding of modern 
American painting. Pictures on the World War and peace 
were the focal points for a discussion of the individual's duty 
in aiding in the preservation of peace. The TVA film, the 
one on soil erosion campaigns, and the one treating the fight 
against disease served to widen the pupil's knowledge of the 
social responsibilities of American citizens. Contact with the 
occupational world was built up through films to establish a 
background of experience. The evolution of the oil industry, 
the activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the 
stock market developed an understanding of occupations and 
the nature of the work of the world, as well as the social and 
economic significances of various aspects of the occupational 

Opportunities for group work were many. Group reports 
given in the classroom to accompany a film showing, a com- 
mittee in charge of returning films to the distributor, a com- 
mittee which ordered the films and called for them, a committee 
working on a time schedule for showing the films, for reserving 
the machine and operators, a committee of superior students 
to help in selecting the films for the course, a committee to 
arrange for previewing these made provision for participation 
by every member of the class. The committees worked during 
the class hour, as well as before and after school. 

Mechanics of the film program: The school owned a 16mm. 
sound projector, a 16mm. silent machine, and a portable screen. 
Student operators were trained by one of the science teachers 
and a schedule worked out for them by which they did not lose 
class time in operating the machines. The science teacher took 
care of all the mechanical details involved in the film program. 

Financing the film program: Of the 35 films used in the 
experiment, twenty-seven were loaned free of charge, the only 
expense being cost of transportation. One rental film was paid 


for by the family of a pupil. The entire cost of the program 
was $27, of which $15 was expended for one film. The school 
had a small general fund for rentals and postage. The class 
members were asked to contribute five cents each toward rental 
fees, if they so wished. Many pupils offered more with the 
remark that admission to commercial movies cost much more. 
Sometimes two or three teachers working in the same field 
arranged their class programs to use the same picture, and con- 
tributed toward the payment. In this manner rental, postage, 
and a small surplus were realized on each rental film. The most 
expensive film was Headlines of a Century, which was used 
by all teachers of American and Modern History. In all, there 
were 64 reels of film borrowed during the semester. The aver- 
age cost was slightly over 40 cents per reel for five hundred 

Details of management : 

1. Two reels of film are best for a 40-minute class period, 
if time for setting up and removing machines, and for discus- 
sion is to be provided. 

2. Films can be shown effectively in an average classroom 
with ordinary window shades drawn. 

3. The classroom is the best place to use for showing films. 
Grouping of several classes renders the group spirit, a social 
rather than an intellectual occasion. The teacher finds the 
development of a proper audience attitude the main concern 
of the period, rather than the enrichment of pupils' experiences 
in the interpretation of a history unit. 

4. Sound films are better in a large auditorium; silent films, 
however, are as effective as sound. The latter require more 
careful follow-up discussion, since the comment of the speaker 
are not strictly in keeping with the classroom work. The school 
is beginning to assemble films which will have a constant educa- 
tional value. Films for use in social sciences, however, are 
either free or are too prohibitive in price to be purchased. 

5. A teacher cannot efficiently present a motion picture to 
a class unless he is familiar with it. 

6. Until a teacher has experimented with motion pictures 
over a period of time, the only way he can arrange a program 
is by use of the trial and error method. Titles and advertising 
matter do not always give sufficient background for the film 


7. A list of motion pictures should be planned when the 
course is planned. They should be as important in the course 
as any other reference materials, and should be reserved well 
in advance. 

In planning the film program for this experiment, the teacher 
and the student committee canvassed the exhaustive film catalogs 
put out by commercial companies. In the same manner the 
catalogues of agencies handling free films were checked. A 
tentative program was laid out. Pupils wrote to the producers 
for additional explanatory information on the pictures chosen. 
In the light of these findings, a final list was made out. Free 
films were reserved at once. When it seemed impossible to get 
a rental film from any free source, and when no free one was 
found to substitute it, the rental film was reserved. 

Conclusions: The increased interest in class work, the keen 
enjoyment of the film recitation, and the really excellent work 
of many pupils seem to justify the film program in this subject, 
United States History. One pupil made this parting observation, 
"It's great to have learned to use a movie like you use a book." 

Tables appended to the article : 

I. Alphabetical index of motion pictures, with addresses of 


II. Relationship of the motion pictures to the units of instruc- 
III. Films classified on a basis of treatment of subject matter 

A. Films which are historical in development of subject 

B. Films which are descriptive of present day conditions. 

Sharpe, Florence (Belmont High School, Los Angeles) 
"The Social Studies Laboratory." Los Angeles School 
Journal. 14:7-10. June 27, 1931. 

The social science laboratory developed at the Belmont High 
School has taken on the practical character which has heretofore 
been attributed only to the field of the exact sciences. 

The laboratory began as a projection room for films and 
slides. The projection machines were kept running four days 
a week, nine periods a day, with from two to three reels of 
film running each period. The films had been previewed by the 
teachers before showing. 

A World War Museum was then placed in the room and 
circulated throughout the various departments. Stillfilms, slides, 


stereographs, wall charts, pictures, graphs, blackboard drawings, 
relics, maps, and plans were added to the collection. Gradually 
this room became so popular that another room had to be 
annexed. Here at long laboratory tables students in economic 
geography worked out problems by doing. They used a sand 
table, plastic clay, soap, etc., and invited guest speakers from 
industrial organizations. One outcome of this laboratory was 
an interest in books as a means of acquiring necessary and 
highly desired knowledge. 

It was concluded by the teacher that a visual education 
program may be handled more easily under an activity cur- 
riculum than would be possible under any other system. 

Rothfuss, Howard (Thomas A. Edison School, Cleveland, 
Ohio) "Visual Education Project on the Life of Abraham 
Lincoln." Educational Screen. 10:8-10. January 1931. 

The steps in the development, and some related activities are : 

1. Lantern slides depicting the public and private life of 
Abraham Lincoln were shown and discussed by the teacher 
while the pupils listened attentively. They were not permitted 
to ask questions during the first lesson. The slides were shown 
again the next period, with questions by the teacher and then 
by the pupils. The period of discussion worked up interest and 
a desire for more materials. 

2. The boys formulated questions based on the slides and 
sought the answers in reference books. The students decided 
to build an exhibit of articles from the different periods of 
Lincoln's life, including a log cabin, books he read when a boy, 
the ax he used and rails he split, the store and post-office where 
he was known as 'Honest Abe', his first law book, and the like. 

3. English, history, art, and shop teachers were called in 
to cooperate in the project. 

4. A study sheet was prepared by the auditorium teacher 
and used following the lesson with slides. It contained quota- 
tions from Lincoln's speeches, which the class memorized. A 
few sketches from his life were dramatized. 

5. The boys were responsible for preparing reports on the 
articles to be used in the exhibit. 

6. A final test to measure achievement was administered. 


7. The motion picture, Land of Opportunity, was shown 
to illustrate Lincoln's keen wit. 

Some of the understandings which resulted from this project 
were : 

(a) An interesting study of Lincoln's life. 

(b) Places he lived, located on the map. 

(c) Type of conditions, and the effect of environment on 

Lincoln's life. 

(d) The real character of Lincoln, as illustrated by his deal- 

ings with others, and by his speeches. 

(e) The duties of the President, his worries and cares, his 

enemies, political courtesies, office seekers, and finally 
the Civil War. 

(f) Integration of English, art, and shop work with history. 

Halsey, James H. (Instructor in Geography, High School, 
Hammond, Indiana) "An Experiment in Geography Teach- 
ing." Educational Screen. 15:137-40. May 1936. 

This unit was prepared in the form of a small experiment 
to determine whether the use of visual aids in the conventional 
classroom would help the students acquire more knowledge; and 
secondly, to determine whether the use of visual aids with a 
modified teaching technique and class plan would be better than 
using visual aids in the conventional class plan. 

The conventional class plan is defined as that using daily 
assignments, class recitation and discussion, and supervised class 
study. The modified teaching technique eliminated homework 
assignments and used the informal-lecture discussion method. 

Three classes of pupils about fifteen years of age were used. 
The Control Group numbered 29 pupils. They were taught the 
unit on "Insular Possessions of the U.S." in the conventional 
classroom manner without the use of films or slides. Experi- 
mental Group I, numbering 29 pupils, were given similar instruc- 
tion, except that films and slides were shown. Experimental 
Group II, numbering 22 pupils, were taught by the modified 
teaching procedure, using motion pictures and slides. 

A comparison of the general ability of the three groups with 
respect to their median intelligence scores, median scores on a 
standard test in United States geography, and median scores 
on a pretest of the insular possessions of the United States 
revealed that the Control Group had the highest general ability, 
Experimental Group I the second highest, and Experimental 


Group II the lowest general ability. The objective test given 
before and after the experiment was of the multiple choice type, 
being almost all factual instead of thought-provoking, as it was 
believed the former was a truer test of the information and 
knowledge acquired. 

The results of the experiment, as indicated by the scores on 
the end-test, are in exactly opposite order to the results that 
might be expected from the general abilities of the three groups. 
Experimental Group II, having the modified teaching technique 
with visual aids, made the highest scores. Experimental Group I, 
having visual aids and the conventional teaching methods, with 
textbook, made the second highest scores. The Control Group, 
having seen no films or slides, made the lowest scores. 

Conclusions : 

In addition to the increase in knowledge and information 
which resulted, there were other advantages, such as new inter- 
ests and attitudes, none of which could be measured. The 
thoughtful questions asked by the students in the two experi- 
mental groups, as well as their genuine interest and enthusiasm 
during class, are somewhat indicative of these advantages. 
Whether these groups will retain more than the control group 
will be measured by a retention test. 

The evidence definitely shows that visual aids are an ad- 
vantage in teaching. However, in order to achieve the best 
results with visual aids, the ordinary teaching methods and 
classroom management need to be modified. 

The plan used with Experimental Group II was to lecture 
at the beginning of the class on the subject for that day. Then 
the films and slides were projected and the various scenes care- 
fully explained and elaborated. While the pictures were being 
shown, many questions were asked and very often spirited dis- 
cussions occurred. Always at these moments the slides were 
left projected and the films stopped or run over. If any time 
remained after the pictures were shown, some of the more 
difficult matters were again discussed. 

Thralls, Zoe A. (Assistant Professor of Geography, Univ. of 
Pittsburgh) "The Use of Visual Materials in Commercial 
Geography." Eastern Commercial Teachers Association 
Yearbook, 8:78-83. 1935. 

Pupils must have an adequate basis for thinking geographi- 
cally. The use of visual materials in commercial geography is 


an essential means for developing accurate concepts. These 
materials must be properly organized and planned. In the first 
place, the visual aid must be the type best suited to develop 
the concept needed; secondly, it must be an integral part of the 
instructional unit; and lastly, it must be used under appropriate 

A unit in commercial geography dealing with the "Coffee 
Industry in Its World Relations," was introduced through picto- 
graphs, bar graphs, and maps. Five topics were assigned, with 
problems involving reasoning and comparisons under each. 

The fundamental principles in selecting and using visual aids 
which a teacher should consider are: 

1. The type of material used in a specific situation should 
be the one that presents the desired information most 
effectively and economically. 

2. The teacher must know the specific, distinctive function 
of each type and how to fit it into the instructional unit. 

3. Pupil must be given something definite to find when using 
the material, and the information he is asked to find must 
be needed at that time. 

4. Pupil must be trained to check information gained from 
one source against that secured from another. 

Olsen, Estelle (Curator, Commercial Museum, High School 
of Commerce, New York City) 'The Use of Visual Ma- 
terials in the High School of Commerce." Eastern Commer- 
cial Teachers Association Yearbook. 6:208-13. 1933. 

The Commercial Museum, located in the basement of the 
High School of Commerce since 1928, caters particularly to the 
needs of students and teachers of economic geography. It in- 
cludes a visual instruction room, equipped with 35mm. silent 
projector, a stereopticon, an opaque lantern, globes, blackboards, 
and the like; a study section, with cases, table displays, chairs 
and desks; and a store room and preparation room with vertical 
files, cabinets, and other materials. 

Students report to the Museum on alternate weeks. The 
course in economic geography, which requires a year for comple- 
tion, is divided into two parts, first the Economic Geography 
of the United States, and second, the Economic Geography of 
Foreign Countries. On the even weeks students see films which 
correlate directly with the subject studied in the classroom. The 
films deal with processes in the manufacture of raw materials. 


The motion picture has been judged as the best medium for 
illustrating these processes, and for showing the scenery, life, 
agriculture, and industries of the countries studied. 

An example of the way in which visual aids are correlated 
with the course of study is evidenced by the following unit on 
"Non-Ferreous Metals." 

On an assigned period of the week, the pupils report to the 
study section of the Commercial Museum. There they find 
prepared for them samples of non-ferreous metals, such as 
sheet zinc, galvanized steel sheet, steel sheet coated with zinc, 
and so on. Each student is provided with a work sheet to 
acquaint himself with some qualities of these materials. They 
test the elasticity of heat; they compare weight of aluminum, 
tin, copper, and lead; they compare the color of each, discuss 
uses, and other aspects. Their notebook report, due after this 
laboratory period, is amplified by material secured from texts 
and reference books. Displays are secured from the large 
manufacturing concerns through the supply office, or through 
the resourcefulness of the curator. 

The following week the students report with their parallel 
class to the visual instruction section of the Museum. Here 
they are shown two reels of the film, From Mine to Consumer, 
on copper, and one reel on the method of obtaining sulphur by 
the Frasch process. The teacher draws the attention of the 
students to important features during the showing and while 
the reels are being changed, the students make brief notations 
in their notebooks to be used in the recitation period that follows. 

The curator is constantly on the alert for new sources of 
material, and displays are changed frequently. 

Teachers of classes in domestic and foreign trade, chemistry, 
English, journalism, art, and geography all make use of the 
Museum. Students often apply to the Museum for help in 
preparing illustrated talks. 

Williams, Paul T. (Instructor in Social Studies, High School, 
Ballston Spa, N.Y.) "A Visit to the New England Capes: 
A Unit of Study in Economic Geography." Educational 
Screen. 15:142-3, 173-5. May, June 1936. 

The teacher selected this unit, "A Visit to the New England 
Capes" because the New England coast, the ocean, the fishing, 
the boats, the people have always been interesting to people of 


all ages. Interest in the unit was aroused by the showing of 
two carefully selected slides made from photographs which 
the teacher had taken during a visit to that region. A relief 
map of the region under discussion was the other type of visual 
aid used in the introduction. The outcome of this lesson was 
the development of an outline containing the phases of life in 
the New England capes in which the students were interested. 

It was planned that the information would be developed by 
individual pupils, working in small groups, and presented to the 
class through illustrated reports. A bibliography, suggested by 
the teacher, gave the student assistance with respect to reference 
books, sources of information, and sources of illustrative mate- 

The student reports were adequately supplemented by maps, 
slides, pictures, original sketches, and exhibits. The members 
of the class made and brought in hand-made slides on a fishing 
schooner, a sand dune, and a quarry. The class arranged an 
excursion to the Automobile Club of Saratoga Springs and 
Schnectady. They wrote to the Chambers of Commerce of the 
towns which they were studying, and received circulars and 
exhibits for further study. One of the important outcomes of 
this unit was interest in reading about this section of the country. 
The making of slides and amateur photography took on a new 
meaning for the pupils, many of them developing these as 

To summarize the unit, the teacher presented two short 
films on the New England Fisheries. These films presented 
the problems faced by fishermen, the hardships they endure 
under severe weather, the methods of catching cod and mackerel, 
and the process of preparing fish for market. 

Some conclusions made by the teacher on the use of visual 
aids are: 

1. The scarcity of suitable material was formerly a handi- 
cap. Now textbook illustrations are well selected to represent 
accuracy and typical situations, and other visual aids which 
approach reality more closely are more easily obtained than 

2. The teacher should have in mind the social setting of 
the unit and develop the details only in connection with the 
background. The span of attention of the pupil is short. Each 


topic must be made vital to him and a real need for studying 
it shown. Simplicity of instruction and understanding for sub- 
ject matter should be aimed at throughout the unit of work. 
The immediate reaction of the pupil to a new problem is vitally 

3. In every case the problem should be presented with an 
interesting approach, often in story form followed by the show- 
ing of one or two pictures. The slides or pictures should be 
selected very carefully as to subject matter and only a few 
should be used at a time. The illustrative material should be 
designed to provoke questions rather than answer them. The 
motion picture has a definite part in the summary of this unit, 
in that it brings together the detached parts into a single unit 
so that the pupil gets a mental grasp of the whole. 

Brown, Harriet McCure (University of Southern California) 
"Teaching Aids and Activities for Junior High School His- 
tory." Historical Outlook. 21 :384-6. December 1930. 

Some of the methods by which twenty teachers use films, 
pictures, slides, stillfilms, realia, maps and the like in junior 
high school history instruction may be summarized as follows: 

Still pictures are used for making pictorial notebooks as 
individual or class projects, on bulletin boards, for a permanent 
picture file, to introduce a new topic, to help understand a 
difficult subject, to illustrate oral reports, as foundation for oral 
reports, as basis for written compositions, textbook illustrations 
for observation, comprehension, and comparison, as a game, 
to acquire information, for atmosphere, and for lectures. 

Motion pictures are used to introduce a new unit, as part of 
regular classroom instruction, to stimulate observation, to de- 
velop written expression, for appreciation, for review, and for 

Lantern slides are used to illustrate pupil reports, teacher 
reports, to develop observation, and for review. 

Still films are used like slides. 

Source materials of history are used as visual aids. Pupils 
contribute relics, start a permanent museum, have a discovery 
day at local historical spots, visit museums, and prepare reports. 

Other visual aids which may be used are the blackboard, 
charts, diagrams, and time lines. 


Among the activities of history classes which were reported 
were map making, slide making, dramatizations, writing activi- 
ties stimulated by films, drawing activities including the cartoon, 
construction activities, activities in reading stimulated by films 
or slides. 

The reports below are of especial interest to the teacher 
of English. Lewin, in two articles, has correlated the use of 
educational films with work in English. The theatrical 
motion picture suggests many possibilities for developing 
units in English classes. The course of study by Sterner and 
Bowden offers specific guidance along this line. 10 The lesson 
plan which has been so admirably developed by Newton 
was concerned with the ways in which a current novel, 
Arrowsmith, and possibly its motion picture transcription, can 
assist in developing socially beneficial attitudes and ideals 
among students of English. Other concomitant outcomes 
are also described in this article. Similar projects might be 
undertaken with more recent motion picture adaptations of 
literary classics. 

Lewin, William (Newark, NJ.) "Photoplays for Voca- 
tional Guidance." Educational Screen. 6 :452-4. December 

In a ninth-grade class the composition work was centered 
about a series of one-reel films for a period of three months. 
The pupils studied every film from occupational angles. Their 
object was to gain vocational information and to point out the 
requirements, the advantages, and the disadvantages of many 
occupations. Some of the pictures were not very good, but 
generally they were valuable in showing men and women at 
work, often in interesting settings. 

The experiment demonstrated forcefully that a one-reel pic- 
ture requiring fifteen minutes for projection, and allowing 
fifteen minutes for preparation, and fifteen minutes for im- 
mediate reaction greatly enhanced the interest of the children 
in their composition work. The problem of the children was 

10 Appendix. 


no longer to go home and ponder how to fill up a page of 
composition paper on the topic assigned, but rather how to say 
in a fifteen minute theme all they would like to say on the 

At the end of the term they all agreed that the one-reel 
picture told them more in fifteen minutes in a dramatic way, 
than anything they could have heard or read on the subject 
in the same space of time. 

Lewin, William. "The Use of Films and Other Visual Aids 
in the Teaching of Composition." Educational Screen. 10: 
276-7. November 1931. 

A well-organized lesson plan built around a fifteen-minute 
motion picture reel should begin with a private preview of the 
film for the purpose of making an outline. Before it is shown 
to the class, it is well for the teacher to have an outline on the 
board. While the film is being shown, the sub-titles should be 
read aloud by selected pupils or by the class in unison. Signifi- 
cant points should be emphasized by the teacher while observa- 
tion is going on. 

After the showing of the film, the outline on the board 
may be examined again briefly and erased. The class should 
then reconstruct the outline from memory and discuss each 
point rapidly. If the picture has been worth while, it will pro- 
voke discussion, perhaps argumentation. If interest runs high, 
an impromptu debate can be arranged. Affirmation and rebuttal 
lead to real thinking. Topics for written themes, as suggested 
by the reactions of the pupils, may now be written on the board. 
The film has served to motivate the assignment. 

Newton, Muriel B. (Abraham Lincoln High School, New 
York City) "An Experiment with Arrowsmith." High 
Points. 18, no. 9 :62-7. November 1936. 

The following project was based on the novel, Arrowsmith, 
by Sinclair Lewis. Several students had seen the motion picture. 

1. The book was read out of class for enjoyment. 

2. Discussion of the character Arrowsmith, and the quali- 
ties he might have inherited. One quality, curiosity, led to 
much discussion revealing that curiosity alone had no value, but 
when coupled with initiative, perseverance, and determination 
it would lead people to interesting pursuits. 


3. Question by the teacher, "If you had Arrowsmith's 
desire to find the why of each problem, in what type of research 
would you be most interested?" Topics suggested were directly 
and indirectly concerned with the book, for example, plagues, 
hero worship, microscopy, Sinclair Lewis, printing, hobbies, and 
so on. 

4. How to obtain information on these topics? The libra- 
rian came to the next class meeting armed with samples of 
materials for research. Pupils were then asked to compile a 
bibliography on index cards on their selected topic. They went 
further than this and visited laboratories, interviewed specialists, 
and wrote letters of inquiry. 

5. In the meantime, the novel, Arrowsmith, was discussed 
in class with respect to curiosity, hero worship, ambition, small 
town life vs. city life, a doctor's responsibility to his people, the 
scientific aspect of the story, the women in the story, the purpose 
of the story. The last topic led to a detailed discussion of 
books written with a purpose, or for propaganda. A class 
dramatization of an episode in the book, and a debate on social- 
ized medicine were two of the outcomes of the class discussions. 

6. The bibliographies of each individual student were organ- 
ized, essays written by each student, each theme typed, illustrated 
and bound, and added to the class library. 

If the motion picture is to be used for those areas of 
knowledge which treat of abstractions, the field of mathe- 
matics holds great possibilities for such use. However, the 
extent of use of visual aids in mathematics has been limited 
to lantern slides containing diagramatic illustrations or gen- 
eralizations. The potentialities of animation with a moving 
picture, or trick photography, have not yet received adequate 
attention by producers of educational films. One reference 
here included is the only one which treats of the value of a 
motion picture for teaching geometry. Schlauch offers a 
review of the talking picture, The Play of the Imagination 
in Geometry, which Dr. David Eugene Smith made in co- 
operation with the Erpi Picture Consultants, Inc. The 
author points out that this medium has expressed, as no 


other can, the meaning of geometrical terms and figures. 
An examination of published articles, however, reveals no 
account of the way in which a classroom teacher has made 
use of this film. 

Schlauch, W. S. "The Play of the Imagination in Geometry : 
An Educational Talking Picture by David Eugene Smith, 
in collaboration with A. Bakst." Mathematics Teacher. 24: 
55-6. January 1931. 

The value of the motion picture for modern language 
instruction appears to consist chiefly in providing a setting 
for students of the country or countries where the language 
is used. The motion picture can also depict the human 
geography of a foreign country and promote desirable inter- 
national understandings. Talking pictures offer, in addition, 
an illustration of pronunciation and idioms. Teachers of 
French will find the articles by Bernard and Ginsburg very 
helpful. Paine describes the use he made of filmslides and 
films to develop fluency of expression in Spanish. 

Bernard, Edward G. (Assistant Managing Editor) "Silent 
Films and Lantern Slides in Teaching French." Modern 
Language Journal. 21 :109-15. November 1936. 

A successful technique for using films in French classes is 
to show the film first, discuss its contents thoroughly, then 
repeat the film showing to clarify and solidify the ideas. The 
class should be prepared for film lessons by preliminary study. 
It is absolutely essential for a teacher to preview films and 
slides before presenting them to the class, regardless of the type 
of teacher's manual which accompanies the material. Any com- 
mentary by the teacher during the showing of the film should 
be terse and as pithy as possible. Avoid a running lecture for 
the full duration of the motion picture. 

For pupils of lower intelligence or lower school-grades, the 
teacher should make provision for an advance study of difficult 
words in the sub-titles. There should be short, repeated show- 
ings of films. 


Lantern slides should be presented to suit the level of the 
learners and to fit the unit of work under consideration. The 
teacher should feel free to revise the order of slide sets, and 
to revise the prepared lectures. A maximum of fifteen slides, 
if that many, should be allotted to one class period. 

Visual material should be regarded as starting points for 
further activity, and students should be encouraged to follow 
up lines of inquiry about France suggested by the pictures, or 
to make collections of realia, or to write reports. 

Ginsburg, Edward B. "Foreign Talking Pictures in Modern 
Language Instruction." Modern Language Journal. 19: 
433-8. March 1935. 

In using a foreign language film with a secondary school 
class one showing was not found sufficient to influence knowledge 
of idiomatic phrases or vocabulary. Several showings did result 
in improvement in pronunciation through an improved under- 
standing of the rhythm of speech in the particular foreign 

Some foreign language films which would be valuable for 
students would be films on phonetics, using close-up and slow 
motion photography; or travel films which present true condi- 
tions under which average people in other countries live. Avail- 
able travel films tend to show the unusual conditions of a people. 

Talking pictures offer a combination of the image, the spoken 
word, and the printed word. 

Paine, Donald A. (Lakewood High School, Ohio) "Pictures 
in the Spanish Class." Visual Review. 1930 :12-14. 

It has already been pointed out that teachers of science 
use visual aids more systematically and more frequently than 
do teachers of other subjects. In this section, some of the 
teachers have reported specific techniques for using visual 
aids in the various science areas. 

Horn places the motion picture in its proper relationship 
to the whole field of science. Shriner, in connection with his 
use of films for junior high school science, has developed 
an ingenious system of pupil evaluation of motion pictures. 
Walters used a motion picture to introduce each of the units 


in his chemistry course. He, too, has indicated how his 
selection of pictures was influenced by his pupils' judgments 
regarding each film and its place in the unit. Shriner has 
illustrated how he extended his science instruction to actual 
life situations, thus affording some vocational guidance. 

The visual aids program described by Lewis is in con- 
formity with the unit method established by Morrison. After 
presenting the sequence of steps, the author evaluates each 
type of visual aid in terms of the values to be derived. 
Osburn has presented the background for his use of visual 
aids in a general science class operating under the contract 
system, an arrangement similar to the one described by Lewis. 
The Koenig lesson plan shows how visual aids were effec- 
tively correlated with classes studying under the unit system 
of instruction, using contracts as were described in the two 
preceding articles. 

Astell has demonstrated very clearly the role of the 
motion picture in integrating the study of copper as applied 
to industry. A series of films were used as background for 
individual reports, and pupils were encouraged to illustrate 
their reports with slides. The original article should be 
consulted for information concerning texts, periodicals, and 
films used. 

The article by Lynch indicates the line of thought pursued 
by this teacher of biology in developing the concept of energy. 
First she outlines the steps, then the important generaliza- 
tions expected to be derived in each step, and the motion pic- 
tures which she found helpful in achieving her objectives. 
The reader is referred to the original article. 

Certain teachers have indicated special uses which were 
made of the motion picture in science instruction. Limited 
laboratory facilities were overcome by using films, as evi- 
denced by the Bing and Jones articles. The former used 
films to illustrate microscopy, and also, with a class of girls 


living in a crowded section of New York City, to illustrate 
the need for hygienic ways of living. Jones found the 
motion picture helpful in a crowded classroom in a North 
Carolina school where laboratory equipment was inadequate. 
Wheat found the showing of motion pictures for review 
to be a most popular and effective medium among high 
school students studying for the State Regents' Examina- 
tions. The use of films and other visual aids in a physics 
class is illustrated in the article by Brown. 

Horn, Aaron. 'The Function of the Picture in Science In- 
struction." Educational Screen. 9 :75. March 1930. 

The organization of the course in science from the elementary 
grades through high school must be based on the psychological 
sequence: environmental experience, experimental derivation of 
physical law, and application of these laws to previous and 
further environmental experience. In the first and third steps 
the picture occupies a position of unique and fundamental im- 
portance, serving a purpose completely distinct from that of the 

Classroom demonstrations should be supplemented by a film 
showing processes in their natural situations. 

Shriner, J. T. (Latimer Junior High School, Pittsburgh) 
"The Use of Motion Pictures in the Teaching of Junior 
High School Science." Educational Screen. 5 :325-8. June 

The judgment of trained students is a strong influence upon 
the pictures selected for use in science classes. Reviewing is 
done by an extra-curricular club. The groups are divided into 
the "onceovers," the "spotters," and the final group, consisting 
of teachers. Ttie first group are asked to answer the following 
questions : 

Do you like this reel ? 

What do you like about it? 

Would you like to see it in class? 

Under what subject? 

What did you learn that you did not already know ? 

Would you like to see it again ? 


The second group of pupils, about six in number, record the 
answers to the following questions : 

What percentage of the picture is sub-titles? still pictures? 
Why do you think this would be a good motion picture for 
class ? 

What objection have you to it for class use? 

What subject would it supplement? 

What makes you think so ? 

Is it simple enough for class use and why ? 

How many days would you take to show it and why? 

The accepted films are then reviewed by teachers in the 
subject in which the films were assigned. Tests are worked 
out on the basis of the contents of the film. These are true- 
false tests, completion, multiple choice, and review. 

When using a film for class instruction, it is desirable to 
arouse the pupil's curiosity, hold his interest, and guide his 
observations in working out life situations. Show only one 
reel or part of it in a recitation period. 

The use of the film on the gasoline engine served to develop 
interest in a life situation. The students were desirous of 
learning what traits were needed to be a successful automobile 
mechanic, a vocation which they had seen represented in the 
film. Interviews with automobile workers were arranged, in- 
cluding an interview with a manager, a superintendent, a shop 
foreman, the best mechanic, the poorest mechanic, an office 
man, an employment manager, and a technical engineer. The 
traits were ranked, then defined, and a composite picture 
made of the traits ranked according to the frequency of mention 
by the persons interviewed. Accuracy, technical knowledge, 
thoroughness, cleanliness, speed, ambition, interest in work were 
the. traits in order. 

Such an activity leads to desirable attitudes which the 
general public, the automobile mechanic, the employment man- 
ager, and the student will welcome. 

Walters, Orville S. (Enid, Oklahoma High School) "Indus- 
trial Motion Pictures in the Classroom." Journal of Chemical 
Education. 6:1736-9. October 1929. 

A series of films were scheduled in advance for use in a 
class in chemistry without having been previewed by the teacher. 


Each was used to introduce the particular subject it described. 
The films used were: 

a) Beyond the Microscope 

b) A Trip through Filmland 

c) Study of Steel 

d) Oxygen, the Wonder Worker 

e) Jewels of Industry 

f ) Story of Dynamite 

g) Story of Gasoline 

At the end of the course, a questionnaire was submitted to 
the students. The questions and some indication of the answers 
were as follows : 

1. Which picture did you like best ? 

(a) 36 ; (b) 21 ; (c) 16 ; (g) 13%; (e) 7%; (d) 4% ; 


2. From which picture did you learn most ? 

(g) 32%; (c) 21%; (b) 12%; (f) 12%; (e) 11%; 
(a) 7%; (d) 5%. 

3. Which pictures enabled you to understand points which 
you did not otherwise understand clearly from the text and any 
class discussion? 

4. Which pictures, if any,. did not add to your understanding 
of the subject as taken up by the text and class discussion? 

5. What processes do you feel would have been more clearly 
understood if pictures of them had been shown? 

6. Would you rather spend an hour seeing a picture and 
discussing it, or working an hour in the laboratory ? 

24% preferred the laboratory, and 5% liked both 
equally well. 

7. If you could do only one, would you rather take a trip 
through the refinery, or see the picture, Story of Gasoline? 

8. What criticisms would you make of the pictures which 
have been shown? 

"Real chemistry of process not emphasized." 
"Too many pictures of buildings and grounds." 
"Too much complicated machinery shown." 

9. Neglecting their entertainment value, do you believe 
motion pictures have been of actual benefit to you in under- 
standing chemistry? Why? 

74 of 75 said films had been of benefit. 
Conclusions : 

1. The most interesting pictures were not the ones from 
which students learned most. In fact, the least popular on this 


basis stands next highest in clearing up points otherwise not 
clearly understood. 

2. Apparently high instructional value is generally sacrificed 
for high entertainment value in an industrial film. No title 
is outstanding as both. 

3. Some pictures appealed to a small minority on any basis. 

4. A majority of the students profited by all the films. 
Some of the pictures benefitted all, or practically all students. 

5. Fuller understanding of some processes would have 
resulted through the showing of one or more additional films. 

6. A majority of students prefer motion pictures to the 
laboratory, but only because of less effort involved. 

7. Some pictures are preferable to an excursion. 

8. Because they are designed for the widest possible use, 
industrial motion pictures cannot include involved technical 
points. However, these are readily covered by subsequent class 

9. The pupils and the teacher are favorably inclined toward 
using classroom films, especially in connection with "applied" 
portions of the course. They should, however, be used in 
moderation and chosen carefully. 

Lewis, Donald K. (Science Instructor, Central High School, 
Red Wing, Minnesota) "Visual Aids in Science Teaching." 
Educational Screen. 14:67-71. March 1935. 

The unit attack method described in this article was de- 
veloped after ten years of experimentation with different visual 
aid teaching set-ups. The system, following the technique 
established by Dr. Henry C. Morrison, involves a critical analysis 
of the course of study at hand in the light of pupil needs. The 
subject matter finally selected is then carefully divided into a 
series of related units, and in each one a few outstanding facts 
are designated as the minimum essentials which must be mastered 
by the pupils as they advance from one unit to the next. 

The actual unit investigation process follows a set routine 
of six steps presented as follows: 

1. Pre-test. An objective type test definitely covering the 
minimum essentials introduces the unit. 

2. Study Outline Presentation. Definite questions and 
study directions are written in outline on the board. 
After a detailed explanatory talk by the instructor, the 


pupils copy the outline in their notebooks which helps 
to familiarize them with the requirements of the unit. 

3. Study Investigation. Various teaching aids are made 
accessible in the classroom, e.g. supplementary texts, 
encyclopediae, filed clippings, mounted pictures, maga- 
zine articles, booklets, charts, maps, graphs, blackboard 
diagrams, models, specimens, samples, exhibits, experi- 
mental substances, stereographs, slides, 16mm. motion 
picture equipment, and field trips when possible. 

4. Organization and Checking of Information. This is 
usually a paper in story or outline form, wherein the 
pupil rechecks and summarizes his findings as called for 
in the study outline. Appropriate explanatory diagrams 
are encouraged. 

5. End Test. This includes a repetition of the pre-test, 
and additional questions covering material outside the 
minimum essentials. By comparing the pre-test with the 
repetition test scores, the amount of improvement can 
be determined; and by referring the repetition score to 
a worked-out scale, the percentage of minimum essentials 
mastered can be reached. The scores on the questions 
which test for additional information will determine the 
gains beyond the minimum essentials. 

6. Concluding Discussion. This is a very informal dis- 
cussion wherein final conclusions are considered, view- 
points aired, and particular problems examined. 

The writer subscribes to this method because it provides a 
simple, definite plan for both teacher and pupil, and because it 
is built soundly upon the essential features of the scientific 
method of investigation. 

Consideration is then given to the place of the school journey, 
the stereograph, the still picture, and the projected picture 
respectively in relation to such a program of instruction. 

Osburn, Dorothy Frances (Westlake Junior High School, 
Oakland, California) "The Use of Visual Aids in Teaching 
General Science by the Contract Method." California 
Quarterly of Secondary Education. 7:14-18. October 1931. 

The course in general science included units on the solar 
system, science in industry, and the contributions of science to 
the modern home. One or more types of visual aids were used 
in each unit, where each seemed best to fit. Before deciding 


on the type of aid to use, the teacher listed all ten types, with 
suggestions for using each, as follows: 

1. Exhibits, such as California minerals, bacteria gardens, 
types of leaves, collections of insects, telegraph instru- 
ments, and the like. 

2. Models, such as models of the eye, the ear, and other 
organs, and models of motors, or steam engines. 

3. Excursions, to an observatory, to the United Iron Works, 
to Lakeside Park, to Snow Museum, to the airport, and 
so on. 

4. Prints, of magazine illustrations showing foods, ma- 
chinery, people, clouds, birds, fish, flowers all kept on 

5. Charts and diagrams, showing parts of flowers, structure, 

6. Maps and globes, for showing the physical aspects of 
winds, gravity, and facts of time and position. 

7. Stereographs, to convey the idea of third dimension for 
individual instruction. 

8. Slides, commercial ones to stimulate thought and convey 
information on almost any subject; and home-made ones 
for diagrams and testing. 

9. Still films, used as slides. 

10. Motion pictures, to show processes of manufacture, 
habits of animals in their natural environment, and the 
like, where the concept of motion is essential. Good 
as introduction or review of a unit. 

Under the contract system prevailing in the school, each topic 
is allotted two weeks for completion. Mimeographed outlines 
are given to the students. During the first fifteen or twenty 
minutes of each daily hour period, group instruction, experi- 
mentation, or open forum discussions are carried on. The 
remainder of the period is usually devoted to individual work. 

Koenig, C. J. (Scarborough School, Scarborough-on-Hudson, 
N.Y.) "Visual Aids in Teaching Science Units." Educa- 
tional Screen. 13 :1 10-12. April 1934. 

This secondary school uses the Morrison plan of unit teach- 
ing. A lesson plan is here described for teaching "Germination 
and Growth of Plants," wherein the motion picture is used for 
introducing the unit and as a direct source of information, and 
specimens and slides are used, together with reference materials 
in developing the unit. 


A mimeographed sheet of instructions is given to the student. 
Following is a sample unit : 

Presentation: The main purpose of the unit on Germina- 
tion and Growth of Plants is to show how a baby plant, or 
embryo, grows into an adult. Seeds, as we learned in a previous 
unit,- are formed in fruits, as the result of the pollination of 
flowers. Seeds may, for long periods of time, remain dormant, 
then suddenly show signs of life. This activity is due to a 
stimulus of some kind. Obviously conditions both inside and 
outside the seed start the growth of the plant. We are, then, 
interested in finding out just what these conditions that start and 
maintain growth are. By experimentation, we shall find the 
answer to this problem. Then, too, plants must obtain food 
in order to grow. The fact that seeds do contain food materials 
of various sorts is evident when we think that we eat such seeds 
as peas and beans. We shall then make a comparison of the 
manner in which foods are used by plants with the way in which 
we use the same substances. 

Assimilative Material: Among the problems to be solved 
in this unit are the following : 

A. Where are baby plants found? 
1. Study of seeds 

(a) Actual study of bean and corn seeds 

(b) Lantern slides of various seeds (See Key- 
stone slides) 

B. How can we find what nutrients are present in seeds? 

1. Test for starch 

(a) Study of crushed bean seed stained with 
iodine under the microscope 

(b) Study of colored chart of starch test. 

2. Test for proteins 

(a) Use of paper with grease spot in projector 
to show it is translucent. Use Lang- 
worthy Food Charts, 6, 10, 13, 14 showing 
by visual means percentage of nutrients in 
various seeds. 

(b) Test carried out by each student. 

C. What factors are necessary for germination ? 
1. Water 

Demonstration showing failure of dry seeds to 
grow in dry moss, and successful growth of 
soaked seeds in moist moss. 


2. Air 

Demonstration showing failure of seeds to grow 
in a vacuum, and successful growth of seed in 
container open to air. 

3. Temperature 

Demonstration showing failure of seeds to grow 
when kept in warm oven or in refrigerator and 
successful growth when kept at room temperature. 

D. How does the embryo become a plant ? 

1. Cotyledon; 2. Plumule; 3. Hypocotyl 

(a) Observation and study of actual bean and 
corn seedlings at various stages of growth in 
a germinating box 

(b) Study of preserved specimen showing 
progressive stages of growth of seedlings 

(c) Detailed study of the motion picture, Do 
You Know Beans? (Edited Pictures Sys- 
tem), showing animated drawings and pro- 
gressive shots of bean growth 

(d) Study of lantern slide showing structure of 
seed parts in various seeds (Keystone 

(e) Study in microscope of the various sections 
of corn seed 

(f) Experiments on effect on growth of remov- 
ing the cotyledon. 

E. What makes a young plant grow ? 

1. Proof that oxidation occurs in plants 

(a) Experiment, using lime-water test for 

(b) Demonstration, expelling air from lungs 
through lime water to show presence of 
carbon dioxide in human breath. 

F. Do plants digest food ? 

1. Proof that starch is changed to sugar in plants 
(a) Experiments and demonstrations. 

Organization: You will organize the unit material by con- 
structing a summary outline of the unit's work. The charts 
and slides are always accessible to the students and in review 
of the unit may be used to supplement or replace re-reading of 
the text material. 

Check-Up: At the completion of the unit a check-up will 
be given to determine your mastery of the unit. (Many of the 


slides and charts used in the study are made by the students 
themselves during the assimilative period. This serves the 
students as a combination of visual and manual expression, and 
also to build up a permanent library which is of use to other 
students. ) 

Astell, Louis A. "An Integrated Project on Copper, Utiliz- 
ing Visual Aids in Various Forms." Educational Screen. 
11 :21-5. January 1932. 

A class in chemistry was studying the integration between the 
chemistry of copper and its application to industry. The work 
of the unit was divided into fourteen topics, each of which could 
be developed through motion pictures and texts. The students 
or the teacher were assigned to prepare reports on one of the 
following : 

1. Many Uses of Copper 

2. Life in the Copper Mining Districts of the U.S. 

3. General Relationship of Copper and Coal Mining 

4. History of Copper 

5. Geological Aspects of Copper 

(a) Copper Mining 

(b) Copper Production in the U.S. 

(c) Copper Production beyond the U.S. 

(d) Properties of Copper 

6. Milling 

(a) Milling, including acid leaching 

(b) Milling, including ammonia regeneration 

(c) Froth Flotation in the Copper Industry 

7. Smelting of Copper 

8. Refining of Copper and of Copper Wire 

9. Industrial, and Other Aspects 

(a) Copper Markets 

(b) Copper and Electricity 

(c) Copper in Mintage 

(d) Copper in Building Construction 

(e) Copper in Plumbing Industry 

(f) Copper in Automobiles 

(g) Copper in the Telephone 

(h) Copper in Medicine and Health 
(i ) Copper in National Defense 
(j ) Copper in Literature 

10. Electroplating Flowers, Insects, etc. 

11. Copper in Chemistry Textbooks in High School 

12. Lipowitz's Alloy 


The report was to be supplemented by scrap books, and 
possibly by a field trip to a copper or brass fabrication plant. 
Lantern slides were found helpful in illustrating pupil reports. 

Several motion pictures were found which illustrated precise- 
ly the topic under consideration. Following are some of these, 
and their sources : 

1. Story of Copper, 10 reels. 

Produced by Rothacker Film Corporation, Chicago. 
Distributed by U.S. Bureau of Mines. 

2. Story of Fabrication of Copper, 2 reels. 

Produced and distributed by U.S. Bureau of Mines. 
Use only when a field trip is not practicable. 

3. Copper Mining and Smelting, 1 reel, and Refining and 
Manufacture of Copper, 2 reels. 

Distributed by Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau. 

4. From Mine to Consumer, 1 reel. 

Produced by Anaconda Copper Co. 
Distributed by American Museum of Natural History, 

Lynch, Mary Elizabeth (Dorchester High School for Girls, 
Boston) "Classroom Films as an Aid in Teaching the Energy 
Concept." Classroom Film. November 1936. Eastman 
Teaching Films, Inc. Rochester, N.Y. 

Several of the Eastman Teaching Films were incorporated 
into the biology course in which the concept of energy was to 
be developed. With beginning students, the first step was to 
develop, through observation and experience, a general under- 
standing of the differences between living and lifeless matter. 
The question is asked, "What enables these living things to 
perform the functions common to them?" The answer is 
developed from the pupils, that energy in some form is necessary. 

The next problem is to study this energy, or power to do 
work, permitting the observation of phenomena in the outside 
world. The sources of energy are reduced to the following: 
sun, wind, water, electricity, coal, wood, oil, and food. To 
demonstrate these sources in the laboratory, the hand lens is 
used, by which the heat of the sun can be concentrated to ignite 
paper, a model windmill, a small waterwheel, an electric motor, 
and a steam boiler. Through discussion, the sources of energy 
are condensed to sun, wind, water, and vegetation. The instruc- 
tor suggests that all of these may derive their energy from a 


common source, but because of limitation of background and 
experience, further discussion is usually fruitless. 

The film, Energy from Sunlight, is now used. The pupils 
are interested to see on the screen the experiment which they 
have performed with the hand lens, and its larger application 
to the solar engine is easily grasped. The relation of the sun's 
energy to that of falling water and wind is well understood 
after seeing the film. Next, pupils are assigned to demonstrate, 
by laboratory experiment, the facts which they have learned. 
The rest of the film is shown without much comment, because 
the work of the next several weeks will elaborate the knowledge 
of the relation of sunlight to food energy. 

Another problem which arises is, "How is this solar energy 
converted to the use of living things?" A discussion period 
reveals vegetation as the basic food source. Further study 
shows that all of this vegetation possesses a green substance 
called chlorophyll. By a series of experiments and laboratory 
demonstrations with living plants, it is seen that in the presence 
of sunlight this chlorophyll enables the plant to synthesize carbon 
dioxide and water to make carbohydrates. The problem is 
summarized by showing the film, The Green Plant, in its 
entirety. The showing of the film is accompanied and followed 
by discussion, which links up the data contained in it with the 
knowledge gained from the classroom experiments. 

After developing the problem, "What forms may food 
derived from vegetation take?", the class proceeds to the ques- 
tion, "How does the body convert food to its use?" By dissec- 
tion, the class studies the structure of the digestive systems of 
various animals. Details of structure are seen with the aid of 
the microscope and microprojector. Experiments are made to 
show the action of saliva, gastric juice, and pancreatic juice. 
The film, Digestion, is of the greatest value in solving this 
problem. It is more efficient than any other method for teach- 
ing the mechanics of swallowing, the muscular action of the 
stomach, and peristalsis. It broadens the view already gained 
of the structure of the alimentary canal, and prepares the class 
for the coming problem, "How is digested food made available 
to all parts of the body?" 

To introduce this new problem, the end of the film on diges- 
tion is repeated. This leads naturally to the study of the struc- 
ture of the circulatory system. The flow of blood in the 


capillaries of the frog's web is seen under the microscope. The 
pulsing of the chick-embryo heart is seen, first in the living 
embryo, and then by means of the film, Circulation. This 
film shows details essential to an understanding of the functions 
of the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins. Further study by 
dissection of the sheep's heart, and microscopic study of arteries 
and veins prepares for the showing of the part of the film devoted 
to the human heart. The sequence of heart movements is very 
well shown, and the differences between pulmonary and sys- 
temic circulation are made clear. The diagrams which show 
the interchange of gases, foods, and wastes between the blood 
and tissues are more valuable than any amount of talking about 
it can be. 

After a period devoted to the summarization of the problem, 
the class is led to see that although the food has been digested 
and distributed to the cells of the body, the stored energy of the 
sun is not yet available to the body. The problem now is, "How 
is the energy stored in food released for the use of the body?" 
Laboratory demonstrations are made of the release of heat from 
wood, coal, oil, bread, corn, and powdered milk by burning. 
The class raises the question as to how a similar process may 
take place in the body, and decides that the oxygen taken during 
respiration must unite with the food to release the energy used 
by the body. To understand how the process takes place, the 
class dissected a sheep's trachea and lungs. Sections of tissues 
were studied from the microscope. To sum up this knowledge 
of anatomy, the first section of the film, Breathing, was shown. 
The rest of the film was shown later to illustrate the physiology 
of respiration. The section which shows the movement of the 
ribs and diaphragm at inhalation and exhalation is especially 

The discussion next turns to the manner in which the body 
makes use of released energy. This leaves the problem, "How 
is the body energy released in the form of motion?" The types 
of motion are next studied, and all are seen to depend upon 
muscle. Then they use the microscope to study the structure. 
These facts are clinched through the first part of the film, 
Muscles. The properties of muscles are also learned by the 
film, later corroborated through experiments. 

Finally, several days are devoted to integrating all of the 
information on energy, its storage and use. The film, Energy 


from Sunlight, is shown again. This time its significance is 
much greater, because of the deeper knowledge brought to it by 
the students. They are ready now to go on to a general study 
of the life structures and functions of both plants and animals. 

Bing, Mary E. (Corlears Junior High School, New York 
City) "What Size of Film Is Most Effective in Classroom 
Teaching?" Nation's Schools. 5:58-60. January 1930. 

Biology is an unfamiliar subject to the parents of these 
students of New York's east side, and bewildering to the chil- 
dren. The use of motion pictures has greatly aided in lending 
an aspect of reality to the discussion of animals and natural 
phenomena of the out of doors which these children had never 

The use of microscopes for each of a class of thirty girls 
leaves little time for the application of the knowledge thus ac- 
quired. A picture, expertly conceived, designed and executed, 
served to bring to all the important facts which may be found 
under a microscope. The study of bacteria offers a good oppor- 
tunity to discuss hygienic ways of living, such as the foods they 
eat, the water they drink, and the proper ventilation of their 

Jones, H. D. (Knightdale, North Carolina) "Learning by 
Seeing, or Science by Sight." North Carolina Teacher. 1- 
12. September 1934. 

A series of films used in connection with the study of bees, 
protozoa, transportation by water, and the study of light in the 
natural and physical sciences did much to solve the problem of 
overcrowded classrooms and insufficient laboratory equipment. 
Yet it is observed that the effectiveness of the motion picture 
applies equally to those situations where texts and laboratories 
are ample. 

Wheat, Frank M. (Chairman of Biology, George Washing- 
ton High School, New York City) "Voluntary Motion Pic- 
ture Review Classes." The Classroom Film. March 1937. 
Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. Rochester, N.Y. 

In New York City and State, at the end of the second year 
of biology, there is a required State Regents' Examination. All 
teachers are anxious to have pupils make good records on these 


tests, and different methods have been devised for those who 
need extra coaching. 

A program of motion picture films has been arranged at the 
George Washington High School, in which films are shown for 
thirty minutes after school three times weekly a few weeks 
preceding the examination date. Most of the students have 
seen the films at a former time, but in spite of this there was 
an average volunteer attendance each day of between 100 and 
150. One teacher kept careful track of those in her class who 
took this voluntary review. Twenty of her pupils attended all 
six afternoons. All of these passed the regents' test. 

One of the recent examinations revealed that of fifty short 
answer questions, seventeen could be answered by information 
obtained from the films shown in the review. 

It was significant that so many voluntarily gave thirty minutes 
of their afternoon to see these films, when no credit of any 
kind was given for attendance. 

The schedule of films includes the following : 

Microscopic Animal Life Circulatory Control 

The Green Plant Bacteria 

Digestion Mold and Yeast 

Breathing How Life Begins, reel 2 

The Blood How Life Begins, reel 3 

Circulation How Life Begins, reel 4 

Raskin, Abraham (Inwood Junior High School, New York 
City) "Another Type of Motion Picture Lesson." The 
Classroom Film. March 1937. 

Following is the technique found to be most practicable in a 
New York City school, using a one-reel motion picture with 
adequate provision for discussion. 

1. A pupil is assigned to place on the blackboard a few 
thought-provoking questions. The pupils copy these into 
their notebooks while the teacher prepares the film for 

2. The film is shown, supplemented with as little talk as 
possible during the showing. The pupils jot down any 
points which they think need to be included in their 
answers to the assigned questions. 

3. After projection, while the instructor is busy replacing 
the projector, the pupils review the answers to the ques- 


4. Discussion on the questions follows in the ten or fifteen 
minutes which remain. Thus two or three well-selected 
questions will receive better consideration in a forty- 
minute period than would a series of 25 short answer 

Brown, H. E. (formerly of Ridgewood, N.J., now at Lincoln 
School, Teachers College, Columbia University, N.Y.) 
"Visual Materials in the Teaching of Physics." Educational 
Screen. 7 :96-7. May 1928. 

This article is based on the statement that if, as one educator 
asserted, "Every good educational film leaves an intense, inner 
desire on the part of the student to find out more about the 
subject," and if physics is going to grow in popularity on its 
own merits, motion pictures, slides, and film strips should by all 
means be used. 

In presenting motion pictures before a class, occasional 
comment by the teacher is desirable. It was found that students 
observed important items better when they were pointed out by 
the teacher, than when they were left to pass without comment. 
It may be effective to stop the motion picture at times to point out 
pertinent details. 

The subject of physics is particularly well shown in motion 
pictures which depict the applications of physics to every day 
life. There is no better medium for doing this. 

The teaching of vocational subjects in secondary schools 
requires that instruction be as concrete as possible. Visual 
aids, then, would be a natural addition to the other items 
available to teachers and students. One technique for using 
motion pictures in a trade school has been described in an 
article by Taylor. The French educator, Fontegne, makes 
a good point of the sensitization which a student needs to 
decide upon his occupational ambitions. Motion pictures 
for vocational guidance, he contends, should contain more 
than a straightforward presentation of the conditions operat- 
ing in each line of work. They should contain some 
aesthetic quality which would instill a love for that type of 
work, and even for work itself. 


Taylor, Allyn C. (Vocational School, St. Paul, Minn.) "Mo- 
tion Pictures as a Teaching Aid in a Trade School." Indus- 
trial Arts Magazine. 18 :57-8. February 1929. 

Students should have a definite purpose in seeing a picture, 
if they are to derive value from it. In order to bring about a 
maximum of effectiveness, the teacher must have previewed it 
and planned the quiz or list of questions which he will expect 
the students to answer following the showing. 

In connection with the film, Story of Heat Treatment of 
Steel a list of thirty questions were given the students in advance. 
After the film showing, there followed a class discussion and 
an assignment to each student for a written report. Most of 
the films used were of the commercial, industrial type. 

Fontegne, Julien. "The Use of the Cinema in Occupational 
Instruction." International Review of Educational Cinema- 
tography. 5 :177-8. March 1933. 

Films for occupational instruction should convey a feeling 
of "love for one's work," as depicted by the persons in the 
film. Benoit-Levy's film, "Doigts d'Ouvrieres" is given as an 
illustration of such a film. The theme of it is: "Workgirl's 
hands, fairy's hands . . . hands, instruments of the intelligence, 
creators of loveliness .... it is a dream come true . . . the poetry 
of work." 

If labor has its poetry, it has also its joy. When we show 
on the screen a worker coming back to his home which is full of 
peace and comfort, are we not indirectly engaging in occupa- 
tional instruction? 

One type of film is the specialized instructional one. What 
it requires is not so much the details, as the way of making a 
suggestion to the child who has to place himself in life. What 
is wanted is that when a child has seen one of these films, he 
should cry out spontaneously, "That is the work I should like. 
That is the job for me, before all others." 

The film should be shown in school and not accompanied 
with very much comment. We could almost go so far as to 
say that complete absence of comment is the best plan. The 
child has heard of different crafts and trades in his class; he 
has handled and worked with various materials which form 
the object of one of his possible future tasks. Nothing remains 


but for him to make his choice. Let him alone in his amazement. 
Do not interrupt his admirations. 

All occupational instruction should begin with the projection 
of a film of a general character, showing suitable occupations 
for boys and girls. After several trades have been shown to 
the child, and he has more or less limited his choice to one or 
two, then one may show him films dealing with the work in which 
he has displayed interest. Occupational films should be shown 
to the child's parents, too. 


The two articles which have been summarized in this 
section will indicate two very diverse areas of instruction 
in which the motion picture was found to be a valuable 
tool. It is probable that films are used in adult education 
to a much greater extent than this bibliography reveals, but 
that instructors have failed to report such use in published 

Munyan describes the value of films for workers' educa- 
tion. The Tilton and Childs investigation was an effort 
to measure scientifically the value of the Yale Chronicles of 
America Photoplays to groups of adults in South Carolina. 
The growth in opportunities for adult elementary education 
now being provided by W.P.A. and C.C.C. classes should 
result in a much more extended use of films as a teaching aid. 

Munyan, E. A. (Union Gas and Electric Company, Cincin- 
nati) "Quicker Education by Means of Motion Picture Lec- 
tures." Visual Review. 1930:23-4. 

Among the films shown to workers each week are Digging 
Machinery and Its Uses, one on Air Compressing Machinery, 
one on the Story of Anaconda, one on Caterpillar Tractors, 
the Manufacture of Cast Iron Pipe, and the Acetylene Welding 
of Steel Pipe Lines. 

Intervals between reels are used for brief talks by the man- 
ager on the subject of better methods of doing work. These 


meetings serve to educate employees at an exceptionally low 
per capita cost, and they also serve to improve employee rela- 
tions and increase employee efficiency. 

The employees find the films helpful because they learn 
how equipment can be used on other jobs, and how it is used 
in other industries. 

Tilton, J. W. (Associate Professor of Educational Psychol- 
ogy, Yale University) and Childs, Arney R. (Principal, 
Logan School, Columbia, S.C.) "The Use of the Yale Photo- 
plays in an Elementary School for Adults." Educational 
Method. 13 :71-5. November 1933. 

An experiment was conducted in 1931 in Clemson College 
with a class of adults who had not gone beyond the seventh 
grade. One group, the experimental group, consisted of stu- 
dents who were illiterate and equivalent in educational experi- 
ence to Grades I to III. Another group, the intermediate group, 
consisted of students whose education was equivalent to Grades 
IV and V. The advanced group consisted of students whose test 
scores approximately equalled those of children in Grades VI 
and VII. 

The experimental group ranged in age from 15 to 70, averag- 
ing 25. The ratio of men to women was about 2 to 1. In native 
ability they were probably below average. The ages of the 
intermediate group ranged from 14 to 45, the average being 20. 
The ratio of men to women was about 1.6 to 1. In native 
ability they were about average. In the advanced group the ages 
ranged from 15 to 34, the average being 20. The ratio of men 
to women was about 1.3 to 1. In ability the advanced group 
was average or better. In all three groups the occupation was 
most frequently mill work, many being released for the purpose 
of attending the Opportunity School and often financed in whole 
or part by their employers. During the four-week period of 
summer school, the students lived at the college. 

The Yale Chronicles were shown five evenings weekly, 
from 9 to 10 p. M. in the auditorium. Little attempt was made 
to correlate the material in the films with regular history instruc- 
tion, since the course of study dealt with History of South 

The procedure used during the showing was to have Mrs. 
Childs read the captions from the film for the benefit of those 


who could not read. A few remarks were added by her. Three 
tests, made and administered by Mrs. Childs, were used 
to measure the results of the film showings. Each test consisted 
of 75 questions so worded that they might be answered by under- 
lining, "Yes," "No," or "I don't know." The papers were scored 
by subtracting the number wrong from the number right. The 
tests were administered at the beginning and end of each week. 
The scores of the experimental group on the initial test at the 
beginning of the second week showed that they had very little 
knowledge of American History. . 

There appeared to be a greater difference between the ex- 
perimental and intermediate groups than between the intermediate 
and advanced groups. A battery of tests to determine the 
public school placement of the students revealed the average 
initial scores at the beginning of the second week to be : 


1 4 

2 4 

3 4 

4 14 

5 21 

6 23 

7 25 

8 26 

From these figures it may be concluded that the second or 
third year of schooling added no perceptible ability to answer the 
test questions. The equivalent of the fourth year of schooling 
made the greatest contribution, the increase diminishing from 
that point on. In so far as the test measured the knowledge of 
history taught in the elementary schools previously attended 
by these adults, it drew most heavily upon that content taught 
in Grades IV and V. 

The 75 items on the test used before and after the showing 
of Gateway to the West, Wolfe and Montcalm, Eve of the 
Revolution, Declaration of Independence, and Yorktown were 
analyzed to find out: (a) to what extent one had to see the 
pictures in order to learn the answers, or, to what extent the 
gains consisted of the core knowledge usually learned in the 
course of schooling; and (b) to what extent the gains of the 
three groups were made along similar lines. 

From the initial testing data, the percentage for each item 
of the experimental group answering the question correctly was 


computed. A similar percentage was then computed for the 
intermediate and advanced groups combined. The first percent- 
age was then subtracted from the second as a measure, for each 
question, of the extent to which more schooling and intelligence 
provided the answer without an opportunity of viewing the 
pictures. Then for each item or question there was computed the 
percentage of the illiterate group which learned to answer it 
correctly during the week, and the same thing was done for the 
other groups. This gave for each item of information a measure, 
within each group, of the extent to which that item was taught 
during the week. 

Results: The gains made as a result of the use of the pic- 
tures were not peculiar to the pictures, but were of the sort which 
normally come with more schooling. And this was most evident 
in the case of the least schooled and least evident in the case of 
the most advanced group. 

Interpretation of findings : Cautions : 

1. The elementary schools referred to are the schools 
which had been attended by such members of the adult 
group as had gone to school. 

2. The illiterate adults learned all the history which is 
learned in those grades. The tests used were built closely 
around the history portrayed in the pictures. 

3. To say that the illiterate adults' gain is made by children 
in the third and fourth grades is not to say that children 
in those grades learn all that the adults learned. The 
comparison holds only for what the test measured and 
for the kind of history instruction which the adults had 
previously received. 

4. The experimental teaching situation had many limita- 
tions in that the films were shown at a late hour and 
students were tired from the day's schooling. Further- 
more, experimental work with the Photoplays has shown 
that they are not a substitute for teaching. The results 
of this experiment are from a somewhat incidental use 
of the Photoplays, not a carefully prepared or recom- 
mended program. 

Conclusions : 

1. The initial scores and the gains made by the three 
groups were roughly in direct proportion to the amount 
of their schooling and of their ability. The gain made 
by the illiterate group consisted very largely in getting 
information which had already been acquired by the 


better educated groups while attending school up to the 
middle of the fifth grade. 

2. The Photoplays may be viewed with profit by any adult 
group on the elementary school level, supplying a basic 
core knowledge of American history to those who lack 
it, supplementing and enriching, in proportion to the 
amount of such basic knowledge already possessed. 


The distinctive role of the motion picture and other visual 
aids in higher education is clearly stated by Freeman. One 
of his concluding statements is to the effect that a survey 
of the needs of college courses would indicate the desirability 
of extending the use of visual aids in institutions of higher 
learning. Haworth has made just such a survey at the 
Pasadena Junior College and the summary of his findings 
will indicate the status of the motion picture in relation to 
other visual aids used in the various departments of that 
school. Another article which treats of the value which the 
motion picture can render to a university curriculum is that 
of Hutchins in which he describes the extensive plan of the 
University of Chicago with respect to sound films. Allen's 
article describes the application of this plan to a survey 
course in physical science at Colgate University. 

The abstracts which follow are concerned with the use 
of films in specific areas of instruction on the college or post- 
graduate level; Glover in business courses, Ulp in teaching 
of drawing, Price in the teaching of general zoology, Stover 
in the teaching of pedagogy, and Freeman in the teaching of 

Freeman, Frank N. "Some Principles on the Use of Visual 
Methods in Higher Education." Educational Screen. 8 : 
100-1, 135-6. April, May 1929. 

It should be remembered that visual education is limited in 
purpose to a presentation of concrete information, that the term 


"concrete" is relative, and that the objectives of visual education 
differ in higher education from those in the elementary and 
secondary schools. In colleges the needs of the student are 
varied, each instructor employs a diversified technique, and the 
organization or administration of visual aids must be flexible. 

An instructor in an institution of higher learning would 
have to plan somewhat as follows for the use of visual aids: 
What are the essential concrete experiences required for the 
understanding of the subject and each topic or phase of the 
subject? Which of these necessary forms of preliminary ex- 
perience is the student likely to have had? (The solution of this 
problem is, of course, complicated by the diversity of experi- 
ences which students have had. Not only their every-day ex- 
perience, but their education has differed enormously. Some 
have traveled widely, some not at all. In this case, try to strike 
a medium and, if necessary, provide too much rather than too 
little foundational experience.) What would be the best method 
of supplying the necessary experience? Which visual aid would 
help to achieve the objectives, as determined by the criteria of 
suitability, economy, ease of handling? Has the material been 
prepared and organized for college use ? 

An experimental study of the problems of various college 
courses would undoubtedly indicate the gaps which need to be 
filled, and would demonstrate the desirability of a considerable 
extension of visual education in higher institutions of learning. 

Haworth, Harry A. (Pasadena Junior College) "A Survey 
of the Use of Visual Aids in Pasadena Junior College." 
Educational Screen. 11:105. April 1932. 

A survey was conducted by the Visual Education Committee 
of the Pasadena Junior College to determine the extent of use 
made of visual aids, the needs of the teachers, those which can 
be met and those which cannot be met. 

The survey was launched mainly because the criticism had 
been made that motion pictures were emphasized to the exclu- 
sion of other types of visual aids. The results show that if the 
criticism was once true, it no longer applies. 

Each teacher was given a list of the various types of visual 
aids to instruction with space at the bottom for additions to the 
list, and was asked to indicate after each type the number of 


times it was used per month, using the last month as a basis 
for estimate. 

The absolute mathematical results of the study are question- 
able, but not the relative tendencies shown. As a result, the 
motion picture is a low ninth in a list of eleven aids used. The 
figures were rearranged on the basis of departments. 

Tables show that maps were most used in the school, pic- 
tures and wall charts next, demonstrations, lantern slides, models, 
still films, field trips, motion pictures, microscopic projection, 
and opaque projection all in order of usage. The departments 
using these aids were in order, House and Fine Arts, Biological 
Sciences, Commerce, Physical Science, English, Social Science, 
Language, and the following to a very small extent: Mathe- 
matics and Engineering, Music, Industrial Arts, with Physical 
Education not using any. 

Of the 102 teachers answering the questionnaire, 51 per cent 
reported not using any visual aids. 

Teachers' needs were incorporated into the report of the 
Committee and action on them planned. 

Hutchins, Robert Maynard (President, Chicago University) 
"The New Tool." American Scholar. March 1933. p. 241-3. 

The new educational plan for the University of Chicago 
proposes to offer general orientation courses for freshmen and 
sophomores, which will be used as the basis for intelligent 
specialization in the last two years of college. In order to achieve 
this purpose on a large scale with a minimum expenditure for 
laboratory equipment, a project for producing some 80 educa- 
tional talking pictures in collaboration with Erpi Picture Con- 
sultants, Inc. was worked out. 11 This method is supposed to be 
best suited for laboratory instruction to large classes, in the 
physical, natural, and social sciences. 

These films do not attempt to jazz up education, but to 
discover the best subjects to be treated in films. They do not 
replace the teacher. Without an instructor, the films are merely 
an interesting series of scientific experiments. With a competent 
teacher they become a potent educational instrument. 

11 For list of films already available, apply to University of Chicago Press, or 
Erpi Picture Consultants, Inc. N.Y.C. 


Allen, John S. (Colgate University, Hamilton, N.Y.) "Films 
in the College Classroom." Educational Screen. 14:161. 
June 1935. 

The Physical Science Survey course is designed to orient 
freshmen in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, geology, and 
physics. Through an introduction to these sciences, it aims to 
give a definite conception of the physical world, some apprecia- 
tion of the scientific method and the part it has had in the 
intellectual life of the race, and the contribution of the physical 
sciences to the solution of some contemporary problems. It is a 
logically developed course in the physical sciences, rather than 
a ' 'cut-down" version of the elementary courses in the depart- 
ments represented. 

One period a week the class meets as a whole in the audi- 
torium, where sound films and illustrated lectures are found to 
be very valuable. The other periods during the week are given 
over to small group discussions, field trips, and individual re- 
search. The University of Chicago series of talking films, 
among others, are used. 

Glover, J. G. (Dept. of Management, New York University) 
"Use of Motion Pictures in Business Courses." Educational 
Screen. 9:104-5. April 1930. 

The course in Manufacturing Industry, of the Department of 
Management, School of Commerce, New York University, is an 
orientation course for the freshman who intends to make busi- 
ness his life's work. The purpose of the course is to acquaint 
the student with the important manufactories of the United 
States and to bring out the characteristics of the various indus- 
tries. It gives a desirable cultural background, pictures the 
sociological surroundings of the worker, and broadens the 
student's viewpoint. 

The class meets for two one-hour periods a week. Three 
reels are shown in forty minutes. In the remaining time there 
is either discussion, or a speaker from the industrial plant shown 
in the film, who may describe problems of management. 

The textbook of the course is Century of Industrial Progress 
by Dr. F. W. Wile. A chapter is assigned each week, and the 
films are chosen to supplement the text. This combination 
affords the students an unexcelled opportunity to appreciate the 


development of each industry, and the present day methods of 
mass production. Such a course should help the students in 
deciding the field of business which interests them most. 

Ulp, Clifford McCormick. "Models in Motion: A Study of 
Materials and Procedure Best Adapted to Teach Dynamic 
Drawing." Journal of Higher Education. 4:19-22. January 

A specially constructed film, Models in Motion was used 
as the basis for an investigation in the School of Applied Art 
of the Rochester Athenaeum and Mechanics Institute. Three 
types of students used the film : 

(A) The entering freshman class who had never drawn 
from life. 

(B) Beginning junior class who had limited experience in 
sketching from life. 

(C) And the beginning senior class who had considerable 
experience in drawing from life, illustration, and 
sketch classes. 

One section of the freshman class met for one hour twice 
a week, all the other classes met for one hour once a week. 
No control classes were used. The study was supervised and 
observed by the director of the school and carried on by five 
different instructors who were encouraged to introduce variations 
of the method without detracting from the main intent. 

Conclusions, representing the judgment of the five instruc- 
tors, of the director, and of eleven other instructors who had 
opportunity to observe the characteristics of students, work in 
related subjects, are 

(A) A short, interrupted observation repeated in rapid 
sequence (which is the basic feature of models in 
motion) is stimulating to mental analysis and organiza- 

(B) The activity of the class is paced by the action of the 
motion picture. 

(C) Attention is carried more naturally to the dynamic 

lines of the figure. 

(D) Freshmen, who had had no previous training in draw- 
ing, grasped the purpose of motion picture drawing 
more quickly than senior students trained with posted 
models previous to the senior year. 


(E) Drawing from memory (after seeing the film) or 
drawing directly from the motion picture were demon- 
strated to produce undoubted values in emphasizing 
the following fundamentals of drawing: keen observa- 
tion is stimulated, the student tends to select a vital 
phase of the action, an appreciation of major relations 
is developed, importance of emphasis on details and 
of elimination of unnecessary detail grows upon the 
student, and the ability to make a dynamic drawing 
is increased. 

(F) Sketching from models in motion helps greatly to 
interest students in memory drawing. 

(G) In design classes, greater appreciation of rhythm and 
movement may be traced to work from models in 

(H) In figure-drawing classes, motion picture study helped 
to develop an understanding of the unity of the figure 
and its action. 

(I) In painting classes, appreciation of major relations 
and a more rapid and more direct attack seemed to 
have been achieved. 

Models in motion might well be an interesting and stimulating 
means of acquiring the "language of drawing" for elementary 
school pupils. 

Price, John W. (Associate Professor of Zoology, Ohio State 
University, Columbus, Ohio) "The Use of Films in General 
Zoology Teaching." Educational Screen. 13 :263-4. Decem- 
ber 1934. 

There are at least five definite situations in which films are 
used to advantage in presenting the material of General Zoology 
as it is now being taught : 

1. Films used to present demonstrations of experiments 
before large classes. An experiment conducted with groups of 
as many as a hundred as compared with groups of 35 showed 
the great value of the enlarged image. 

2. Films used to supplement other visual methods. Films 
used to supplement laboratory demonstrations and student 
experimentation will ensure comprehension, especially since the 
film shows exactly what the student is expected to see; 
standardization of material presented. 

3. Films used to illustrate physiological processes of the 
human body. Manikins are lacking in life, and animals used 


to demonstrate human physiological processes are indirect. Films 
using the human subject and animated drawings are most 

4. Films used to demonstrate life history. 

5. Films showing animals in their natural habitats. This 
is second only to the actual experience. 

Although the efficacy of the film was not measured in an 
experimental way, the film- taught groups of larger numbers 
made a somewhat higher score in an informational test than did 
the groups of smaller numbers. 

Stover, Edgar M. (Research Associate, Erpi Picture Con- 
sultants, Inc.) "Talking Picture as an Aid in Adult Learn- 
ing." National Board of Review Magazine. 9:11-13. 
November 1934. 

This experiment was conducted during a summer session at 
Teachers College by Dr. Laura Krieger Eads and Mr. Stover. 
Four classes in educational psychology were used. The purpose 
of the experiment was to determine whether or not the talking 
picture as a teaching medium is superior to other means usually 
employed in the classroom assigned readings, lectures and 
class discussions. A control group was used which did not see 
the picture, but followed the procedures of the experimental 
group in all other respects. Precautions were taken to see that 
these groups were equivalent with respect to mental ability 
(as measured by the Otis test) and previous knowledge of 

A test on the Buswell procedures in diagnostic measurement 
in arithmetic was administered. This was based on the Buswell 
and Johns monograph, Diagnostic Studies in Arithmetic. 

Talking Picture vs. Assigned Readings: Two groups of 
students had read the monograph as a required assignment, but 
they did not discuss it in class. One group saw the talking pic- 
ture after reading the monograph. The mean score of that 
group was 11 points higher than that of the control group. 

Talking Picture vs. Reading and Class Discussion : The ex- 
perimental group which had seen the talking picture made a score 
which was, on the average, almost nine points higher than those 
made by the students who did not see it. 

Talking Picture vs. Lecture : A class was divided into two 
groups, one of which saw the twenty-minute film while the 


other listened to a lecture on the materials described in 'the pic- 
ture which had been based on the scientific techniques discussed 
in the monograph. A stenographic report of the lecture showed 
that the instructor had covered all the techniques and had pre- 
sented them clearly and forcefully. The group which saw the 
picture surpassed the control group by four points. 

A questionnaire showed the students to be enthusiastic about 
the value of the film. 

Freeman, G. L. (Professor at Northwestern University) 
"Visual Aids in Adult Education." Educational Screen. 16: 
9-10. January 1937. 

Reviewed in Part Four, p. 287. 


Although motion pictures for instruction have been found 
most effective when used with small groups under normal 
classroom conditions, some mention should be made of ways 
in which films have been used effectively before large groups. 
Articles describing this technique may be classified as those 
in which the auditorium showing of films was directly cor- 
related with the curriculum, and those in which such show- 
ings were intended for recreation. 

Stoddard describes a significant experiment conducted 
under his direction in the Providence, R. I. schools for the 
purpose of determining whether the use of sound films would 
enable the teacher to instruct a class of 150 pupils as effec- 
tively as a class of forty could be instructed without this aid. 
Every type of teaching aid which would help to enrich the 
unit of work was available to the control and experimental 
groups, with the exception that the experimental group sub- 
stituted the aid of sound pictures for other devices for about 
thirty minutes each week. His report, however, gives little 
specific with respect to techniques, and is therefore only 


mentioned here. For a full digest, see the treatment of the 
study on p. 311 under Research. 

Stoddard, A. J. (Superintendent of Schools, Providence, R.L) 
"Will Sound Pictures Tend to Increase Class Size?" Na- 
tion's Schools. 14:16-19. July 1934. 

The Worrell procedure for presenting a large group film 
lesson is here summarized in detail because it is the result of 
careful deliberation with respect to the most effective tech- 
nique for using motion pictures under the contract system 
being used in the Englewood school. The article by Baker 
defends further the position that motion pictures can be 
used effectively with large groups, especially with the contract 
method of instruction. 

Herron undertook the use of films in the assembly with 
children of poor language ability as one form of enrichment. 
The steps in the preparation and follow-up of each film 
showing are listed. 

Other articles which discuss the auditorium showing of 
films have been reviewed elsewhere in this compilation, and 
are here listed for purposes of clarity. 

Jones, A. H. (Director of Visual Education, Gary, Ind.) 
"Visual Education in the Auditorium." Visual Review. 

Stuart, Byron D. (Principal, Westfield, N.J.) "On the Use 
of Motion Pictures : Seven Years Experience Summarized." 
New Jersey Educational Review. 8 :23. March 1935. 

Meola, L. K. (Chairman, Visual Education, John Hay High 
School, Cleveland, Ohio) "Noon Movies the New Edu- 
cational Tool." Educational Screen. 14:224-7. October 

Swarthout, Walter E. (Emerson School, Maywood, Illinois) 
"Recreational Motion Pictures in the School." Educational 
Screen. 14:97-8. April 1935. 


Collier, Robert, Jr. (South High School, Denver) "Prepara- 
tion and Presentation of a Science Night Program." Educa- 
tional Screen. 14 :219-22. October 1935. 

Worrell, F. Marshall (Director of Visual Education, Junior 
High School, Englewood, NJ.) "Large-Group-Instruction 
through the Use of Visual Aids." Educational Screen. 15 : 
43-5. February 1936. 

The following procedure with films and other aids was made 
possible because of the presence of sufficient equipment and 
operators, and because of the "contract" system of teaching in 
operation in the school. 

It is based on the idea that films, slides and most demonstra- 
tions may be presented as effectiyely to large groups as to small 
classes. The principal scheduled all ninth grade science classes 
to meet in the auditorium during the three periods on Tuesday 
and Thursday for illustrated lectures, and each class was 
scheduled to meet individually for discussion and supervised 
study during the regular periods on Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday. This arrangement left the science teachers with free 
periods for preparing the auditorium lessons, for securing and 
returning materials, etc. 

Materials were requisitioned about three months in advance 
from catalogues and from records of films previously found 

These are some of the steps followed by the teacher in charge 
of preparations for the large-group-instruction period : 

1. A preview was held of the visual material the preceding 
afternoon and important facts noted. 

2. If demonstrations or home-made slides were needed to 
supplement, they were prepared. 

3. A plan of presentation was worked out in detail and the 
time required for each part accurately noted to insure the full 
utilization of the period. 

4. A lighting schedule was made out for the boys in charge 
of lights, and one for the boy operating the projector. 

5. When the blackboard or some stage setting was required, 
the work was done in the morning before the classes met. 

6. Even auxiliary material was provided to be used in case 
of a breakdown during film projection. 

Pupils were given assigned seats, monitors checked attend- 
ance, stage assistants were selected from among the mechanically 


minded pupils, thus disposing of all routine matters in a minimum 
of time. 

Film as introduction to a new unit : Topic Transportation. 

Three of the best students were assigned to prepare special 
reports on: Origin and Development of the Steam Engine; 
History of the Automobile; and History of Air Transportation 
for the large-group-instruction period. The sound film, De- 
velopment of Transportation, was chosen as a fitting introduction 
to the unit. 

The class period proceeded as follows: (a) a brief intro- 
ductory talk by the teacher, emphasizing the importance of trans- 
portation in modern life; (b) showing of the film; (c) reports 
read by the three pupils over, the sound system; (d) students 
were asked to write on the subject, Development of Transporta- 
tion, based on the film and reports; (e) reshowing of the film. 

During the following class period the better essays were read 
and discussed. The supervised study then centered about the 
topic, "Early Methods of Transportation." 
Film as a direct teaching tool : Topic Dynamo 

The auditorium period proceeded as follows: (a) general 
review of static and galvanic electricity, their advantages and 
disadvantages, by the teacher; (b) a slide was projected with 
questions relating to dynamo, a new method of current genera- 
tion; (c) a diagram drawn on the blackboard near which was 
placed a model of a dynamo. The teacher using the model and 
blackboard illustration explained the various questions on the 
slide, the teacher performing the experiments, and the pupils 
forming their conclusions; (d) the class was then shown the 
film, Current Electricity, with teacher comment. Students took 
notes to help them in further study. 

A program of large-group-instruction has been enthusiastical- 
ly received by pupils, teachers and administrators. 

A similar program was subsequently worked out for teach- 
ing of geography and proved equally effective. Plans are being 
made for teaching of history and music appreciation in this 
manner. Only the lack of suitable classroom films limits possi- 
bilities of a more widespread use of large-group-instruction with 
visual material. 


Baker, Arthur O. (Head of Science Dept., John Marshall 
High School, Cleveland, Ohio) "The Jones Rotary System 
of Instruction." Educational Screen. 15 : 107-10. April 

The procedures which large group instruction with films 
hopes to be able to improve are : 

1. The teacher's tendency to adhere strictly to the question, 
answer, discussion method. 

2. Not using visual materials at all, or insufficiently. 

3. Not correlating the use of films definitely with assign- 
ments (For example, the class may be studying "Dairying with 
Milk Products" and the film shown to them may be on "Tuber- 
culosis." Such indirect correlations are not very valuable.) 

4. The showing of pictures for mere entertainment. 

5. Failure to prepare assignments and tests based definitely 
on visual materials when used. 

6. Emphasizing technical processes and the development of 
scientific skills in the laboratory. With the motion picture as 
an ally, work in the laboratory should become less technical and 
more exploratory. 

The Jones Rotary System of Instruction is an experimental 
procedure being used in science and history in several schools in 
Cleveland with a view to developing the techniques involved in 
the visual route to education. New classroom instruction goals 

1. Visual demonstrations delivered to large groups with a 
maximum of efficiency on the part of the instructor. 

2. The use in large groups of lantern slides, silent and sound 
films, exhibit and demonstration material, and the microphone. 
Thus all pupils see and hear effectively. 

3. The preparation of clarified assignments, and modern 

4. The preparation of such correlated work-sheet exercises, 
based upon the visual aids used, that lantern slides and films 
become agents of instruction demanding the attention of the 
student. Too frequently in the past visual aids have been used in 
classes in such a manner as to result in pure entertainment. 

5. Discussions in groups of such small size that all mem- 
bers participate. 

6. The development of leaders and leadership by placing 
students in charge of small groups for certain activities. 

7. The establishment of teacher-pupil contact. 

8. The inclusion of a reasonable amount of guided study. 


9. The securing of such individual pupil activities as the 
performing of experiments and projects. 

This teaching arrangement has cut the number of teaching 
periods from 30 to 24 a week; it provides an opportunity for 
teachers to plan their work; it avoids the monotony of routine 
presentations ; and it uses visual aids with considerable effective- 

The article describes administrative procedures to follow in 
establishing this system of instruction. 

Herron, John S. (Principal, Lafayette St. School, Newark, 
NJ.) "Motion Pictures As Stimulation for Written Lan- 
guage and History." National Elementary Principal. 15 : 
213-15. June 1936. 

The procedure described treats only of the auditorium show- 
ings held during the past five years for the purpose of overcoming 
the language barrier of children who come from foreign-language 
homes. Teachers use additional films in the classroom. 

The use of history films in the auditorium has aided in 
vitally improving written language work and in making Ameri- 
can history something of a real experience rather than a confu- 
sion of hazy ideas. The school is of the platoon type, caring for 
1,800 pupils who come from homes where foreign languages 
are spoken. The films used were the Yale Chronicles, the 
Abraham Lincoln series, and the Citizenship series. One week 
before a scheduled showing the teachers receive a summary 
from the Department of Visual Instruction. This is circulated 
among the teachers and discussed by pupils and teachers. The 
film and text stories are compared; vocabulary is noted and 
dictionaries used; the film episode is placed in its chronological 
relationship to other films seen ; maps are used to place the locale 
of the film. 

The showing is held in the auditorium in the presence of 
teachers and pupils. Forty of the 55 minutes are devoted to 
the screening. Immediately after the showing, the teachers pro- 
vide for socialized discussions in the classroom. In the ensuing 
three weeks before another film showing occurs, the film ex- 
perience is used to motivate written and oral expression. The 
class-made outline of the film is used as a basis for oral talks 
by each pupil. New words and phrases are placed on the board. 


The children take turns in telling their version of the story, 
with corrections politely made at the end of each. 

The written composition may be offered a paragraph at a 
time, or by a complete story. The use of new words and phrases 
in these compositions is encouraged. The principles of composi- 
tion-writing variety of expression, use of new words, complete 
sentences, unity are stressed. These compositions are examined 
by the vice-principal, and one outstanding theme from each set 
becomes part of a traveling exhibit sent to all rooms. Each 
set of papers, with comments, is returned to the teacher, and 
the individual compositions filed by each pupil in his folder. 
Common errors noted by the vice-principal are incorporated 
into a paragraph to be studied by all the classes. 





Most teachers and school administrators would readily 
agree that the effective use of instructional materials in the 
classroom depends in part on the care with which these 
materials have been selected. They would also agree that 
teaching materials should be selected with a view to their 
relation, directly or supplementarily, to all aspects of the 
objectives that have been accepted for teaching, to the appro- 
priateness of these materials on various levels of pupil abili- 
ties, and to the qualities of these materials which make them 
easy for pupils to use and to understand. 

Many of the materials of instruction commonly referred 
to as "visual aids" were used in the classroom long before 
the term was introduced into the educational vocabulary. 
Comenius, for instance, introduced illustrations as an integral 
part of the textbook when he published his Orbis Pictus in 
the seventeenth century. Illustrations were included in the 
New England Primer, the backbone of instructional materials 
of the colonial period. Throughout the development of 
American education, there has been an increase in the quan- 
tity of illustration included in school textbooks. In recent 
years a movement has developed which so emphasizes illus- 
tration that printed materials are subordinated, particularly 
in make-up, to pictures. The Building America series, pub- 
lished by the Society for Curriculum Study, is an example 
of this new type of study materials. 

Accepted as are these visual materials of teaching in cur- 
rent practice, it is natural to expect that sound principles for 
their selection and use would have been developed, and that 
in modern school practice these principles would be rigorously 
applied. One would also expect that in the voluminous 
literature of education, there would be an abundance of 


discussion, of reports of experimentation, and of the de- 
velopment of more or less standardized criteria for the selec- 
tion of instructional materials. 

But the administrator who searches for a scientific ap- 
proach to his problems of selection and the teacher who looks 
for authoritative advice to supplement her rule of thumb 
criteria must stumble through the oak forest of educational 
literature to find the few sprigs of evaluative mistletoe. 
Two notable exceptions to this rule are the "Aids to Teaching 
in the Elementary School," Thirteenth Yearbook, National 
Elementary Principal, and "Materials of Instruction," Eighth 
Yearbook of the Department of Supervisors and Directors of 
Instruction, National Education Association, published in 
1934 and 1935 respectively. 


The wide use of textbooks in the classroom makes the 
textbook illustration the most readily available of the visual 
aids. Even in the selection of these currently used materials, 
however, few principles have been adopted and fewer em- 

Melbo and Waterman * reported a study of pictures in 
geography textbooks in terms of the criteria set up for the 
selection of geography pictures in the Thirty-Second Year- 
book of the National Society for the Study of Education. 
It was emphasized in this Yearbook that 

Pictures that show human activity or signs of human activity 
in its natural setting are of high geographic quality because they 
show or suggest (1) what man was doing in the place illustrated, 
(2) the kind of a place in which he was doing it, and (3) the 
ways in which natural and cultural facts revealed help to explain 
the adjustments people there have made to their natural 
environment. 2 

1 Melbo, Irving R. and Waterman, Ivan R. "Pictures in Geography Textbooks." 
Elementary School Journal, 36:362-76. January 1936. 

2 Parker, Edith Putnam. "The Selection of Pictures." In Major Conclusions to 
Be Drawn from the Investigations, Thirty-Second Yearbook. National Society for the 
Study of Education. 1933. Chapter 10. p. 163. 


While pictures showing either cultural or natural setting 
were stated to be of some use, it was indicated that pictures 
"should stress cultural features in their natural setting." 

Upon examining a number of current geography texts, 
Melbo and Waterman found that on the average only be- 
tween 20 and 25 per cent of the pictures included in these 
texts were devoted to cultural-natural subjects, that many 
portrayed only natural features, and that a surprisingly large 
number were not related to the subject matter covered in the 
verbal content of the texts. 

The White brothers through their photographs of China 
have demonstrated another important quality which must be 
present in a good visual aid. James Henry White recently 
explained the contribution which his photographs were mak- 
ing in promoting international understanding, as follows : 

"In the organization of material for teacher use and in our lecture 
work we have tried to maintain a balanced picture of art and life. This 
is very important in developing a visual program for our history and 
geography classes. . . . For one thing (the pictures) have proved that 
a beautiful still picture can be used as a means of educational entertain- 
ment. The trouble with many still pictures is that they lack artistic 
merit, and lack proper application of color. Art in visual education must 
be the standard of merit. Slides and prints must not only depict works 
of art, they must be works of art. It may cost a little more to produce 
high quality visual material, but it will be worth the extra cost in a 
definite reaction on the part of the student." 3 

An interesting problem was found to exist among the 
silent motion pictures available for the teaching of geography 
when a short course in visual aids was offered February 6-14, 
1937, at the School of Adult Education, General Extension 
Division, University of Florida, Camp Roosevelt, Florida. 
Here a committee of teachers from various Florida school 
systems, under the chairmanship of H. F. Becker, of the 
geography department of the Florida Women's College, 
evaluated films and other visual aids from the same view- 
point as Melbo and Waterman evaluated textbook illustra- 

3 White, James Henry (Lake Ariel, Penn.) "China's Life and Culture 
Visualized." Educational Screen. 16:118-19. April 1937. 


Of the twenty-four silent films evaluated during this 
training program, only three were found to be "excellent" 
in their inclusion of material showing (a) human activities 
in their natural settings, and (b) natural features which 
may be used in building concepts of cultural-natural relation- 
ships. A film was considered "excellent" if over 85 per cent 
of its content met the criteria, "good" if between 60 and 
85 per cent, "fair" if less than 60 per cent, and "poor" if 
less than 35 per cent. Films were rated separately for each 
of the criteria. There were, however, few variations. If a 
film was rated "excellent" for showing relationships, it was 
also found to be "excellent" for concept building elements. 
Six other silent films were reported to be "good," according 
to the two criteria, and three of the films viewed were 
reported to be of no geographic value, although produced 
for use in elementary school geography classes, and the 
remainder were divided between "fair" and "poor" classifica- 

Among the sound motion pictures intended for geographic 
instruction in the elementary schools and reviewed at the 
Florida meeting, the situation was considerably worse. None 
was found to be of excellent quality, only two were found 
to be "good," seven were reported as of no geographic 
value, six were reported as "fair," and one as "poor." This 
situation was, in general, the result of the attempt to convert 
theatrical travelogues into "instructional" films. 

The film slides viewed were generally of inferior quality. 
On the contrary, however, most of the glass slides reviewed 
by the geography committee were reported as of high quality 
for geography instruction. 


The evaluation of visual materials undertaken at Camp 
Roosevelt was not confined to the criteria of subject matter 


relationships. Elements of technical quality, utility for direct 
or supplementary teaching, and appropriateness for specific 
grade levels were considered in determining the values of 
the visual aids for use in the Florida schools. 

In any evaluation program three general criteria can be 
established on the basis of the three basic elements of the 
teaching situation : ( 1 ) what is being taught, ( 2 ) the chil- 
dren doing the learning, and (3) the materials which are 
to be used in teaching the children. Selection of teaching 
materials must be made, in general, on the basis of their 
contribution to the understandings, attitudes, skills, etc., 
which have been set as the objectives of instruction, on their 
appropriateness to the needs, the age, grade, and mental 
ability levels of the pupils, and on the basis of their technical 
or mechanical qualities which make them good sources of 

But these general criteria are subjects in the realm of 
academic abstraction unless they are understood in particular 
applications. There is a strong temptation to talk glibly 
about "appropriateness to age, grade, and mental ability 
levels" without attempting to ascertain what constitutes 
"appropriateness" to these levels. Similarly, much is said 
and written about "objectives of instruction," but teaching 
is frequently a day by day series of specific lessons taught 
from textbooks. Again, educators will agree that a picture 
should be photographically good, but little has been done 
to indicate what is desirable composition, what things in a 
picture are worth while to a child, how much of this pictorial 
experience is essential to proper concept building, etc. If 
criteria for selection of instructional materials are to be 
developed comprehensively in such form as to be applicable 
by teachers in classroom situations, the three general criteria 
enumerated must be reduced to more specific elements. The 
teacher must know what makes a picture effective on the 


third rather than on the twelfth grade level, as well as those 
qualities which make it an effective tool of instruction on 
any school level. She must also know how pictorial experi- 
ence should be varied on these levels to conform to the 
varied abilities of pupils. 

There are two approaches to this problem. One is 
through the analysis of the material itself, and the second 
is through the analysis of pupil responses to this material 
Both approaches are essential. 

It is possible, for instance, to determine what teaching 
material should be used to develop an understanding and 
appreciation of the process of plant growth when there are 
films available which show this process in time-lapse photog- 

It is also possible to determine in part whether a motion 
picture on cotton is appropriate to the teaching of a particular 
unit from analysis of its pictorial and verbal content. If one 
of the major objectives of instruction is an understanding 
of the steps in the process by which cotton is planted, culti- 
vated, and prepared for market, any of several ordinary in- 
structional films now available will contribute elements of 
experience toward this objective. If, however, the objectives 
of instruction are broadened into the context of human 
relations if the problems of working and living human 
welfare that are inextricably woven into the agrarian and 
industrial relations of cotton are considered a process film, 
of itself, will be insufficient. The addition of March of 
Time's King Cotton's Slaves, which treats of the poverty and 
futility of the sharecropper's existence, or the dramatic Cabin 
in the Cotton, an adaptation of one of Paul Green's North 
Carolina folk plays, will contribute to the development of 
human insights and appreciations. As we cross our tradi- 
tional subject-matter borders and approach our educational 
objectives in their developing functional relations, we must 
first analyze the experience which is essential to the full 


development of insights and understandings of integrated 
wholes and then select those materials which contribute to the 
enrichment of new integrated patterns of behavior. 

Let us hold constant the objectives of instruction, and 
consider the technical qualities of the photographic material 
and its appropriateness to various levels of pupil maturity. 
Immediately, we must face the question, "What makes a 
picture good for second-grade children? for eighth-grade 

The answer to these questions cannot be derived from a 
purely logical analysis. We may, of course, assume that as 
children grow older the number of elements shown in a 
picture may be increased. But this rule is vague. It does 
not help particularly in the practical situation where we find 
children of widely varying abilities in any given school grade 
and where we find widely overlapping abilities among various 

In order to find the elements of instructional material 
appropriate to various levels of pupil abilities we must look 
to the pupils themselves. An experimental program must be 
set up in which pupil responses to various types of material 
are studied on various levels. In this way we can discover 
what in the materials themselves make them good teaching 
tools for pupils of varying abilities. 

This experimental approach may be made in two ways, 
the one through controlled experimental procedures, and the 
other through the service type of study in which a teacher 
adopts the experimental attitude with her pupils, varies the 
conditions of instruction, and observes the reactions of her 
pupils to these varying conditions. 

Some controlled experimental investigations have been 
made on the use of pictures and other concrete teaching aids 
with children. MacLean * reported some data on the use 

4 MacLean, W. P. "A Comparison of Colored and Uncolored Pictures." Educa- 
tional Screen. 9:196-9. September 1930. 


of color in pictures. For portraying distance, enhancing 
contrasts, and conveying impressions of sunlight and warmth, 
the use of color was reported to be superior to black and 
white representation. On the other hand, he reported that 
the use of color seems to have less value when the purpose 
is to show architectural and engineering details, and that the 
use of color may be actually harmful in concentrating the 
observer's attention to portions of the illustrations. 

General conclusions which may be drawn from other 
experimental investigations, particularly as they relate to 
the effect of pictures in motivating reading, have been sum- 
marized by Goodykoontz 5 as follows : 

1. Children like books that have at least a quarter of the 
book space given to pictures. 

2. Children like full page or fairly large pictures. 

3. Children prefer strong colors. 

4. Bold color groups with few but striking details are better 
than many details. 

5. Realistic pictures are preferable to conventionalized 

6. Action, humor, and a story are favorite picture types. 

7. Young children like a broader range of picture subject 
matter than they usually receive. 

8. Young children do not care especially for pictures of 
child activities. 

9. Older children like pictures related to in-school and 
informational interests. 

A few attempts were made to determine what elements 
of instructional motion pictures make them effective with 
children. The results of these investigations were utilized 
by Doane (7), in his attempt to set up criteria for the 
evaluation of educational films. 

The controlled experiment is, generally speaking, not 
appropriate for use by the teacher in the classroom. The 
teacher may lack the necessary statistical training and ex- 
perience in experimental techniques. Even when this training 

6 Goodykoontz, Bess. "The Relation of Pictures to Reading Comprehension " 
Elementary English Review. 13:125-30. April 1936. 


and experience are available, it is difficult to arrange the 
controls in varying classroom situations which are necessary 
to so-called "scientific" results. 

It is possible, however, for the teacher to adopt an experi- 
mental attitude toward teaching and to use the classroom as 
a laboratory for the study of child behavior and for the 
development of the art of teaching. While this attitude has 
been adopted by many teachers, the results of their study 
have escaped publication. In part educational periodicals 
are to blame for this situation. They have placed such an 
emphasis in recent years on the reporting of so-called "objec- 
tive data" in the journals that teachers are discouraged from 
writing articles describing their teaching situations, what 
needs were found from careful observation of children, and 
what techniques were found to be effective in particular 
situations. Consequently, the educational literature is dis- 
couragingly free of articles of this sort. As a result, when 
we search the literature for basic material on the evaluation 
of instructional materials, we find relatively little that reaches 
into the heart of the situation and offers specific help. There 
is immediate need for service studies of pupil reactions to 
various types of instructional materials and for the reporting 
of these studies in the educational journals. 


Of approximately 20 articles dealing with the selection 
and evaluation of materials of instruction, particularly those 
referred to as visual aids, a few have been selected as repre- 
sentative and have been summarized. In these articles are 
included most of the significant comments, criteria, etc., that 
are contained in the others. They were selected for inclusion 
here because of their comprehensiveness. 

The first of the summaries deals with the selection and 
organization of the materials of instruction, the second, third, 


and fourth with the criteria for selecting pictures, and the 
fifth, sixth, and seventh with criteria for selecting and evalu- 
ating motion pictures, and the eighth with elements which 
contribute to reality of pictorial experience. 

(1) English, Mildred and Stratemeyer, Florence B. "Selec- 
tion and Organization of Materials of Instruction." Eighth 
Yearbook. Department of Supervisors and Directors of In- 
struction, N.E.A. 1935. p. 129-48. 

There is growing at a rapidly accelerating rate a vast body 
of materials of instruction a wide range of books, magazines, 
pamphlets, pictures, newspapers, maps, charts, exhibits, records, 
and the like which suggest potential "service tools" in the teach- 
ing-learning process. The teacher has the problem of the selec- 
tion of such materials and the problem of refinement of the ma- 
terials themselves. Both problems are contingent upon (1) a 
knowledge of and acquaintance with available sources of ma- 
terial, and (2) the ability to evaluate these materials in terms 
of stated criteria or standards. 

It must be recognized that any set of standards governing 
selection are concerned with (1) the educational point of view 
held, (2) the background, abilities, needs, interests, and (3) 
the goals or purposes of that group. 

The following criteria for selection of materials is presented 
as being in harmony with educational principles upon which the 
Yearbook is based. 

1. The materials should be selected in terms of their bearing 
upon experiences or problems being considered by the group. 

a. Selected to give fuller meaning to daily experiences. 

b. Selected for natural contribution to the development 
of the experience or situation without imposing that 
which is unrelated. 

2. Materials should be selected to lead to an understanding 
of fundamental concepts, generalizations, and principles con- 
trols based upon facts and experiences which give power to 
meet new situations. 

3. Materials selected should be within the range of under- 
standing of the group selected from real situations on the level 
of the child's understanding and in accord with pupil interests 
and needs. 


4. Materials should provide for individual differences in 
ability, interest, and need provide for individual growth within 
group activity. 

5. Materials should be so selected and used as to help chil- 
dren to grow in self -direction in the choice and evaluation of 

6. Select materials, noting basic purposes for which the 
material has been developed and test its validity in the light of 
known truths and facts. Picture materials, as slides and films, 
do not always tell the truth. A check on authenticity, sensitivity 
to varied points of view and the continued search for materials 
to make the several viewpoints available, and the recognition 
of propaganda as propaganda are involved. 

7. Differentiate in the selection and organization of materials 
between those having permanent values and those concerned 
with temporary or passing interests. 

8. Selection should provide for balance and variety in types 
of material. This is significant by way of 

a. Acquainting pupils with a wide range of sources 

b. Recognizing basic factors conditioning interest 

c. Stimulating new interests through different media 

d. Allowing for individual differences 

e. Providing stimuli to the learner's own creative powers 

f. Providing for the all-round development of the 

9. Materials should have appropriate mechanical make-up 

a. Clearness and conciseness and interest value 

b. Attractiveness, useableness 

c. Mechanical durability and suitability 

d. Proper methods of emphasizing important phases of 

e. Convenience 

The article also includes sections on the development of a 
materials bureau and on mounting and preserving materials. 6 

(2) Abrams, Alfred W. "Standards for the Selection of 
Pictures." New York State Education. 19:281-3. December 

More pictures are being placed before pupils than ever before. 
Yet little thought is given to what constitutes the essential char- 
acteristics of acceptable pictures for the work to be accomplished. 

See Administration. Part One, p. 90. 


If desirable results are to be obtained, pictures cannot be care- 
lessly chosen or used, the pictures must have certain character- 
istics. Some of these follow : 

1. Truthfulness. It is as necessary that the pictures be 
truthful as the written material. Yet pictures are found in 
textbooks which give false ideas to children. 

2. Authenticity. Portraits should be accompanied with data 
as to the time; age of the person pictured; if a painting, the 
name of the painter ; etc. 

3. Quality. The quality of the picture, as well as the idea 
which it expresses, is important if the picture is to be of the 
greatest educational value. 

4. Significance. A picture may contribute much or it may 
be of very small consequence. A loss of time is involved in 
the use of insignificant pictures. 

5. Attractiveness. Facts should be presented in a pleasing 
manner. The picture should have pictorial merit. 

(3) Trolinger, Lelia. "Characteristics in Still Pictures for 
Instructional Use in the Classroom." Educational Screen. 
14:217-19. October 1935. 

Suggestions for the rating scale were received from a group 
contacted by a trial questionnaire. With these suggestions, a 
new questionnaire was made and sent to about seventy of the 
visual education experts of the country. There was general 
agreement that the scale should be divided into two parts, techni- 

Technical Quality 40 Points 

A Picture Should Be: Mean Mode 

Artistic 11 10 

Clear and Definite 11 10 

Free from Blemishes 5 5 

Of Practical Size 7 10 

Properly Colored 6 5 

Instructional Quality 60 Points 

Mean Mode 

Truthful 15 15 

Authentic 8 10 

Relevant 11 10 

Significant 9 10 

Stimulative 11 10 

Suggestive of Size 6 5 



cal and instructional. The division of scale points on a 40-60 
basis was almost unanimously adopted. There was considerable 
variation in the individual point values assigned. The mean 
and the mode are shown. 

(4) Thralls, Zoe A. "The Selection and Use of Pictures." 
Journal of the National Education Association. 21 :247-8. 
November 1932. 

Much of our present geographic knowledge has been accumu- 
lated by actual landscape surveys and further observation must 
be acquired in the same way. There the ability to read landscapes 
is a basic skill. Since in school the observation of actual land- 
scapes is limited we must use pictures. These must be used as 
a source of information and as a basis for geographic reasoning. 

A criterion for the selection of pictures for geographic in- 
struction is established by the definition of geography. An ideal 
picture of high geographic quality should show a human activity 
in its natural setting. On this basis pictures fall into three 
groups : 

1. Those which possess inherent or primary geography 
quality because of the completeness with which they show or 
suggest the adjustment of man's activities to the natural 

2. Those which possess secondary quality because they do 
not directly show or suggest such relationships. They have 
value because atmosphere is conveyed even though the geographic 
phase has to be conveyed by another picture or by words. 

3. Those concerned primarily with cultural items which do 
not suggest relation to the natural environment. Sometimes 
these are necessary to convey concrete impressions. 

In considering any picture to be used in geographic instruc- 
tion, the teacher should ask herself two questions : 

1. Does this picture contribute to an understanding of the 
geographic relationships which should be developed in this unit? 

2. Can I use it so as to bring out geographic relationships ? 

Pictures may be classified on the basis of both quality and 
use of pictures according to the following levels of geographic 
instruction : 

1. To give concrete images of specific natural and cultural 
items in the landscape of a particular region. (Relationships 
between food, clothing, shelter, means of travel, types of work, 
and elements of the natural environment.) 


2. Human use regions deals with the relationships between 
the distribution of types of work and population and the natural 
environment. Pictures connected with this level should be con- 
nected with maps to give the idea of the distribution of particular 

3. The country. Pictures should be selected with a view of 
bringing out the outstanding adjustments in a country pictures 
of the human use regions within that country. Proper balance 
must be maintained so that the several activities of the country 
shall be properly emphasized. 

4. Countries where there are native populations and trans- 
planted groups. Pictures should show the adjustments both 
groups have made to the natural environment and bring out the 
contrast between the adjustments of people with a different 
cultural heritage in the same natural environment. A proper 
balance should be maintained. The children should come to 
recognize the influence of the original homelands on the trans- 
planted people. 

5. For the fifth level and beyond, pictures become of relative- 
ly less importance. The pictures give comparatively few new 
concepts but may be used in new combination, as for instance 
the rubber industry raw materials and manufacture. 

(There follow some suggestions for the use of pictures in 
teaching. ) 

(5) Dale, Edgar. "Standards for the Selection of Classroom 
Motion Pictures." Thirteenth Yearbook. National Elemen- 
tary Principal. 13 :344-8. June 1934. 

I. Do films harmonize with the objectives of the school? 

1. Are visual aids necessary in attaining the objectives? 

2. If aids are necessary, what type shall be used ? 

a. The motion picture is dynamic ; it shows processes, 
development, and change. 

b. The still picture is static; it shows products and 

c. Perhaps an excursion will serve best for some 
types of experiences. 

d. Advantages of the film over the excursion. 

(1) It is more economical of time. 

(2) Only the materials necessary to understand 
the process are included. 

(3) There are fewer distractions. 


(4) The teacher can comment during the show- 
ing of the film. 

(5) Animated drawings can show processes 
which cannot be seen by first-hand observa- 

II. Is the material in the film accurate ? 

III. Are the films satisfactory from a technical point of view ? 

1. Sharp definition is essential, 

2. Most scenes should be taken in closeups. 

3. The acting of characters who are introduced into the 
picture must be effective. 

4. The photography should be steady. 

5. All scenes in the picture should reflect good composi- 

6. The animated drawings used in the classroom should 
show careful planning and skillful rendering. 

IV. Will the films be satisfactorily understood by the pupils ? 

1. Titles and vocabulary 

2. Length of film 

3. Simple, unified, and coherent organization 

a. Types of sequence 

( 1 ) Chronological 

(2) From familiar to unfamiliar 

(3) Tracing development, as in a factory 

(4) Causal 

b. Transitions should be smoothly developed. 

c. Nothing should obscure the central idea of the 

V. Will the cost and the total number of showings utilized 
make films desirable investments ? 

VI. Will the teachers use the films ? 

(6) Brunstetter, M. R. "Selecting Educational Talking Pic- 
tures." School Executives Magazine. 54:364-5. August 

A film library should be made up of excellent films, other- 
wise it will soon be cluttered up with inferior materials. The 
instructional value of a film is the direct outgrowth of the care 
and professional skill which has gone into its production. A poor 
film may be just a waste of time or may even do positive harm. 


Standards on which to base judgments are important. The 
material should be directly related to the course of study, it 
should be presented in an interesting manner, and it should be 
adapted to the child's level of comprehension. The technical 
aspects of the film should, however, be considered in greater 

Even with an appraisal form the rating is still more or less 
subjective. Therefore, the rating should represent the combined 
opinion of several skilled reviewers, using a common set of 
standards. The film should be projected several times, so that 
the reviewers may know thoroughly the objectives of the film, the 
content and the method of treatment. 

The work should be done with specific uses and purposes 
for the film clearly in mind. Films show legitimate differences 
when made for different purposes. 

The following appraisal form is that used by a producer in 
this field to guide the various steps in production and to evaluate 
the finished product. On each item the film is to be rated as 
excellent, good, fair, poor, or objectionable. In Mr. Brunstetter's 
article other subdivisions are given, not included here. 

Appraisal Form for Educational Talking Pictures 

I. Objectives of the Picture 

A. Clearness 

B. Validity 

C. Scope 

II. Content of the Picture 

A. Appropriateness 

B. Accuracy of Content 

C. Thoroughness of Content 

III. Development of Content 

A. Development for Unity 

B. Development for Understanding 

C. Development for Emphasis 

IV. Technical Audio- Visual Elements 

A. Treatment of Pictorial Material 

B. Treatment of Sound Material 

C. Cast 

V. Contributions to Other Curriculum Materials 

A. Contributions to the Same Field 

B. Contributions to Related Fields 
VI. Overview of General Effectiveness 

A. Educational Values 

B. Artistic Values 
General Rating 


(7) Doane, Donald C. "What Makes a Good Educational 
Film?" Educational Screen. 15:203-6, 239-41, 271-3, 305-7. 
September, October, November, December 1936. 

The problem of what makes a good educational film is 
attacked in this series of articles from three standpoints. 

1. What has been determined in previous experimental 
investigations ? 

2. What criticisms have been directed against educational 
motion pictures? 

3. What types of films do teachers choose ? 

After studying the results of previous experiments, Doane 
arrives at the following summarization of the desirable and un- 
desirable characteristics of educational films. 

Desirable characteristics : 

1. Correlation with and integration into the usual course of 
study for the subject and grade intended. 

2. Limitation to presentation of facts. 

3. Provision for future activity ; challenging future thought. 

4. The best possible degree of technical perfection. 

5. In general, limiting the length to one reel at most. 

Undesirable characteristics : 

1. Presentation of material which can be presented other- 
wise, either by an identical presentation, or equally 
effectively in another way. 

2. Material familiar to the pupils for which the film is 

3. Aims to create attitudes or to influence behavior, or 
presentation of general ideas. 

4. An excess of titles or pictures not involving motion. 

5. An excess of maps, tables, and non-moving diagrams. 

6. Teaching how to perform an activity (e.g., a laboratory 

7. Sound accompaniment consisting of a lecture only. 

Important questions not established : 

1. Relative effectiveness of otherwise identical sound and 
silent films. 

2. The grades in which the film is most effective. Tenta- 
tively, however, the best opening for the film appears to 
be the secondary school. 


Following are criticisms which have been directed against 
educational films. In general, these are not backed by experi- 
mental proof. 

1. Films too long 

2. Topic too large or broad 

a. Attempt to cover too much subject matter in a 
short time 

b. Sequence and mode of attack predetermined 

c. Attempt to be self-sufficient, replacing teacher, 
books, demonstrations, etc. 

3. Not adapted to pupils psychologically 

a. Not suited for age level of pupil 

b. Child's interpretation is not considered. 

4. Subject of film poor 

a. Could be better presented otherwise 

b. Subject not worthy of place in curriculum 

c. Pupils not interested in subject 

d. Not conscious appeal to a specific learning; e.g., 
skills, ideas, attitudes, facts, insights. 

5. Unity of subject matter lacking 

a. Remotely related material added to complete reel 

b. No continuity 

c. Absence of main problem about which all scenes 
or minor problems revolve 

d. Minor points not subordinated to main point 

e. Main problem not vital, gripping, interesting, or 
appealing to curiosity. 

6. Not challenging to further thought 

a. Pouring instruction, not pulling ideas out. 

7. Poor subject matter 

a. Inaccurate 

b. Unusual matters presented as typical 

c. Figures on films are seldom remembered 

d. Too many pictures not involving motion 

e. Presence of details much better presented other- 

f . Visual experience familiar to pupils 

g. Moving pictures when still pictures would serve 
as well. 

8. Mechanical details of film poor 

a. Scenes are too short and fugitive 

b. Poor proportioning of parts of pictures 

c. Technically poor 

d. Mechanical mode of presentation poor 

e. Poor directing. 


9. No supplementary material supplied; e.g., teachers' 
guides, etc. 

In order to discover the types of films which teachers choose, 
a study was made of the booking from the Department of Visual 
Instruction of the University of California Extension Division 
over a one and one-half year period. Only films of the 16-mm. 
size, one reel in length, and renting for $1 were considered. 

The popularity of films according to subjects was in the 
following order: (1) physiology and health, (2) physical sci- 
ences, (3) biology, (4) geography (industrial), (5) geography 
(physical and human), (6) vocational guidance, and (7) nature 

An analysis was made of the films to find the influence of the 
presence or absence of certain characteristics in determining 
teachers' choices. The following conclusions may be drawn. 

Geography Films 

1. The film should be concerned with a country or region 
prominent in the curriculum of the schools for which it is 

2. It makes little difference whether the film deals with the 
physical, human, industrial, or general aspects of the subject. 

3. Local interest has little influence, except when the subject 
is too much within the experience of the pupils. 

Natural Science 

1. For elementary nature study films, the results showed an 
advantage in favor of familiar subject matter of unusual, non- 
typical topics. 

2. Films which consist of animals, plants, etc., merely pic- 
tures and not built up as a curricular lesson, constitute the 
poorest field studied. 

3. The subject should have a prominent place in the 

4. Films for secondary schools are more in demand than for 
elementary schools. 

Physical Science 

1. The subject must be important in the curriculum. 

2. A broad subject is desirable unless particularly adapted 
to the curriculum. 

3. Industrial films are not successful, when rental is charged. 


4. Best subjects are those adapted to both secondary school 
science and general science. 

Other Subjects 

History subjects should be ones prominent in the curriculum. 
The price cannot be raised appreciably regardless of the length 
of the film. 

Civics and citizenship films are low in demand. This is a 
difficult field in which to construct good films. They are likely 
to become out-dated relatively soon. 

Vocational guidance promises to be a good field. There was 
considerable demand for films but disappointment was expressed 
with the type of films available. 

From a study of repeat bookings, it appears that teachers are 
most favorably impressed with science films involving study, 
presenting problems, and preferably strictly curricular in nature. 
They are not quite so well impressed with films which are largely 
illustrative, merely picturing animals or plants, and generally 
unfavorably impressed with films involving acting or which in 
any way may be compared with the current theatrical product. 
Films involving acting must be expertly done if they are to be 

There were two purposes in the collection of the above data : 
(1) To provide a guide for the producer in constructing and 
judging films; (2) To provide distributors with a check list 
to aid in evaluating films the acquisition of which is contemplated. 

A check list is given which has three main parts, i.e., sub- 
ject matter, method of presentation, and technical make-up of the 
film. Each has a number of subdivisions. There are in all 
thirty-three statements to be checked. No weightings are given 
the different points. Such weightings would be assigned by 
subjective opinion. Furthermore, the absence of one trait alone 
may be sufficient to condemn a film. A producer, distributor, 
or those in charge of a school system will be interested in the 
check list. The points mentioned should be kept in mind while 
making a film. It will serve as a basis for judging a film to 
be purchased. 

A chart is shown which indicates the probable demand for 
films dealing with various subjects. One contemplating acquisi- 
tion of a film for distribution, or production of a film for sale 
or distribution to schools will be interested in it. By means of 
this chart one can roughly predict the probable demand for 


the film. (The check list and chart are included. Educational 
Screen. December 1936, p. 306-7). 

(8) Merton, Mineta (Waukesha Junior-Senior High School, 
Wis.) "Vitalizing Teaching through the Correct Use 
of the Still Picture." Educational Screen. 16:115-16. April 

The new three R's of the child centered school may be classi- 
fied as: Reality, reasoning, and research. Visual aids have 
contributed richly in realizing these new trends in education. 

In utilizing pictures there are several factors about a picture 
which it is well to train children to consider : 

1. Size 6. Depth 

2. Temperature 7. Color 

3. Motion 8. Odor 

4. Sound 9. Speed 

5. Distance 10. Weight 

The applicability of these criteria to judging and using 
motion pictures is obvious. 


The following check-lists should be consulted. Because 
they are checklists they have not been digested. 

Devereux, Frederick L. "Check-List for Evaluating Educa- 
tional Talking Pictures." Appendix in The Educational Talk- 
ing Picture. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1933. 
p. 204-10. 

Hollis, A. P. "A Score Card for Judging Values of Informa- 
tional Pictures." In Motion Pictures for Instruction. Cen- 
tury Company. N.Y. Chapter 8. p. 197-207. 

Weber, Joseph J. "Proposed Standards for Evaluating 
Instructional Films." In Motion Pictures and Lantern Slides 
for Elementary Visual Education. H. Emmett Brown and 
Joy Bird. Bureau of Publications of Teachers College. 
Teachers College, Columbia University. New York. 1931. 
p. 5. 

Articles by Walters, Shriner and Winchell in Part Two, 
Section on Teaching Techniques, indicate some of the ways 
in which pupil reactions were considered by the teacher in 
selecting materials for further use. 






In 1923 the Eastman Kodak Company put on the market 
its first 16 mm. camera. This fact of chronology is important 
because it has genuine significance as far as the history of 
the use of motion pictures in the schools is concerned. We 
find further that in 1927-28 the Eastman Kodak Company 
was beginning and carrying out its experiments dealing with 
twenty 16 mm. motion pictures which they had made for 
that purpose. In 1928 the Eastman Kodak Company began 
the commercial production of 16mm. educational films. To- 
day more than 225 of these films have been made available to 
the schools. 

With the advent of the 16mm. camera and greatly re- 
duced prices of projection equipment, it became possible for 
the amateur to experiment in the producing of his own films. 
There followed a widespread making of motion pictures 
dealing with family life, travel, and so forth. 

It is interesting to note that out of the thirty-seven articles 
presented here dealing with film production in the schools, 
only two appeared before 1930, five before 1933 and thirty 
between 1933 and the present. It is evident that more work 
is now being done in the field. It should be pointed out 
too that, like the iceberg, the greater part is below the surface 
as compared with what one sees on top. There is a tremend- 
ous amount of activity of this sort which has never been 
written up for publication. 

The writer had ample opportunity to secure evidence on 
this fact at the first state-wide meeting ever held concerning 
the production of motion pictures in schools, which took place 
on the Ohio State University campus February 13, 1937. 


At that time more than thirty-five educational and welfare 
workers assembled not only to discuss films but also to screen 
some of the films which they had made. In that conference, 
three major problems arose : first, what aspects of school 
activity lend themselves to the motion-picture photographic 
process; and second, how shall we produce these films? A 
third problem, not treated at all extensively in the articles, 
but one very crucial in the minds of workers in this field, is : 
how is the production of these films to be financed? Similar 
problems are noted as one analyzes the literature in the field 
of motion picture production in schools. 


A. Creative Dramatics 

Many of the film productions of schools have developed 
in the "appreciation" area, including not only dramatics, 
literature and art, but also motion picture appreciation. 
Several articles and news items have been summarized in 
the following pages to indicate the various ways in which 
amateur cinematography was successfully used to enrich the 
school curriculum. Some of the projects were undertaken 
as part of the regular classroom work, whereas others were 
extra-curricular in nature. English, social studies, Latin, 
and character education, are some of the areas in which 
dramatized motion pictures were used. It is hoped that these 
accounts will be suggestive to teachers in other fields of 

Augustine, Harold M. "Creative Dramatics in Montclair 
High School." Junior-Senior High School Clearing House. 
7 :230-3. December 1932. 

The author compares old and new methods of teaching 
dramatics. Formerly the teacher chose the play (usually some 
"classic") and picked out the "best" actors, who then put on 
the play. The newer methods, however, bring in a variety of 


student activity, and include the production of short plays and 
one-act plays, even of student-written plays and films. 

The first film produced by the dramatics group in Montclair 
High School was humorous satire, "She Stoops to Crank'er." 
The group also planned to correlate civic study and dramatics 
through the production of a film based on the widespread com- 
munity interest in town planning. In addition to the indirect 
teaching of civic problems, the students derived certain values 
from this type of activity. It gave an opportunity to learn to 
act, without the drudgery of memorizing lines, and furnished 
motivations for original reading and research in fields not 
represented in textbooks. 

A sample student scenario is included, titled "Peter Plans 
Podunk." The story is that of Peter who, returning from col- 
lege, convinces the townspeople that the town should be well 
planned if it is to be selected as the site for a large motor produc- 
tion plant. 

Putnam, Sarah and Tompkins, Harrison. "The Park School 
Drama Club Presents ..." Progressive Education. 13 :446- 
53. October 1936. 

The Park School, Baltimore, Maryland, wished to help its 
students to understand the implicit values and deficiencies of 
the motion picture. It was decided that this would be done by 
giving the children an opportunity to produce their own films. 
The high-school dramatic club of fifty boys and girls was eager 
to do this work, since they had had previous experience in drama 
as a craft, an art, and a business enterprise, and had lighting 
and camera equipment. 

A school-wide scenario contest yielded a script based on 
Silas Marner. The theme of the story dealt with the necessity 
of a human being to love generously. A synopsis of the four- 
reel (2000 feet, 16 mm.) film is included. 

The problems were threefold : to arrange the shooting 
schedule within the time and place limitations, to bring together 
the proper characters at the right time, and to find easily accessible 
and filmable settings. The group took 2500 feet of film, traveled 
around the countryside for settings and costumes, and learned 
about make-up and acting. Work was done during the free 
activity day every third Friday. 


The actors were selected by the instructors, were well 
cast, and acted naturally. Many were boys and girls who found 
their first social experiences while working with a group on 
the film. Costuming was done by using and refurbishing avail- 
able costumes from school plays, or out of old attics. The 
filming of two scenes in the ballroom and at the chimney place 
is described. Then came the activities of editing, splicing, clean- 
ing, advertising, preparing musical accompaniments, and the 
final showing. 

An attempt was made to defray the cost of production ($230) 
by charging admissions to public showings of the film before 
a second print had been made from the original. This proved 
to be a mistake, however, since the film was scratched and marred 
to such an extent that it could not be reproduced later. 

The authors found that a short film would have been a better 
activity than the long one attempted, that technical effects could 
be improved by the study of still photography (a photography 
club is growing out of this activity), that appreciation of com- 
mercial films was unified and enhanced, and that the students 
gained much in resourcefulness, self-confidence, and ability to 
work together in carrying through a project. 

Whitehead, Louise G. "The Motion Picture as a Medium of 
Class Instruction." English Journal. 26:315-17. April 1937. 

A first-year English class in a Los Angeles high school voted 
to make a movie based on David Copperfield. A technical 
committee was chosen to make plans for the film, student-owned 
cameras were made available, and the student body purchased 
three hundred feet of 16 mm. film. Nine scenes were selected 
from the book and members of the class wrote each episode, 
which was then criticized and re-written until the script com- 
mittee was satisfied. "Sets" were planned by the art com- 
mittee. The costume committee did library research, and even 
borrowed the original costume "stills" from the M.G.M. pro- 
duction of David Copperfield. This commercial production was 
also viewed by the students, and it was decided that their own 
"Scenes from David Copperfield" must be simple. 

Tryouts were held before the class, under the supervision of 
a student "director." Each child wrote a letter to his parents 
explaining the project. Titles were written and filmed and the 
scenes were taken out-of-doors, which saved the trouble and 


expense of extra lighting. ''Flats" were utilized on the patio for 
interior scenes, and most of the camera work was done during 
the hour class period. The completed film was shown to two 
hundred parents on "Open House Night" and to the school 

The author of the article declares, "I have directed no class 
study of David Copper field in which a comparable knowledge 
of the story was developed, nor a similar amount of thoughtful 
written work done." She also states that this project "satis- 
fied the three requirements of an instructional motion picture" in 
that it "(1) provided opportunities for research and creative 
effort; (2) produced a summarization that pupils and parents 
could see and appreciate; and (3) gave a film that might be 
shown to other teachers illustrative of experimental class 

Hamilton, Delight C. "An Experiment with Treasure Island." 
English Journal. 20 :415-16. May 1931. 

Committees of students in the Newberg (Oregon) High 
School worked on preliminary steps to the filming of the story 
Treasure Island. Written application was made by students 
for assignments as scenario editors, managers, costumers, stage 
men, and so forth. The story was read for scenes to be included 
in the film. Scenario writing was studied, a continuity was 
worked out, and the scenes were finally edited to fit a 400- foot 
reel. Sets were prepared during activity periods, costumes were 
designed, make-up charts were studied. 

The film was then photographed, titled, edited, and a general 
showing planned. Oral announcements of this showing were 
presented to other classes in the school. 

In general, this study of Treasure Island became a vital 
experience for the students, long to be remembered. 

"Wild West Film Produced by Doylestown Pupils." Na- 
tions Schools. 17:76. May 1936. 

Students in the photoplay appreciation class at the Doylestown 
High School, under the direction of Margaret K. Lehman, head 
of the English Department, wrote a burlesqued wild west story, 
which was then filmed by the students. The production was 
done on a farm, using a denuded buggy, a watch tower, and 


railroad tracks. The sure-fire story centered about a lovelorn 
heroine, a villain who tied her to the railroad tracks, and a hero 
who arrived in the nick of time. 

The students learned the difficulties attached to artistic 
photography and the time and skill required to produce even 
so small a film as this. 

"Syracuse University Plans Film Production. Educational 
Screen. 15:192. June 1936. 

Syracuse University plans to produce a full-length 35 mm. 
talking picture as a laboratory project, utilizing students enrolled 
in a special summer cinema appreciation course for both players 
and technicians. Selected for the experiment is Big Lake, Lynn 
Rigg's study of adolescent youth in Oklahoma. Every effort 
will be made to meet professional standards in this production. 

"Character Education Courtesy." In Handbook for the Use 
of Visual Aids. Bulletin No. 18. Board of Public Educa- 
tion. Pittsburgh, Pa. 1929. p. 55. 

A general program for developing desirable habits of courtesy 
in the school, the home, on the street, and in society will be 
greatly aided by the preparation of an original film in which 
the students have assisted. The entire unit on courtesy will be 
climaxed by the showing of this film. 

Thornquist, Marie H. "Our Kindergarten Movie." Educa- 
tional Screen. 14:82. March 1935. 

The kindergarten movie entitled, "Dramatic Play in the 
Kindergarten," represents a real unit as it developed in the 
Clifford Street School, Los Angeles, California. The children 
decided to build a colonial house and furnish it. They secured 
their information about houses from a stillfilm roll showing 
different kinds of homes, from magazine pictures, and from a 
walk through the neighborhood. When the house was finished it 
was very completely furnished, the furnishings being made by 
the children. Cut-out pictures from magazines gave them ideas 
for the furnishing of each room. 

For some time after its completion the children derived much 
pleasure from playing with the house. They took turns in 
performing the various duties about the home. The play was so 


spontaneous and natural that it was decided to attempt the 
recording of what the children were doing in the form of a movie. 
The cost was reduced by one of the patrons, who secured the 
assistance of a Japanese cameraman in photographing the pic- 

The film is of an entire unit which developed as it should 
children leading, teacher guiding. Rehearsals were not used. 
No two performances were ever the same. The performance was 
truly spontaneous play, so that the cameraman was not obliged 
to take the picture over again, in so far as the children's acting 
was concerned. 

Forrest, Elaine S. "A Novel Latin Project." Child Welfare. 
25 :178. November 1930. 

Students of the Classical Club of the Central Junior High 
School, New Rochelle, New York, under the direction of Mrs. 
Mary B. Albertson, wrote, acted, and presented their own film 
version of "Atalanta and the Golden Apples." The project took 
a whole year, meeting one-half hour weekly. 

During the fall and winter, the students studied the life, 
society, costumes and customs of the Greeks and Romans. They 
then made the costumes, and used the school backgrounds for 
settings. A student handled the photography and wrote the 

The completed film was shown to the whole school and was 
enthusiastically received. 

Bailey, Helen M. "We Discover China." California Journal 
of Secondary Education. 11:43-6. January 1936. 

A unit on Chinese life had been prepared and published by 
the author. An opportunity was afforded to teach this unit in a 
ninth year social studies class in a Los Angeles school, for a 
single period daily over a period of six weeks. The unit centered 
around the making of their own films. 

The students had studied the Crusades, and from this topic 
proceeded to Marco Polo and his travels in China. The class 
was organized to make a Modern Marco Polo Tour, with indi- 
viduals and groups taking special "trips." Students used the 
National Geographic Magazine, Asia Magazine, books from 
school and public libraries, the teacher's collection of sketches, 
Chinese prints, embroidery and handicrafts. 


They were anxious to visit and make film records of Chinese 
homes in Los Angeles, Chinese students at the University, and 
Chinese restaurants. Sixteen dollars worth of film was 

First there was a preliminary filming of a Chinese restaurant 
and an ancestral family temple. Students then selected their own 
directors and technical workers, and began to work out a scenario. 
Further films were taken of sunken Chinese gardens, Chinese 
curio stores, as well as a Chinese play put on by the students 
and other classroom activities. Editing was done by the group 
as a whole, titles were suggested, and a committee did the 
mechanical work of splicing. A contest for the best name 
brought, We Discover China. 

The students mimeographed their own invitations for the 
film showing and wrote up the project in a large book. The 
film received a favorable write-up in the school paper. 

Katz, Elias. "Making Movies in the Class Room." Clearing 
House. 11:153-6. November 1936. 

The article is based on the author's experiences with film- 
making at the Lincoln School and the Horace Mann School 
for Girls, Teachers College, Columbia University. 

Film-making arouses intense student interest. Students are 
faced with special problems requiring the exercise of initiative, 
resourcefulness, and intensive research. Moreover, all work 
proceeds on a cooperative basis. 

Some of the problems in film production which students 
and teachers face are : selection of the theme, preparation of the 
script, planning the settings, designing the costumes, conducting 
the necessary research, acting, photographing the action, editing 
the continuity, preparing sound effects to accompany the show- 
ing, and finally planning for the big performance. 

Synopses are included of Brothers of Altamira, a film on 
primitive life, which shows the struggle of two brothers against 
the wicked old Chief of the tribe, and their love for one another, 
and Their Adopted Country, which details the life of a group 
of Italian immigrants and their adjustment to a new society in 

Some groups went out on excursions, looking for "material" 
and settings, making contacts and meeting situations requiring 
self-control and ingenuity. Acting produced best results when 


filmed directly following brief rehearsals. Editing was an im- 
portant part of the activity, involving classification, rough 
assembling of scenes, and final adjustment of sequences. 

Values from this activity include permanent learnings which 
develop out of highly self -motivated activity and countless 
opportunities for creative expression in dramatization, building 
sets, costumes, visits. Also, there is a discipline which comes 
out of selecting and judging which scene, actor, or costume is 
most appropriate at a given point. Students and teachers who 
participate in this activity develop a keener and more critical 
attitude towards the motion pictures they see in theatres. The 
author suggests that making films is one of the best ways of 
developing a true appreciation of motion pictures. 

B. School News Reels and Public Relations 

Probably a good many of the early production efforts 
of a school will concern themselves with recording student 
activities. These films may be used for various purposes. In 
some instances the newsreel is used to develop school spirit 
and inspire student cooperation in school activities. Occa- 
sionally, these films are made for purposes of publicity, and 
in some cases the films are filed as a historical record of 
activities carried on at the time of production. Newsreels 
and films of school publicity are usually presented before the 
student body as a whole, parent organizations, citizens' 
groups, or at commencement. 

A few experiences in making newsreels have been sum- 
marized below. 

Stenius, Arthur. "The High School Newsreel." High School 

Journal 18 :233-7. November 1935. 

The newsreel at Detroit Western High School was introduced 
as an extension of the school newspaper. Those in charge 
believed that the newsreel could be intensely interesting to stu- 
dents. Adolescents like to see themselves and their friends on 
the screen. Admissions of five and ten cents could be charged 
and the venture made self-supporting. The athletic department 
saw the possibility of using it to stimulate interest in athletics, as 
well as to give an opportunity to show athletes the errors which 


they made in their performances. It was believed that the innova- 
tion would be useful in stimulating interest in other school 
activities, such as club outings and class plays. 

Since the motion-picture equipment of the school was 
obsolete, it was necessary to secure a 16 mm. projector as well 
as a camera. A used camera, films, and a new projector were 
secured for a little less than one hundred and fifty-five dollars. 

The student in charge was an editor who had long indulged 
in photography as a hobby. The school bulletin board, with 
movable white letters on a black background, was used in making 
titles. The first reel made included a novelty introduction, scenes 
of the school, photographs of various members of the staff, the 
principal congratulating the editor and business manager of 
the paper on the accomplishment, scenes during football practice, 
shots of a tennis match, action pictures taken during a football 
game, and many shots of students about school. 

The program for the first showing included the newsreel, 
a one-act play, and two reels of animated cartoons. A loud 
speaker system which a student had constructed was borrowed. 
Records were played for the animated cartoons and a member of 
the newspaper staff acted as commentator for the newsreel. 
At a later presentation the commentator sat near the front of 
the auditorium and used a megaphone. On one occasion a cheap 
speaking device and radio were used. 

One newsreel was presented each month. The auditorium 
was filled for the showings and the venture was a paying one. 
The pictures taken were of good quality and the scenes sufficient- 
ly varied to maintain interest. 

The school that takes up the newsreel is assuring itself 
of an activity that will receive increasing support from the 
student body. It is a practical extension of the service offered 
by the school newspaper. 

Boos, Harold O. "The Motion Picture Camera in the School." 
Sierra Educational News. 30 :17-18. October 1934. 

The motion-picture projector has become quite common in 
the schools, but the camera is still unusual there. This should 
not be the case, for there are many uses to which the camera 
may be put to make for a more effective school. 

The first experience with the camera at Cypress Elementary 
School, Orange County, California, was with the taking of shots 


from a local ball game. This film was shown as a newsreel at 
one of the public school movie shows. Patrons and children 
were enthusiastic about it. The school now has many feet of 
basketball, baseball, and track scenes. Besides being useful 
as entertainment they are used in pointing out form used in 
the game. 

Pictures taken during a fire drill showed the boys and girls 
just how the school acted. Ways of improving the drill were 

Upper grade science classes had been studying house flies. 
During a field trip many breeding places of flies were found. 
These were photographed and later shown. The children saw 
that the fly problem was a practical one, and plans were made 
for eliminating sources of flies. The study of the mosquito 
was handled in the same way. 

Another interesting reel was taken of a Mother Goose play 
which was produced by the second grade. 

The school board purchased some land adjacent to the school 
grounds to be used for building purposes. Motion pictures 
were taken of this land as it was when it was bought, after it 
was first cleaned, and after it had been graded. When building 
starts, the process will be followed with the camera. 

It is planned to take pictures of certain children who have 
difficult health problems. These will be taken from time to time, 
showing improvements as a remedial program is followed. Such 
a film should win converts in support of better health supervision 
in the schools. 

Child, Eleanor D. and Finch, Hardy R. "We Have Made a 
Newsreel." Connecticut Journal of Education. 21 :7-8. 
March 1937. 

The fifty members of the Photoplay Club of the Greenwich 
(Connecticut) High School decided to produce their own news- 
reel. The necessary funds were raised by showing a rented film 
in the school auditorium and charging admission. Two months 
before the newsreel was actually photographed, the plans were 
made. The club members wrote to various sources of informa- 
tion concerning amateur movie photography, such as the National 
Board of Review and the Amateur Cinema League. They be- 
came "newsreel conscious" and studied issues of March of Time 
and other newsreels. 


It was decided by the production committee that the usual 
activities of the school would be of most interest to the student 
body, therefore a list of possible activities was made and certain 
ones selected. The film was carefully planned, the various shots 
were diagrammed and footages calculated. The first scene 
presented the school fire drill; the second showed the school 
cafeteria; the principal was photographed speaking over the 
school public address system ; other scenes showed the metal 
shop, work in the home economics laboratory, and so forth. 

The scenes were taken on one school day so that the regular 
school program would not be interfered with, and the members 
of the club spent their study periods "on location." Arrange- 
ments were made in advance and equipment collected. This 
equipment included : a 16 mm. camera and tripod, a light meter, 
four reflectors on stands and four small clamp reflectors, seven- 
teen 750-watt photoflood lights, three 100-ft rolls of panchro- 
matic film, three of supersensitive panchromatic, two 800-ft 
reels, a splicing outfit, and miscellaneous articles such as double 
sockets and extension cords. The menu board from the cafeteria 
served as a title board. Six scenes were taken, consisting of 
from two to five shots each. During the next week, a few other 
shots were taken around the school, and titles averaging from 
three to five feet were made. 

After the film was developed, a revised continuity was agreed 
upon. The scenes were practically all well photographed, so 
very little cutting had to be done. One of the students prepared 
a newsreel comment to accompany the showing of the film after 
it was finally edited and ready for presentation. 

Keeler, Otis. "The High School Goes Hollywood." Illinois 
Teacher. 23:112. December 1934. 

The problem involved was that of getting across to patrons 
of the school and to its alumni the importance of the high school 
and where it fitted into the scheme of education. Commencement 
provided an opportunity for this presentation, and previous 
commencements had dramatized the school in various ways. 

A graduate student at Rose Polytechnic Institute in Terre 
Haute filmed high-school activities during the year in agricul- 
ture, home economics, and a student council discussion. The 
film was very successful in showing the public the value of the 
high school, and it may be used later for comparative purposes. 


Apple, Joseph H. "Amateur Motion Pictures an Aid to 
Effective School Publicity." Educational Screen. 8:186. 
June 1929. 

School events since 1926 at Hood College (Frederick, Mary- 
land) were filmed for the purpose of preserving them in con- 
venient form, not only for use as publicity and propaganda but 
also for the personal enjoyment of students, faculty, alumni 
and others. Originally the school was given technical assistance 
by a professional worker, but later they handled the production 

The film first shows the school and campus as a visitor might 
see it, then depicts the work of the physical educational depart- 
ment, and finally presents pageants on graduation, May Day, 
and so forth. It is shown to incoming students, and to groups 
on request. 

"Vocational Summary." School Life. 21 :15. September 1935. 

A unique feature was introduced into the commencement 
program of the Central Needle Trades School of New York 
City. Instead of the regular commencement address, arrange- 
ments were made to show several reels of motion pictures illus- 
trating the activities carried on in connection with the courses 
offered by the school. The scenario of this film was carefully 
prepared with a view to comparing conditions during the early 
history of the school with present-day conditions. Activities in 
the school shops and in the classroom were featured in the films. 

"Motion Pictures as a Means of Educational Interpretation." 
Journal of the N.E.A. 25 :233. October 1936. 

A movie of school life and activities was made last year at 
Saginaw (Michigan) High School. From the first day of school 
through the spring activities, more than 1500 students and teach- 
ers were photographed in classroom, at athletic events, at gym, 
school parties, meetings of student organizations and in office 
scenes. Faculty members cooperated in rehearsing, directing, 
and preparing the script. By means of an amplifying system, 
the production was made to resemble a talking picture. The 
result an hour and three quarters motion picture, What You 
Missed gives a complete picture of high-school life. The 
movie was shown two nights, and the large school auditorium 


was inadequate to accommodate the number of people desiring to 
see it. This film will be invaluable, not only as an interpretive 
medium, but as a historical record of the year's activities. 

Kling, Evelyn Lovett (Public Schools, Atlanta, Georgia) 
"The Use of Visual Aids in Teaching History and Geog- 
raphy: An Illustration." Educational Screen. 14:200. 
September 1935. 

A fifth grade geography class studying ancient Greece devel- 
oped a play based on the Euripides version of "Iphigenia in 
Aulis." The words of the play, poems, and dances were prepared 
by the children. For purposes of record, a motion picture was 
made of the dramatization. 

Schoenhof, Madeleine T. (Teacher, Anne Hutchinson School, 
N.Y.C.) "A Continuous Visual Program." Progressive 
Education. 13:463. October 1936. 

The Anne Hutchinson School is made up of 2,400 children 
with a median I.Q. for the school of 85. The construction of 
the Federal Hillside Housing Project directly opposite the school 
building led to the development of an intensive activity program 
over a period of several semesters. During the first term the 
school children were interested in the construction work. They 
investigated the uses of cement, sand, bricks, tiles, plaster, paint, 
lumber, lathes, cement mixers, hods, and other materials. Fathers 
visited the school and answered the children's queries regarding 
the different kinds of jobs. Unions, guilds, apprenticed workers, 
and master workmen were distinguished and analyzed. A 
study of wages and family expenditures brought out interesting 
facts. Each class became some particular type of worker. When 
practical, the "painters" beautified some of the school furniture, 
the "iron workers" fixed a spindle on a stairway. Songs and 
plays were composed based on the activity of building construc- 

The next semester, when the building accommodating 5,000 
people had been completed, the students received permission to 
use a four-room-and-bath apartment to furnish and occupy 
for one month. The preparations for furnishing the apartment 
took sixteen weeks, and one month was allotted for being "at 
home" in it. 


The furnished home was open for inspection by the children 
during the day and by parents at night. In groups of four or 
five at a time, the children "lived" in their home for short 
periods. After a month the apartment was dismantled for 
occupancy by a tenant. 

A record of these activities has been made on a 400- foot 
reel of film. 

Bragdon, Clifford. "Movies in the High School." English 
Journal. 26:374-80. May 1937. 

One of the activities of the Photoplay Club of the Hawken 
School, Cleveland, Ohio was taking newsreels of school events, 
Several hundred feet of such newsreels have been edited. 

This experience has not been entirely satisfactory, but it has 
taught the boys several important techniques, for instance, why 
it is well to have the director as editor, and the difference be- 
tween motion in a picture and a mere picture of motion. This 
sort of thing is laboratory learning. 

Kuckuk, H. M. "Technical High School Film in Color." 
Educational Screen. 15 :258. October 1936. 

The Boys' Technical High School, Milwaukee, used a color 
film, made in the school, as a part of its graduating exercises. 
The film, "From Drawing to Drilling," brought to parents the 
operations as they were carried on by their sons in the shops 
of the machinists' division of the school. Short explanations by 
students preceded the various portions of the film. The color 
no doubt added glamour to the scenes presented, and the slight 
sacrifice of detail due to the necessity for using large stops for 
color was unimportant under the circumstances. The picture 
was filmed with a camera presented by the graduates as a parting 
gift to the institution. 

C. Amateur Films as an Instructional Aid 

In some schools, analysis of available motion pictures 
for instruction revealed them to be inadequate. Teachers and 
students cooperatively, or independently, have been known to 
undertake the production of teaching films to serve specific 
ends. Such an activity is valuable to those cooperating and 


to those subsequently using the films for purposes of refer- 

The most extensive program of independent film pro- 
duction is noted in the Milwaukee Vocational School, whose 
activities have been summarized here. Freeman reports the 
successful use of amateur films to supplement instruction in 
an evening class of adults. Financial assistance was secured 
in this instance through selected industrial concerns. The 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of 
Iowa, and Teachers College, Columbia University, respec- 
tively, have used independent motion pictures as aids to cer- 
tain areas of instruction. 

A pioneer effort in film production for ' 'propaganda'* 
purposes is revealed in the report of the film made in a 
Seattle High School to illustrate health precautions to be 
observed during the summer months. The news items of 
safety education campaigns in Muskegon County, Michigan 
and Tulsa, Oklahoma indicate another successful use of films 
for teaching a lesson. 

Kruse, William F. "How One School Makes Its Own Teach- 
ing Films." Educational Screen. 10:109-10. April 1931. 

The Milwaukee Vocational School with an enrollment of 
15,000 pupils, had to produce its teaching films for its own 
particular needs. Its junior high school includes boys and 
girls 14 to 16 years old, attending school for half -days, and out 
working the rest of the time. The senior school includes boys 
and girls of 16 to 18 years, who attend school only one full 
day per week. The student body is never the same on any two 
successive days. At the same time, there is a need for training 
in specific trades and skills, although only one-half to one- 
quarter of the usual school time can be devoted both to these 
specific trades and to the cultural background. 

A department of visual instruction was organized, with four 
teachers and one assistant. Each teacher produces a 600-ft. 
16 mm. film every two weeks, to fit his section of a pre-deter- 


mined curriculum. Each week, two films are produced on 
biology, personal problems, general science, and safety. 

Equipment includes a Bell and Howell Filmo 70 DA, with 
various lenses, three projectors, and lighting equipment totalling 
16,500 watts. The school cost is less than $200 per reel, where 
a commercial estimate for the same job would be $2500 to 

Developing, printing, animation, titles, and photography are 
done at the school. Films are produced only for school use. 
Thus far, films have been produced on the Business of Living, 
Flowers, Birds, Bees, Heat, Light, Gas, Liquids, Solids, Fire, 
Pedestrian Safety, First Aid, Industrial Safety, Posture, and 

Freeman, G. L. "Visual Aids in Adult Education." Educa- 
tional Screen. 16:9-10. January 1937. 

The instructor of an evening college class at Northwestern 
University, whose members were too tired to listen to straight 
lectures each evening, realized the need for using visual aids. 
Available commercial films were found to be unsuited to the age 
level and subject matter. Consequently, the students and in- 
structor undertook to produce a series of 16 mm. sound films to 
illustrate the topic of each weekly lecture and to serve as a basis 
for further class discussion. 

The films are generally shown early in the lecture hour for 
their interest value and because of questions which they will 
raise in the minds of the audience. The instructor then clarifies 
some of the questions and proposes new ones. Often the film 
is re-run near the end of the hour, the class having been told to 
look for certain special items. When the film presents an actual 
experiment, the data are copied from the screen upon mimeo- 
graphed forms and detailed results worked out for later pre- 

One method of financing the production of these films has 
been through selected industrial concerns. 

"Another Release in College Series." Educational Screen. 14: 
128. May 1935. 

A new film, The Graphic Representation of Machine Opera- 
tions, has just been completed by the Division of Visual Edu- 
cation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A machine 


drawing is first shown. Then all operations called for in the 
drawing are shown, including drilling, tapping, boring, counter- 
boring and countersinking. Lathe and hand work are depicted, 
as well as the operations of planer and gear cutter, and external 
and internal thread cutting. 

Three motion pictures which presented in visual animated 
form the behavior of an electric wave as it travels through a 
250-mile transmission line were previously released by this 

Barnes, Ralph M. "Motion Pictures for Teaching Special 
Courses to Engineering Students." Educational Screen. 13 : 
70. March 1934. 

In order to study the methods and organization of manufac- 
turing enterprises, engineering students at the University of 
Iowa are given instruction and practice in making motion pic- 
tures of typical operations in shops and offices. Photography is 
carried on in the Motion Study Laboratory. After the films 
have been made and processed, the students analyze them and 
work out better methods for performing the operation. 

Katz, Elias. "On the Cost of Instructional Films." Progres- 
sive Education. 13 :459. October 1936. 

A professor of fine arts in a teachers' college wished to pro- 
duce a film for clarifying art concepts, for showing to art teach- 
ers, and for use in art classes in junior and senior high schools. 
Filming of the subject took one afternoon, and the total cost 
was less than twenty-five dollars. 

The author believes that simple instructional films can be 
easily and inexpensively made by the amateur. 

Rarig, Arthur. "How a High School Produced an Education- 
al Movie." Educational Screen. 7:269. December 1928. 

The Health Committee of the Roosevelt High School in 
Seattle decided to make its own film on health, since the long 
summer vacation was approaching and certain warnings were 
needed for the safety of the students. Those who remained 
at the shore must learn to handle a canoe or row a boat safely, 
to wait an hour after eating before going in swimming, never to 
drink doubtful water, to recognize poison ivy, to realize that 


sudden and prolonged sunburn is dangerous and that life saving 
and first aid should be familiar to everyone. 

English teachers prepared a scenario with titles; the teacher 
of dramatic expression became the dramatic director; the art 
teacher attended to make-up, and the girls' gym teacher (an 
amateur film fan) did the filming. The actual photographing 
was done one Saturday in May, at a summer camp ground. The 
film was called What Price Folly? Lettering for the titles was 
done by a manual training student, and the splicing by the teacher 
who took the film. The expense was borne by the Boys and 
Girls Club of the school. 

A synopsis of the story is included. 

Elliott, Paul A. "Rural School Children Produce Movie; 
Lessons in Safety Illustrated by Boys and Girls of Muskegon 
County." Michigan Educational Journal. 9:894. January 

This film on safety in traffic was directed by W. J. Berichon, 
the county traffic officer. School children, teachers and neighbors 
cooperated to make the film a success. It consisted of 500 
feet of 16 mm. film and cost less than one hundred dollars. The 
motion picture illustrates the right and wrong ways of conducting 
oneself on the highways and in autos. 

"Safety Education Brings Results." Journal of the N.E.A. 24: 
307. December 1935. 

Tulsa, Oklahoma schools will use motion pictures this year 
in attempting to repeat the record of last year, when not a Tulsa 
child was killed by an automobile accident. Movies showing 
traffic hazards and children crossing the street are taken at 
each school. There will also be pictures of students crossing 
the streets in the safest manner. Children will be given lectures 
in these methods when the films are shown. 


Having selected his area of production, the amateur film 
producer is at once faced with a number of technical prob- 
lems. In order to meet this need for technical information 
the Educational Screen presents a monthly column by F. W. 


Davis of Ohio State University on "Film Production in the 
Educational Field." Abstracts of the monthly issues of this 
column from January 1936 to January 1937, inclusive, are 
included herewith. They will be found to give in compact 
form a great many helpful suggestions regarding the mechan- 
ics of motion-picture equipment, lighting, editing, titling, 
planning, directing, constructing the scenario, and the like. 
Each month the column deals rather thoroughly with a 
specific topic, such as projectors, lenses, film storage, color 
film, etc. 

Davis, F. W. "Film Production in the Educational Field." 
Educational Screen. 15, 16. January 1936 through January 

January 1936. Films prepared by authorities and by indus- 
trial concerns have in some cases been too general to be of maxi- 
mum service for certain types of classroom use. To meet this 
objection there is a growing interest in the production of instruc- 
tional films by educational institutions. Such films should be- 
come a very important and valuable part of our present 
educational system. 

Production of satisfactory films is not simple. Satisfactory 
production involves many factors with which one should become 
familiar before attempting such work. Prospective producers 
must know the mechanics of motion-picture equipment, types of 
lighting, editing, and how to select titles. It is also important 
to be familiar with planning, directing, arranging the proper 
sequences, building the scenario, acting, and problems of this sort. 

February 1936. One of the major types of educational film 
is that which shows a continuous process of some sort. The 
construction and manipulation of a puppet show, the steps 
involved in getting a water supply, and the clinical diagnosis 
and treatment of a disease are examples of this type of subject. 
The subject will, obviously, be one in which the process is of 
prime importance. The film should have sufficient continuity 
so that when it is run off without pause the student will have 
a well-rounded conception of the entire process illustrated. The 
photographic technique is also of great importance. 


One of the major considerations in picture making is the 
quantity of light. Even with large-dimension lenses and fast 
films good light in sufficient quantities is needed. The idea 
that the diaphragm is primarily for the purpose of regulating the 
amount of light is erroneous. When aperture is reduced the 
focus is much sharper than when it is large. The light should 
be adjusted to the aperture opening rather than altering the 
diaphragm to suit the intensity of the light. 

March 1936. (Camera Equipment). The type of equipment 
to buy for school use is an important problem. Only the best 
and most versatile cameras should be used to make teaching 
films. The initial cost of the equipment is small compared to 
the cost of the film which will eventually be consumed in the 
production of films. Nothing is more exasperating than to find 
that after using a certain camera for a while it has definite limita- 
tions which prohibit it from being used at maximum efficiency. 

Another consideration is the type of lens to purchase. The 
size of the image obtained on a film is directly proportional to the 
focal length of the lens. A good combination for a modest 
outlay would be a 1" lens and a 2" lens. A more desirable 
combination would be a 15 mm., a 1", a 2", and a 4". The lower 
the "F" value the larger the effective area of the lens and the 
greater the amount of light admitted. The 1" F 1.9 lens is 
standard equipment on most cameras. The 15 mm., or wide angle 
lens for the inclusion of large areas, can be had in the F 2.5 
model, a very satisfactory lens. The 2" lens may be obtained 
F 1.5 but the F 3.5 model gives sharper images if the speed may 
be sacrificed. In the 3", 4", and 6" lenses for outdoor work and 
limited indoor work the apertures rarely go below F 4 or F 4.5. 

By all means purchase a variable speed camera. This will 
make possible the taking of "slow movies" which are very valu- 
able in certain types of work. For this purpose the picture is 
taken at 32 or 64 frames per second. If you want to add a sound 
track the picture must be taken at 24 instead of the usual 16 
frames per second. It should be remembered that at the higher 
speeds much more film is consumed. 

April 1936. (Projection Equipment) In purchasing a 
projector one should buy only a high grade machine of sufficient 
power for the use to which it will be placed. One should never 
purchase less than a 500 watt size for school use. A larger 
bulb may be advisable because, (1) Greater power will enable 


one to have sufficient light for dark prints or to accommodate 
the occasional large group, and (2) If the machine has a variable 
resistance and voltmeter the life of the bulb can be materially 
increased by using it at less than the prescribed voltage. 

For most school use the standard 2" lens is satisfactory. 
For projection distances of 50 to 100 foot it is necessary to use 
a 3" or 4" lens. 

A power rewind saves many valuable minutes in rewinding 

The ease of threading the machine is important. 

A small pilot light is a distinct advantage. 

The aperture plate should be easily accessible and so con- 
structed that it can be readily cleaned. 

May 1936. (Film and Exposures) The length of the film 
will depend on the subject to be treated. Enough footage should 
be taken to allow for cutting and editing. In the average film 
one takes about 30 per cent more footage than is used. 

The type of film to use is always a question. For exterior 
photography by sunlight the cheaper orthochromatic type is 
perfectly satisfactory. When sunlight is used one may use a 
comparatively slow film and still have plenty of leeway in speed. 
If an interior set is to be photographed only the highest speed 
panchromatic film should be used. A safe rule to follow is to 
have more speed than necessary in a film rather than to be on 
the margin. 

Exposure meters should be used to get the correct exposure of 
film. Either the photoelectric cell type, or the type where the 
operator looks through the meter and estimates the exposure by 
visual methods will give good results if properly handled. You 
must become perfectly familiar with the particular type of meter 
being used, and then use common sense in interpreting the results. 

Tripod support is very necessary. Get a model constructed 
heavily enough to give a firm support for the camera. It should 
possess a tilting and panoramic head with an efficient locking 

June 1936. (Errors in Film Production) The most common 
-errors in the production of films are : 

1. Underexposure, resulting in films so dark that the picture 
cannot be seen clearly. 

2. Out of focus or slightly blurred pictures due to incorrect 
measurement of the distance from camera to subject. 


3. Overexposure, resulting in pictures that are thin and washed 
out, with very little detail. 

4. The omission of close-ups or enlarged sections, resulting 
in monotony and loss of interest. 

5. Unsteady pictures, resulting from trying to hold the camera 
in the hand or from using a poor camera. 

6. Weak titles, or failure to make titles concise and full of 
valuable data. 

7. Faulty lighting, or faulty exposure for the lighting at hand. 
The better films are lighted very brilliantly and the lens 
stopped down to compensate for the intensity. 

8. Other weaknesses are: subject matter unsuitable for the 
medium of the picture, and improper length of film. Some 
films would be improved by cutting, others need more footage 
per scene and more explanatory scenes. 

October 1936. (School Production Program) One way 
to secure teachers trained in picture taking is to have an educa- 
tional program in the high school. The high school pupil will 
derive much pleasure from taking pictures of his associates. 
He may develop a technique for illustrating his school reports. 
Photography makes a worth while leisure time hobby. 

The school as well as the pupils will benefit from such a 
program. Pupils may make lantern slides, eventually building 
up a very useful library. The pictures for the school annual 
could very well be taken by interested pupils. There is no 
reason why movies of school activities could not be taken. If 
such films were exchanged between schools they would give 
each school an excellent opportunity to find out what other 
schools are doing. 

The question of the cost of such a program arises. Equip- 
ment need not be expensive. If the equipment is carefully 
selected by a competent person it could be one of the least ex- 
pensive of school activities. 

November 1936. (Color Film) Considerable caution should 
be exercised in the use of color film. A determining factor should 
be whether color will be a worthwhile addition to the picture. 
In order to produce a good color film one must not only under- 
stand the correct exposure, development, manipulation of the 
camera, lighting, and composition, but one must also have a 
knowledge of color and color harmony. '; 


One should become proficient in using the easier black and 
white and then, but not until then, try color film. For the first 
few productions try just one or two sequences in color and the 
rest in black and white, as many films are produced in this 

Color film costs about 20 per cent more than black and white. 
At the present time it is impossible to make duplicate color prints. 
The projection of color films requires greater brilliancy of 

December 1936. (Sound Film) Sound films may be pro- 
duced by one of three general methods. One is to record the 
image and sound directly on 16 mm. film. Another is to record 
the image and sound on 35 mm. stock and later through optical 
reduction to transfer it to 16 mm. size. Still another is to record 
the image on 16 mm. film and later record the sound on 35 mm. 
film, then reducing it to 16 mm. and synchronizing the two. 
Experience has proven that the latter two methods are more 
desirable from a quality standpoint. Unfortunately, these 
methods are expensive. 

In sound recording the pictures are taken at 24 frame? 
per second instead of at 16 frames as in silent pictures. Since 
the film passes the lens more rapidly, more light is needed. This 
is a practical problem which must be faced. Furthermore the 
cost of the film will be increased 50 per cent. 

Rather definite acoustical problems must be solved. Actors 
must also be trained to act naturally as well as to speak into a 

Possibly the most satisfactory method of producing 16 mm. 
sound films at minimum expenditure is to take the 16 mm. pic- 
ture in the normal manner but at 24 frames per second, and then 
after the film is completed have a recording laboratory take care 
of the sound angle. 

January 1937. (Storage and Preservation) Storage of 
motion pictures evokes the problem of fire hazard. They may 
be produced on Cellulose Nitrate Film which burns at 230 F., 
and if insufficient air is present while burning, gives off dangerous 
gases, or on Cellulose Acetate Film which is about as flammable 
as ordinary paper. All 16 mm. films in this country and some 
35 mm. films are of the non-inflammable type. 

In order to prevent films from curling and becoming brittle, 
proper humidity is necessary. A relative humidity of 50 per cent 


is ideal. Too much water vapor and the resulting condensation 
of moisture on the films is also harmful. Films should be placed 
in individual metal containers which contain an absorption pad, 
kept continuously moist. 

Brittle films may be restored to their original condition by 
replacing the moisture content. By a special rehumidification 
process this may be done in ten to thirty minutes. Otherwise 
it may require several weeks for them to come back to their 
original condition. 

Maintenance of proper temperature is important. With 
proper humidity, a temperature of from 50 to 70 F. is 

In addition to the technical suggestions given in Davis* 
column the following articles contain further hints as to 
desirable equipment and effective methods of handling it. 
Gramet emphasizes planning and arrangement but also dis- 
cusses equipment and gives suggestions concerning editing 
and titling. Lewis and Deady's article describes correct 
techniques in the use of equipment and also makes a number 
of general suggestions. 

Gramet, Charles A. "Making an Educational Movie." Edu- 
cational Screen. 13:5, 40-1. January, February 1934. 

Many commercial pictures are not of the type best suited 
to classroom use. It is the belief of the author that the capable, 
experienced teacher, with an interest and some ability in picture 
making, can make a definitely worthwhile contribution by making 

Planning a motion-picture lesson is very much like planning 
any other lesson. The topic must first be chosen. The topic is 
only suitable for a motion-picture lesson when a motion picture 
will serve better than any other type of presentation. 

The film materials must be so arranged as to stimulate interest 
in the lesson itself. The ideas that are to be presented in the 
lesson should be selected and the film planned around these, with 
no extraneous material included. Many films include too much. 
The selection of the material will depend upon the purpose for 
which the film is to be used. More material can be included in 


a film designed for review purposes than for one planned for 
presentation of new material. The film lesson should conclude 
with a generalization, review, or application. 

The film continuity should be very carefully planned and 
followed. Shots need not be taken in the order in which they 
are to appear in the finished film, since the order can be cared 
for in editing and cutting. 

The plans must be made according to the equipment available, 
and one should study to make the best possible use of his equip- 
ment. It is difficult to determine the minimum amount of equip- 
ment necessary. The following minimum list should make 
satisfactory results possible. 

1. A 16 mm. camera with a reliable spring motor and shutter. 
A film capacity of 100 ft. is essential. 

2. A tripod is necessary in order that the camera be held 

3. Adequate sources of light are needed. The new photo- 
flood lamps are very satisfactory. However, 500 watt 
projection-type lamps will prove economical in the long run. 

4. A suitable lens should be used. 

5. A photometer is essential. 

6. A good steel tape is cheap and reliable for measuring 

The picture should be so planned that if the projector were 
stopped at any instant the picture would be pleasing. The interest 
in each scene should be centralized and not scattered. There 
should be proper balance. Unity is necessary. Everything in 
the picture or scene should contribute to the idea that is to be 

If children are included, little attention need be given to 
make-up. Select children of intelligence, free from distracting 
defects. Stilted and artificial acting should be avoided. 

Rehearse the scene as often as necessary, then take. Take 
more footage than necessary, to allow for cutting. It may not 
be necessary to take the entire scene; include the beginning and 
the end. The length of shots is very elastic, not less than four 
or five feet per shot sometimes being recommended. 

Most amateurs use reversible film. The author prefers 
negative film. Though somewhat more expensive, the results 
are better. 


Proper editing is important. The author prefers to project 
the positive on the screen to see the action rather than use a 
viewer. He cuts the negative of the film as he views it, cutting 
out parts that will be omitted. The parts to be used are spliced 
together in the desired order. The film is then projected and 
again revised, perhaps some scenes are retaken The film is then 
run through without interruption. Notes are taken and any 
further changes made that seem necessary. 

The film is now ready for titling, which may be done by the 
amateur or commercially made. Commercially made titles are 
not very expensive and are time-saving. 

The language of the titles should be checked against word 
lists for difficulty. Titles should be relatively short, pointed, 
suggestive, and challenging. The number of titles should be 
limited. The film must be a picture of things, processes, and 
activity, not words. Twenty-five per cent of the film given to 
titles should prove adequate. About one-half second per word 
is sufficient time to allow. 

The estimated cost of making a reel of film is from $50 to 
$100. It may be argued that films could be purchased for less 
money. The primary interest, however, should be not in reducing 
cost, but in improving teaching films. A good picture will 
yield many prints, thus reducing the cost per copy. 

Teachers should not refrain from making pictures for fear 
that sound pictures w r ill make their work obsolete. It has not 
been demonstrated that sound is a necessary part of most teach- 
ing films. Where sound is essential in conveying the idea or 
forming the concept, it is an improvement in methodology to 
use it. The teacher can refrain from using that type of subject. 
When the author becomes convinced that a lecture is a necessary 
part of the film, he will employ a commercial company to attach 
the necessary sound to his film. Sound should not deter teachers 
from making good teaching films. 

Lewis, Alexander B. and Deady, John A. "Produce Your 
Own Movies: Plan for a High School Photoplay Club." 
Scholastic. 29:15. November 21, 1936. 

The authors point out that members of the high-school photo- 
play club are able to write, act, produce and exhibit films. The 
school movie club can: (1) assist in the visual education pro- 
gram of the school, (2) develop appreciation of motion pictures, 


(3) complete the production of films. The present article is 
concerned only with the last phase. 

The first problem in production is the basic equipment 
camera and projector. The authors recommend purchasing a 
sound projector. Equipment can be paid for by putting on 
special benefit showings of the club's early productions. Two 
shows each month should yield money for the equipment fund. 
In buying a camera, it is advisable to secure one which can 
make trick titles, produce dissolves, fades, and so forth. 

Correct use of equipment can be learned either by formal 
instruction or by informal experimental handling. An exposure 
meter should be used. Some useful accessories, such as a 
movable dolly for moving camera shots, a fade-out device, series 
parallel floodlight switches, reflectors, titling boards and the 
like can be built by students in the school shops. 

The operation of a movie camera is best explained by the 
use of a still camera. Lenses, focal distances, color filters tie 
in with optics of physics ; film development ties in with chemistry. 
Many other correlations are possible. Good pictorial composi- 
tion, best scene lengths, camera angles, tempo and the like are 
based on planning, experience and instruction. 

With respect to lenses, a 1-inch fast lens (either F 2.8 or 
F 3.6) should be used for interiors and color work ; a 3-inch 
telephoto lens for outdoor games; and a wide-angle lens for 
close classroom shots. For lights, the minimum equipment 
consists of two mogul photofloods, two broad spotlights, one 
spotlight, and two reflector sets. Titles may be easily made on 
titling boards, either hand lettered or using removable letters. 
The authors point out dangers from mishandling equipment. 

They also recommend affiliation with the Amateur Cinema 
League, and reading of their organ, "Movie Makers," as well as 
affiliation with 4-Star Clubs of the National Board of Review 
of Motion Pictures. 

A film production program might include "a film made as 
a civic enterprise, a film produced in cooperation with a large 
department store to emphasize vocational guidance, a film show- 
ing library usages, a film on safe driving and walking, made in 
conjunction with the motor vehicle bureau. The club might 
make pictures on biology, art, sewing, shop work, commercial 
subject techniques, literature, mathematics, sports techniques 
in fact, on any subject related to school life." 


In producing their own films, students go through an experi- 
ence with rich vocational possibilities. Aptitudes and skills are 
developed which may influence choice of vocation. Girls usually 
prefer photography and film criticism to acting in the films. 
Boys excel in technical work; girls in editing, splicing, and 
constructing productions. The opportunities to design sets and 
costumes, to prepare stories and to write scripts, to act, or to 
use the microphone appeal to many students as an incentive for 
joining the club. 

The following group of articles deals not so much with 
the mechanical aspects of production as with technical plan- 
ning. Space points out the importance of planning and 
organization, and gives certain suggestions regarding the 
making of sets and the preparation of a scenario. Gramet 
urges amateur producers to study the techniques of the 
theatrical film. Although Johnson's article deals with still 
pictures rather than films, his discussion of the reasons for 
taking the picture, the use of the finished picture, and the 
importance of interest appeal is also pertinent to film produc- 
tion in the school. He suggests that teachers cooperate with 
professional photographers in planning pictures. Hadley's 
article contains an appeal for teacher-made pictures. 

Space, Kenneth F. "Amateur-Group Film Producing with 
Economy." Journal of Educational Sociology. 10:172-6. 
November 1936. 

Most of the unexpected pitfalls usually encountered in 
amateur motion-picture production can be avoided by careful 
planning and systematic procedure. The group expecting to 
make a film should not consider the task too easy and thus fail 
through the unwillingness of the individuals to make the neces- 
sary sacrifices of time and money after the novelty has worn off. 
Nor should the task be considered too difficult, since one should 
expect to have fun and enjoyment while making a picture. 

Let us assume that a group decides to make a picture and 
looks for a story to film. The group should first be organized, 
giving special consideration to the interests and capacities of 


the various individuals. The fundamental divisions of a photo- 
play-producing group are directorial, photographic, electrical, 
property, and clerical. 

Next, a play or plot must be selected. Comedies and mystery 
thrillers are usually not successful when done by amateurs. A 
simple plot should be chosen. To make the problem less 
complicated, it is probably best to limit the first film to 400 feet. 
The story should serve a socially useful purpose. If imagination 
is brought to bear, this will not mean a dry and uninteresting 

After writing the story in scenario form it should be broken 
up and a script book made. This will include all details concern- 
ing the filming of the picture, such as costuming, length of shot, 
etc. The script clerk should be able to find the answer to any 
question concerning the production in a few seconds. 

It is better to use amateur players than to waste much time 
and money in hiring semi-professional actors. Select stories to 
fit the types and ages of your group. Unless very carefully 
applied, make-up is almost always detectable. 

Instead of artificial sets, use real ones as much as possible. 
If the play calls for a tenement setting, a social service agency 
can find one which the tenants will be glad to let the group use 
for a few dollars. 

If a photocell exposure meter is used one cannot miss on the 
score of exposure. Fast lens and supersensitive film save money 
in lighting equipment, bulbs, and current. Satisfactory lighting 
can be secured by the use of rather simple lighting equipment, as 
by using a No. 4 photoflood bulb and a few simple and inex- 
pensive reflectors. 

Each scene should be rehearsed four or five times, then filmed 
two or three times at the most, and in most cases good results 
will be secured. Filming each scene twice is less expensive than 
going back for retakes, as might be necessary had the scene only 
been taken once. 

Gramet, Charles A. "The Non-Commercial Teaching Film." 
Progressive Education. 13 :454-5. October 1936. 

Teachers who make their own films will increase their own 
effectiveness in using films in teaching. Poor technical jobs, 
however, should not be tolerated, since it is not difficult to master 
the basic technical aspects of filming. 


The author urges educational film makers to study theatrical 
films. From them can be learned the secret of interest, 
continuity, close ups, and how scenes are "short enough to be 
interesting and long enough to cover the subject." Student 
organizations in schools could well invest funds in such work. 
Teachers who are interested in film making should be encouraged 
and even subsidized. 

Johnson, Laurence B. "What Makes A Good Picture." Edu- 
cational Screen. 13:152-3. June 1934. 

This article is not concerned with the use of pictures in 
teaching the child, but with their use in getting the public to 
know and appreciate the school. The chief concern is with the 
picture taken in the school. As the school gains in freedom, 
as pupils more and more learn by doing, schools lend themselves 
better to picture-making. 

Still pictures are attempts to concentrate into one instant 
what has been done over days and weeks and months of effort 
in the classroom. To accomplish this much thought must be 
given to what one is trying to do and how he is going to do it. 

The first step is to decide why the picture is being taken. 
If the purpose is to tell a story or project an idea, the faces 
of specific children do not matter. The object then is to arrange 
that picture which best tells the story. 

The second matter for consideration in connection with a 
picture is its use. If it is not planned to reproduce it, one finish, 
a soft one, may be most desirable. For reproduction a glossy 
print will be needed. If it is to be reduced in size, simplicity 
and sharp contrasts take on great importance. 

The third consideration is the interest appeal. This involves 
selection of a person or thing that is interesting. Pictures 
should treat of timely incidents. If pictures of a school activity 
are being taken and one wants the public to be interested in it, 
take the picture before the event, not after it is over. Another 
vital factor is to have those in the picture doing something. A 
photograph of someone doing something has a one hundred 
per cent better chance of catching the eye and the interest than 
a mere picture of faces. Finally, do not hesitate to add to the 
picture, if necessary, something that will be definitely interest- 
building. The photograph of a teacher about to retire after 
thirty-five years of service will not be nearly as interesting as 


one which shows her with her first pupil on one side and her 
youngest pupil on the other. 

Should the teacher take the pictures or should a photographer 
be employed? It is unlikely that the teacher can take pictures 
good enough for the public. The professional photographer 
has the equipment, background, and training to fit him for the 
task. Not every photographer will do satisfactory work. He 
should know what a news picture is, what a good picture is, and 
how to work with teachers and pupils to get best results. 

The teacher might make all the plans and expect the photog- 
rapher to follow them. Or she may expect the photographer to 
do all of the planning. Neither method will get the best results. 
Best results will be obtained by cooperative effort. The teacher 
should explain to the photographer what she wants, and in 
return receive the best thought of the photographer in making 
the picture. 

An editor welcomes good pictures. They break up those 
vast dreary expanses of type. They actually save space, telling 
quickly and dramatically the story that would take many words. 

Hadley, Allan M. "The Value of a Camera in the Hands of 
the Teacher." Educational Screen. 13:192. September 

The author refers to the use of a still camera, but the edu- 
cational values are similarly applicable to the motion-picture 
camera. Most teachers agree that pictures are valuable. But 
there is one drawback to the use of these aids the pictures were 
not taken by the teacher using them. When the teacher can say, 
"As I took this picture I was particularly impressed by ... etc.," 
the picture takes on a new value to the pupils and carries its 
point with much greater ease and effectiveness. 

The teacher will object that he does not travel and could 
not get worth while pictures, and that he does not know any- 
thing about a camera and couldn't take pictures that would be 
good enough to use in the classroom. Without doubt he will 
discover that he travels more widely than his pupils. Further- 
more, many valuable lessons can be taught with local materials 
in picture form. 

With a little study and practice, anyone can make good 
pictures. Cameras are simple to operate and films have been 
greatly improved in recent years. There need be no great out- 


lay of money for the original equipment, but when the teacher 
recognizes the value of this aid he will want eventually to pur- 
chase a more expensive and more versatile instrument. 

The neophyte will not secure 100 per cent results. If 
50 per cent of the pictures are usable he should feel satisfied. 
"Practice makes perfect" is a motto that it is well to keep in 
mind when beginning this work. 







Experimental study of the motion picture in classroom 
instruction began shortly after 1915. Among the first ex- 
periments reported was that of David Sumstine, published 
in School and Society in 1918. Whatever limitations this 
investigation may reveal in the light of more recent teaching 
techniques and experimental methods, it was, nevertheless, a 
beginning of experimental study of the role of the motion 
picture in instruction. 

Within the six years following the publication of Sum- 
stine's study and culminating in the publication of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago study in visual education in 1924, research 
developed rapidly. The general problem attacked was the 
instructional function of the motion picture in relation to 
(a) other visual aids such as slides, demonstrations, maps, 
and the like, and (b) the more traditional classroom pro- 
cedures utilizing purely verbal instruction by means of text- 
books, supplementary reading, and so on. 

Among the pioneers in this phase of experimentation were 
the late Joseph J. Weber, F. Dean McClusky, and Frank N. 
Freeman. Weber devoted himself largely to the attempt to 
discover the relative values of the motion picture, the slide, 
and the diagram accompanied by verbal instruction, in the 
development of informational learning. McClusky's investi- 
gation was more extensive in pupil population, range of sub- 
ject matter, and increased variation of the technique of 
motion-picture use. While his general problem was much 
the same as Weber's, McClusky introduced a broadened con- 
ception of motion-picture technique, varying the number of 


projections and the kind and amount of verbal accompani- 

Freeman's early contribution was directive, experimental, 
and editorial. He directed the research undertaken at the 
University of Chicago under a grant of $18,000 from the 
Commonwealth Fund, conducted some of the experimental 
studies, and edited the published report of the investigation. 
Thirteen studies were reported dealing with the comparison 
of various modes of presentation of motion pictures with 
other visual and nonvisual methods of instruction in a wide 
variety of subjects of the curriculum. 

The University of Chicago studies were intended to de- 
fine in broad general terms the functions of the motion pic- 
ture in instruction. Its superiority over other visual aids 
was determined to be the depiction of motion, and its place 
in the instructional procedure those learning situations in 
which "it is essential to grasp the nature of movement." 
Freeman also postulated a second function, less clearly evi- 
dent at that time from experimental data, as the arousal of 
interest and the sustenance of attention. He pointed out 
the need for further experimentation to establish this func- 

With functions of the motion picture in education thus 
broadly defined, experimentation from 1924 to 1930 was 
extended to the problem of the contribution of the motion 
picture in arousing various types of pupil reactions, par- 
ticularly in the social studies. Wood and Freeman undertook 
an extensive investigation under a grant from the Eastman 
Kodak Company to determine the contribution of the motion 
picture, when used as an integral part of classroom teaching 
procedure, in (a) motivating greater pupil activity in relation 
to the subject studied, (b) increasing factual learning, (c) 

1 Frank N. Freeman. Visual Education : A Comparative Study of Motion 
Pictures and Other Methods of Instruction. The University of Chicago Press. 1924. 
p. 74. 


improving descriptive processes, and (d) promoting under- 
standing of causes, effects, and relationships. 

At approximately the same time, Knowlton and Tilton 
were investigating the functions of the Yale Chronicles of 
America photoplays in (a) motivating greater pupil activity 
and classroom participation; (b) increasing knowledge of 
historical chronology, historical geography, historical per- 
sonages, and interaction of events, causal relationships, and 
interrelationships other than time; and (c) increasing 
permanency of learning in these various aspects. Whereas 
the Wood and Freeman investigation was extensive, the 
Knowlton and Tilton investigation was intensive, and 
whereas Wood and Freeman secured their measures of 
motivating influence of films from reports of cooperating 
teachers, Knowlton and Tilton devised methods of securing 
quantitative data on this problem. Regardless of the meas- 
ures employed, the results of the two investigations on the 
problem of motivation were in essential agreement. 

In England during this same period Consitt was at work. 
Abandoning as too limited in its possibilities the objective 
method of measuring results of instruction, she secured re- 
ports from a large number of teachers and pupils throughout 
England on (a) the values accruing to the use of the motion 
picture in instruction, (b) its adaptability to various age and 
grade levels, (c) the nature of pupil responses, and (d) 
technical imperfections of available motion pictures. 

The experimental studies of the 1924-30 period differed 
from those reported prior to 1925 in that: 

(a) The motion pictures which were used for experi- 
mental evaluation were specifically constructed for instruc- 
tional purposes, while those previously used were in many 
cases films produced by industrial concerns for indirect adver- 
tising purposes. 


(b) The instructional periods were of sufficient length 
to permit organized use of several films and the accumula- 
tion of reliable results. 

(c) The motion pictures were used as an integral part 
of the instructional procedure in addition to the traditional 
media and procedures of instruction. 

(d) Wider sampling was made of pupil population, teach- 
ers, age-grade, and mental-ability levels. 

(e) Learning outcomes were more finely differentiated 
and more accurately measured. 

(f) Indirect outcomes, such as greater classroom par- 
ticipation, increased voluntary reading, etc., were studied. 

(g) Permanent as well as immediate results of motion 
picture instruction were investigated. 

(h) Comparative effectiveness of motion-picture instruc- 
tion with various age-grade and mental-ability levels was 

(i) Objective measures were supplemented by reports of 
teachers and pupils on their experiences with the instruc- 
tional motion pictures. 

Up to 1930, however, research was limited to the use of 
the silent films. Meanwhile, sound accompaniment had been 
added to motion pictures. During the past six years the 
general trend of experimental research has been in the direc- 
tion of (a) the effectiveness of sound motion pictures in 
informational learning and the development of thinking in 
various subject-matter areas, (b) the relative effectiveness of 
various methods of verbal accompaniment to motion pic- 
tures, and (c) the effectiveness of both sound and silent 
motion pictures with large and small classes. Arnspiger and 
Rulon investigated the effectiveness of sound pictures pro- 
duced for and used with definite units of instruction. Clark, 
Westfall, and Einbecker evaluated the effectiveness of various 
methods of verbal accompaniment to films. The problem of 


the effectiveness of motion pictures with large and small 
groups of pupils was investigated by Stoddard, who com- 
pared sound motion pictures in auditorium showings with 
traditional nonvisual methods in the classroom, and by 
Knowlton and Tilton, who compared the auditorium and 
classroom use of silent films. 

Characteristic research developments of this most recent 
experimental investigation are: (a) extended investigation 
of problems previously isolated; (b) use of sound motion 
pictures in experimental classes; (c) greater correlation and 
integration of motion pictures with the curriculum; (d) more 
intensive study of smaller and better controlled experimental 

During this same period a series of studies on the social 
influences of the motion picture, including a study of learning 
in the theatrical situation, was carried on under the direction 
of W. W. Charters, of Ohio State University. These studies 
were subsidized by the Payne Fund and are generally known 
as the Payne Studies. 2 Because they deal with the theatrical 
film apart from the purely "instructional" film, treatment of 
these studies is omitted from this discussion. By their im- 
plication these studies are, however, of great instructional 
significance, and in the broad sense of the word treat directly 
the ' 'educational" influence of the motion picture. 

In this review of trends since 1915 in instructional 
motion-picture research, reference has been made only to the 
major published studies, most of which were subsidized by 
some agency interested in the use of films in education. Dur- 
ing the entire period many smaller and more restricted 
investigations were carried on independently, generally by 
graduate students in partial fulfillment of requirements for 
advanced degrees. The result of this independent research 
has been, in general, the extension of data on problems 

2 Charters, W. W. Motion Pictures and Youths A Summary. Macmillan. N.Y. 


already investigated; but, on the whole, the findings have 
been less reliable than those already available in the major 
studies. There are, of course, notable exceptions to this 
statement. One criticism applies rather generally to these 
independent studies. For the most part, they show little 
recognition of the general problems of motion-picture effec- 
tiveness revealed or investigated in previous studies. 


Many attempts have been made to establish basic prin- 
ciples for the conduct of experimental educational research, 
but few of these sets of principles are in such form as to 
be of value in the evaluation of research studies already 
conducted and published. The rapid increase in the number 
of published studies of an experimental nature, and the 
growing tendency on the part of readers of such studies to 
accept the results and conclusions without a critical evaluation 
of the basic data and the methods of their derivation make 
the postulation of a set of criteria for the evaluation of 
experimental research not only desirable, but necessary. The 
criteria listed below, developed by Douglas E. Scates, director 
of school research, Cincinnati Public Schools, were selected 
as the most applicable to the evaluation of film experiments. 3 

These criteria are: (1) Significance of the problem, (2) 
Selection of factors for study, (3) Assumptions, (4) Appro- 
priateness of general procedure, (5) Significance of raw 
measures, (6) Representativeness of sampling, (7) Adequacy 
of data, (8) Analysis of data, and (9) Interpretation of 
observations and of analytical findings. 

1. Significance of the problem. For the purpose of 
evaluation the relative "significance of the problem" investi- 

3 An account of the derivation and application of these criteria will be pub- 
lished elsewhere by Dr. Scates and the writer in the near future. 


gated in any experiment is regarded as lying in its cruciality 
either to educational or psychological theory, on the one hand, 
or in its practical utility on the other hand. The problem 
is or is not "significant" in so far as it meets the question, 
"How important is the answer to the problem?" Of secon- 
dary importance is the formulation of the problem; that is, 
whether the problem is defined so as to reveal the essential or 
crucial differences in the variable or variables being studied. 
Of tertiary importance is the investigator's adequate con- 
sideration of the results of previous investigations; that is, 
whether the problem is repetitive, whether it is unique, or 
whether the experimenter sought additional data on a prob- 
lem already investigated. 

2. Selection of factors for study. If the problem is 
significant to educational theory or practice, the next criterion 
of evaluation is the analysis of the problem into specific 
issues or aspects; that is, whether the experimenter isolated 
the problem into specific subordinately related problems. In 
evaluating the selection of factors for study, the question 
must be asked : "Are the factors studied actually the causes 
of the results?" When and if this question is answered in 
the affirmative, it becomes necessary to determine whether 
the factors isolated for study by the experimenter are discrete 
or greatly overlapping. If the former condition obtains, it 
is necessary for the purposes of evaluation to consider the 
potential conclusiveness of the factors studied whether they 
are adequate, and whether, when taken together, they will 
give a definite answer to the problem. If the factors are 
overlapping, it is necessary for the experimenter to study 
their relative effect on the data secured and the peculiar 
nature of their interrelation. Finally, there remains for the 
purpose of evaluation the question of whether all the factors 
were studied by the experimenter which would throw light 
on the main problem. It is in this respect that many research 


studies fail to attain conclusiveness. Too often do the inves- 
tigations merely open up the problems for study by failure 
of the investigators to probe the causes of variation of data 
derived under somewhat varying conditions. 

3. Assumptions. The first two criteria were devoted to 
the significance of the problem and the extent to which the 
experimenter isolated factors for study. Before the experi- 
mental procedure employed to investigate the problem may 
be considered, assumptions must first be examined that are 
basic to the technique of investigation and the interpretation 
of results. The extent of assumptions, their reasonableness, 
and their recognition by the experimenter are seldom ex- 
plicitly discussed. More often, they are implicit in the ex- 
perimental report; still more often, they are entirely ignored. 
In the evaluation of research, no other single criterion is as 
important as the clear recognition of the assumptions by the 
experimenter and the degree to which these assumptions are 
reasonable or justified. Validity of data and their interpre- 
tation rest primarily upon the assumptions upon which they 
were derived. 

4. Appropriateness of general procedure. The actual 
experimental attack on the problem comes next in the critical 
evaluation. The most important criterion regarding the pro- 
cedure is its appropriateness to the investigation proposed 
whether it is potent, suitable, and searching. The general 
procedure must be such that it throws into relief the causes 
of results, of crucial differences, and so on. Unfortunately, 
the equated-group procedure is widely used in experimental 
investigations in the field of education despite the manifest 
impossibility of equating all factors which influence results of 

Involved in this adaptation of technique is the control of 
irrelevant factors during the experiment. Correspondingly 
involved is the law of the single variable, under which all 


variables are held constant except the one being investigated. 
In educational research, this law is a principle to be approxi- 
mated, not a condition readily obtained. 

Still another subsidiary consideration is whether all the 
significant data were secured from the basic sources through 
the experimental procedure, or whether the acquisition of all 
significant data necessary to the solution of the particular 
problem was approximated. 

5. Significance of raiv measures. The criteria from this 
point are extended to cover actual measures secured through 
experimentation. Of highest importance in the evaluation of 
the raw measures is the validity of the procedures employed 
to secure them. In the evaluation of the "significance of raw 
measures," validity and reliability will be considered as highly 
related functions. If the reliability of a test is not estab- 
lished, its validity is open to question, for among other things 
a test must measure consistently in order to be a valid 
measure of the function. 

Of additional importance to the "significance of raw 
measures" is the normality of the situation under which they 
were obtained. Raw measures, in order to be significant, 
must be secured under conditions which are normal with 
regard to the phenomenon measured. 

How significant raw measures are to a problem can be 
appraised by answering the question : "Of what function 
and to what degree are the raw measures actual measures?" 

6. Representativeness of sampling. A further necessary 
criterion of data is the sufficiency of the sampling. Data 
must be gathered over a large enough area, long enough time, 
wide enough age group, and under sufficiently varying condi- 
tions to insure the typicalness of sampling. Thus defined, 
representative sampling includes not only pupil population 
but instructional procedure. In many educational investiga- 
tions, the instructional period is not sufficient in length to 


provide the type of results which are necessary for conclu- 
sive evidence. 

7. Adequacy of data. After the significance of the raw 
measures and the representativeness of the sampling have 
been evaluated, the additional factor of adequacy is necessary 
to validity of conclusions. The question, "Were data secured 
to meet all purposes of the experiment?" is the real test of 
adequacy. With data secured by means of the control-group 
technique, a further consideration is the statistical adequacy 
of differences. In the investigation of functions which are 
so highly correlated that the establishment of statistical re- 
liability of differences is difficult, a consistency of difference 
in several measures may be considered an index of reliability. 

8. Analysis of data. The experimenter's statistical 
analysis of data is the next criterion of evaluation. This 
analysis should be not only appropriate, accurate, and com- 
plete, but also such as will reveal all the significant items 
gathered in the investigation. Statistical analysis which stops 
with measures of central tendency often serves to conceal 
important variations and relationships. On the other hand, 
mere elaborateness may tend to conceal important major 
relationships in a maze of detail. 

9. Interpretation of observations and of analytical find- 
ings. The eight criteria already presented apply to the 
formulation of the problem, the experimental procedure, and 
the treatment of data. The next in the sequence is the 
criterion of interpretation. Valid interpretation is dependent 
on (a) the recognition of assumptions and of limitations in 
the experimental technique and statistical procedure, (b) the 
logic involved in drawing conclusions, (c) the recognition 
of significant variables, (d) the recognition of inconclusive 
or inconsistent data, and (e) the completeness with which 
conclusions are drawn. 


Positive contributions. The final consideration the posi- 
tive contributions of the investigation is the logical sequence 
to the application of the criteria enumerated above. The 
positive contribution, in itself, is not a criterion, but an out- 
come of the rigorous application of the criteria to the investi- 
gation. It constitutes a statement of the findings of the study 
in the light of all the influencing factors. 

An analysis of these criteria will reveal a serial organiza- 
tion culminating in a statement of conclusions accepted after 
the application of the criteria. This serial organization begins 
with a consideration of the problem, proceeds in order 
through the assumptions, the experimental procedure, the 
treatment of the data, the interpretation of the data, and 
concludes with the positive contributions of the investigation. 
Each criterion develops from those preceding in the order 
followed in actual experimental investigation; and climaxing 
the series of criteria is the final evaluation of the contribu- 
tions of the experiment. 

Taken as a whole, the criteria are of such a nature and 
such an organization that they yield a critical picture of any 
study in the field of experimental education, and an appraisal 
of its contribution to experimental procedure and to educa- 
tional theory and practice. Failure of a research study to 
meet any one criterion alters its value in relation to all follow- 
ing criteria. 


As the various studies were examined, and as the criteria 
were applied, it became apparent that the worth of the in- 
vestigations was limited because of questionable assumptions 
implicit in the investigations and frequently not at all recog- 
nized. An analysis of the experiments reported revealed that 
these assumptions revolved around certain experimental 


Seven neglected factors of experimental procedure were 
isolated in the sixty-one studies: (1) Typicalness of class- 
room procedures, (2) Comparability of methods of instruc- 
tion, (3) Methods of measuring results of instruction, (4) 
Limitations of the control group technique, (5) Insufficient 
analysis of data, (6) Diversity of grade classification, and 
(7) Incomplete investigation of problems. 

1. Typicalness of classroom procedure. One of the most 
important of the neglected factors is the typicalness of the 
classroom procedure, or methods of teaching, which ex- 
perimenters set up for experimental comparison. Many of 
the investigations are of limited value either to educational 
theory or to educational practice (or both) on this account. 
They are devoted to the study of effectiveness of methods 
long since abandoned or never extensively practiced in 
American education. 

Preliminary to a detailed discussion of this factor, one 
point should be made. It is recognized that there is value 
in determining the psychological reaction of pupils to any 
method of instruction an investigator wishes to use, whether 
that instructional method possesses real or potential value 
for classroom use. However, relatively few of these studies 
are devoted to the determination of psychological reactions 
as such. The majority are concerned with the effectiveness 
of method in classroom instruction. 

Typicalness of classroom procedure will be considered 
from three points of view: (a) methods employed in teach- 
ing, (b) integration of these methods with normal instruc- 
tion, and (c) length of the instructional period. 

(a) Methods of teaching. In many experiments, the 
methods of instruction are atypical. In one, for instance, the 
material of a motion-picture film was translated into a lecture 
which was delivered in an auditorium to seventh-grade pupils. 
The lecture method is seldom, if ever, used to teach seventh- 
grade geography. 


A second example of the atypical instruction adopted in 
experimental investigations is found in another, in which 
pupils in the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grades were given 
mimeographed reports of the material shown in several films. 
Teachers were not permitted to use any visual aids in this 
type of instruction. Normally, textbooks in the elementary 
school are profusely illustrated, blackboards are abundantly 
used, projects are developed, and other visual aids are 
furnished the pupils in one form or another. 

These examples are sufficient to illustrate the point that 
experimenters often neglect to establish normal schoolroom 
teaching procedure in their investigations. As a result of 
this neglect the values of their data are considerably lessened, 
even if they are able to demonstrate certain values for par- 
ticular experimental methods. 

(b) Integration of teaching methods. A second 
neglected aspect of classroom instruction is the integration 
of the experimental method of teaching with other class- 
room methods and activities. In many investigations one 
particular method of instruction has been compared with 
another in isolation. For instance, one investigator studied 
the comparative effectiveness of the "regular" textbook- 
recitation method and the film method of instruction. This 
type of contrast presupposes a regimentation of instruction 
such that pupils study a textbook and are quizzed by the 
teacher, on the one hand, or are shown motion pictures 
without any recitation and quizzing on the other hand. In 
other words, the film and the textbook-recitation methods of 
teaching are used without deviation or supplementation 
throughout the entire period of instruction in the particular 
subject which the pupils are studying. 

In a second study, too, motion pictures on various health 
topics were presented to one group of students, and lectures 
based on the films were presented to the other. Results of 
each type of presentation were measured. Each type of 


instruction was considered as the instructional method, and 
not merely as one of many teaching devices to be used 
regularly and coincidently in the classroom in teaching these 

Visual aids, in these cases and in many others cited in the 
appendix of this study, were considered as methods of in- 
struction, and not as aids to be used as a part of a more 
diverse and complex organization of instructional procedure. 

Failure to integrate one particular teaching device with 
the many other teaching devices normally used in the class- 
room has materially diminished the worth of many experi- 
mental studies on the values and uses of visual aids. 

(c) Length of the instruction period. The third respect 
in which the typicalness of classroom procedure is violated 
is in the length of the instructional period of the experiment. 
The period of instruction in experimental investigations was 
in one case as brief as four minutes. In this instance the 
effectiveness of motion pictures in relation to age and grade 
level was studied. 

In many other investigations the instructional period was 
relatively brief. One study was made in which instructional 
periods of only fourteen minutes were employed. (This 
period was determined by the time required for the projection 
of one film.) Since class periods are normally much longer 
than fourteen minutes, and are distributed over a period of 
several months during the school year, results of fourteen 
minutes of instruction can have relatively few implications 
for general classroom procedure. 

The practice of using such short experimental periods 
has important bearing, too, upon the adequacy and reliability 
of the data which result from different methods of instruc- 
tion. Evidence of special effectiveness which actually inheres 
in some particular method may be expected to increase in 
amount as the period of instruction is lengthened. A slight, 


almost negligible difference between instructional methods, 
statistically unreliable and perhaps inconsistent in various 
short experiments, might increase the significant proportions 
when used over a longer instructional period, and in relation 
to particular types of learning outcomes. When this exten- 
sion of instructional period is not provided, there is no way 
of determining the extent and permanence of differences 
accruing to various methods or devices of instruction. 

While these three aspects of typicalness in classroom 
procedure have been neglected in many experimental studies, 
there are, on the other hand, experimental investigations in 
which they have been respected for their real importance. 
For instance, Wood and Freeman (59) supplemented well- 
organized teaching with films in the case of experimental 
groups, and provided for the use of other visual aids in all 
groups. Furthermore, the visual aids were used as only one 
part of the teaching procedure. Experiments were conducted 
in two fields of instruction geography and general science 
and were extended over a period of three months. In this 
way, the methods of teaching were typical, and the visual 
aids were considered as an integral part of normal classroom 
instruction. The Arnspiger (2), the Clark (5), the Knowl- 
ton and Tilton (31), and the Rulon (48) experiments are 
other examples in which the factor of normal classroom 
procedure has been properly provided. 

(2) Comparability of methods of instruction. A second 
important factor of experimental procedure which has been 
widely neglected in investigations in the field of visual aids 
is that of comparability of methods of instruction. Compari- 
sons of visual aids and other methods of instruction have 
been made in which the internal organization of the mate- 
rials of instruction has not been the same. In other words, 
comparisons have been made between "structured" and rela- 
tively "unstructured" learning materials. 


Motion-picture film is highly structured. One element of 
its structure is the organization of the material in definite 
sequence. A motion picture must be projected in essentially 
the same organization with which it has been finally produced. 
Attempts to reorganize the film-material classroom projection 
are made difficult by the necessity of rewinding, and so on, 
or by the technical skill required to cut and reassemble a film. 

A second element of structure in the motion picture is 
the arrangement of verbal and pictorial material, or captions 
and scenes. Verbal explanation may come before, during, 
or after the illustrative material, or in any combination of 
these three arrangements, but this organization is identical 
every time the film is projected and in every situation. It 
does not vary with the teacher, the pupils, the time of day, 
or the subject matter of instruction. 

On the other hand, the structure of other teaching mate- 
rials is highly flexible. The organization of material in 
various textbooks differs with the particular texts. The 
organization of supplementary visual aids, other than films, 
varies with the teacher who uses them. The organization of 
all the instructional material, even with the provision of a 
syllabus or outlines of study, varies with the particular 
teacher, the particular class, and the particular books and 
other study material available. 

Even when the organizational structure of subject matter 
is the same for a film and a textbook, study outline, and 
so on, the identical objective structure may in itself be 
psychologically different to the pupils. In the film the mate- 
rial is pictorial and verbal, whereas in the textbook or study 
outline, the material is verbal. In the film, this organization 
may be psychologically appropriate at one particular level of 
mental development, while in purely verbal learning material 
the identical organization may be psychologically inappro- 


Too little attention has been given in experimental pro- 
cedure to the factor of structure in comparative methods of 
instruction. Freeman noted this factor in his discussion of 
James's experiment (29) : 

It is evident . . . that the primary aim in the mind of the experi- 
menter [James] was to secure identity in form and in content between 
the motion picture film and the oral lecture. This identity was secured 
by copying and reproducing orally the titles and subtitles and then 
supplementing these by a few additional sentences. The film, in other 
words, formed the basis of the organization of the lectures. This pro- 
cedure differed from that which is followed by McClusky in his experi- 
ment. McClusky endeavored, to be sure, to cover the same topics and 
include the same facts in the oral presentation, or the oral presentation 
accompanied by charts, as was included in the film, but he did not 
attempt to follow in this detailed manner the form of presentation in 
the film. 4 

Of the more recent experiments, that of Arnspiger (2) 
may be cited as an example of structural differences in learn- 
ing material. In this investigation the teachers of the control 
group were furnished with syllabi of the material, including 
bibliographical references, while those of the experimental 
group were furnished these syllabi and motion-picture films. 
Whereas the teachers of the control groups were free to use 
any instructional device available except motion pictures, this 
teaching was not uniform, was unorganized, and highly 
diversified. On the other hand, the use of moving pictures 
in the experimental group was uniform and organized, and 
the films were highly structured. 

This matter of structure may constitute one of the 
inherent advantages of the motion picture. On the other 
hand, it may constitute one of its inherent disadvantages. 

In either case, the matter of structure of learning material 
has generally been ignored in comparing effectiveness of 
various methods of instruction. 

(3) Methods of measuring results of instruction. Since 
the effectiveness of various instructional methods is deter- 

4 Frank N. Freeman. Visual Education. University of Chicago Press. 1924. 
p. 28-9. 


mined largely on the basis of tests of one sort or another, 
great significance is to be attached to the methods of measur- 
ing results of instruction. Despite the importance of meas- 
urement in relation to the data to which interpretation is 
given, several important aspects of measurement have been 
neglected by experimenters. These aspects will be discussed 
as (a) measurement of pupil responses, (b) objectives of 
instruction, (c) type of learning, (d) experiential judgment, 
(e) learning during the experimental period. 

(a) Measurement of pupil responses. In striving for 
objectivity of measurement, most experimenters have over- 
looked the possibility that objective tests, as they are con- 
structed, may not measure pupil responses as such, or if they 
do, that measurement may be inaccurate or misrepresentative. 
In constructing an objective test, a set of items is developed 
which represents the response that an experienced teacher, 
a highly trained experimenter, or a scholar in the subject- 
matter field thinks a child should make as a result of seeing 
a motion-picture film or a set of slides, or of reading a 
textbook, or of hearing a lecture, or of any combination of 
these activities. The mental development, the previous ex- 
perience, the point of view, and several other factors com- 
bined in the total personality of the testmaker are uncon- 
sciously reflected in a test so constructed. 

At best, the test thus made measures, to some extent, 
the degree to which pupil responses coincide with adult re- 
sponses, or zvith what adults think pupil responses should be. 
There is no certainty, however, that the test measures the 
responses of the child to the experimental situation. 

On the other hand, essay-type tests are more representa- 
tive of the verbal responses that children, themselves, make 
tinder certain conditions. In relatively few experiments was 
use made of the essay examination. Wood and Freeman 
(59) used it extensively, McClusky (34) used it sparingly, 
and Consitt (7) and Marchant (37) used it exclusively. 


Even the essay-type test does not measure pupil responses 
extensively. To a large extent, responses are directed by 
the nature of the questions. They may, on the one hand, 
measure recall, organization, language facility, or particular 
and general ideas arising from the experimental experience. 
On the other hand, more elementary learning reactions are 
not always apparent on the essay-type examination. For 
instance, a child's feeling of familiarity, his readinesses for 
new and different reactions, are not always recorded in his 
written essay. 

While the difficulty of measurement is herein recognized, 
the point developed concerning methods of measuring pupil 
responses used in experimental investigations on the values 
of films, is that adult-made objective and essay-type tests are 
not infallible indices to pupil responses in learning situations. 

(b) The objectives of instruction. Another phase of 
measurement which has been widely neglected is that of 
measurement in terms of the objectives of instruction. If an 
individual were to confine his reading to these experimental 
studies and to ignore other publications on American educa- 
tion, he would develop a warped set of educational objectives. 
The great majority of experiments are devoted to the values 
of films for imparting factual knowledge. A few experi- 
menters, notably F. D. and H. Y. McClusky (36) ; Freeman, 
Shaw, and Walker (16); Freeman and Hoefer (14); Rolfe 
(46); and Hollis (25) sought to measure effectiveness in 
terms of ability to do. Knowlton and Tilton (31) measured 
interest in reading, in class recitation, and the like, and Clark 
(5) attempted to secure measures of the development or 
change of interests as a result of instruction. On the whole, 
however, the experimenters were concerned with fact getting 
in a limited field of subject matter. 

Some few experimenters devoted considerable time and 
effort to the development of objectives in instruction, and 
then proceeded to ignore all objectives except factual knowl- 


edge in measuring results of instruction. A specific illustra- 
tion of this procedure is found in one report. A unit of 
instruction in this study was devoted to lower animals. 
Objectives of instruction similar to those listed below were 
furnished teachers of both experimental and control groups : 

1. A desire to protect small animals. 

2. Ability to distinguish between types of small animals. 

3. A fearless attitude toward the small animals. 

4. Knowledge that small animals are of great value to the 

5. An understanding of the life cycle of small animals. 

6. Concomitants of accurate observation, joy in discovery, 
and kindness towards harmless, helpless animals. 

7. A deeper interest in the study of nature. 

Despite the development of the above objectives of in- 
struction, the test questions were devised to measure the sub- 
ject matter of the units. There was no attempt made, in 
this study, to measure concomitant learnings, attitudes, or 
appreciations, except as they are reflected in the learning of 
factual material. If these ' 'concomitants" had been more 
adequately measured it is quite probable that the differences 
in favor of the experimental groups would have been even 

It appears that most investigators, whatsoever their theo- 
retical notions, view education practically, or experimentally 
at least, as the process by which factual knowledge is 

(c) Type of learning. A third aspect of measurement 
which has escaped the attention it deserves is the type of 
learning visual, verbal, and so on resulting or expected to 
result from the use of visual aids. With the exception of 
the instances cited in the previous discussion of objectives of 
instruction (in regard to measurement of ability to do), 
almost all experimenters have measured the results of instruc- 
tion on the verbal level. 


The use of pictorial material does not necessarily develop 
verbal experience. It may, to some or to a great extent, 
make this verbalization meaningful, but the measurement of 
verbal learning is not necessarily a measure of the learning 
which accrues to the pupils given pictorial experience unless 
verbal instruction has preceded, accompanied, or followed 
this pictorial experience. 

Many types of learning may be expected to result from 
the use of visual aids. There may be the mere feeling of 
familiarity with a certain object, process, or situation. There 
may be identification of that object, process, or situation, in 
relation to other objects, processes, or situations. There 
may be generalization on the verbal level in relation to these 
experiences. There may be application or ability to perform 
some new or more complex act. There may be a better con- 
cept of relationships, a greater clarity of concepts, new 
insights, new appreciations, and so on. Any or all of these 
may develop as a result of the use of visual aids in instruc- 

Yet, in measurement of results, verbal tests are most 
widely used. Of these, the vast majority are objective items 
on specific elements of a motion picture, a slide, a diagram, 
a textbook, or a lecture. Wood and Freeman (59) attempted 
to obtain measures not only on specific items of information, 
but also on generalizations which the pupils had formed as 
a result of instruction. They also used drawings to measure 
pupil experience. Rulon (48) developed a unique "picture" 
test in which interpretation of pictorially portrayed situations 
was required in order to answer the questions of the test. 

In general, however, measurement of instruction was on 
the verbal level and was confined, as indicated in the previous 
discussion, to factual information. 

(d) Experiential judgment. Another important ne- 
glected aspect of measurement is the judgment of competent 


judges. Some strange phobia seems to have become attached 
to the word "subjectivity" or "subjective judgment." The 
onset of the so-called "scientific movement" in American 
education has apparently been accompanied by a developing 
fear of unreliability of teachers' judgments, and an austere 
reverence for "objective" measurement. All this, despite 
the fact that the standard of validity of many objective 
measures is, in the end, the judgment of teachers, observers, 
and other erring humans. 

As a result of this reverence for objectivity and disdain 
of subjective opinions, the judgments of pupils, the judg- 
ments of teachers, and the judgments of experimenters, 
arrived at through a long series of observations in many 
and varied situations and under many and varied conditions, 
have been widely disregarded in investigations of the values 
of visual aids. 

A few notable exceptions have been made to this rule. 
There is a high degree of consistency among the judgments 
secured by a few experimenters in widely different geo- 
graphical areas. The judgments secured from sixty-eight 
sources by Knowlton and Tilton (31), from the experimental 
teachers by Wood and Freeman (59), and from English 
teachers by Consitt (7), are in remarkable agreement. In 
each case the judgments were arrived at with apparent inde- 
pendence, and as a result of either the viewing or the use in 
the classroom of the films in these investigations. Teachers' 
judgments seem to be consistent, opinion to the contrary not- 

Despite the prejudice against teachers' judgments, they 
are, nevertheless, a valuable source of information. They 
are formed on the background of wide experience, in com- 
parison to other existing conditions, and on the basis of 
exhaustive sampling of reactions over a long period of time. 
It is unfortunate, too, that the opinion of pupils, as well as 


of teachers, have been ignored. Had this condition not 
obtained, many fruitless investigations, many grubbing hours 
of test making and scoring, and many painful mathematical 
calculations might have been spared. 

(e) Learning during the experimental period. Finally, 
as a neglected aspect in the measurement of instructional 
results is the consideration of learning during the experi- 
mental period. Too many investigations have been made on 
the assumption that measures derived at the end of the experi- 
mental period actually are measures of learning during that 
period. One experimenter, for instance, taught various units 
in industrial arts by three different methods. He assumed 
that the data from the tests represented learning during the 
experimental period, despite the fact that no initial tests were 
given. In another study where no initial tests were given 
before the experimental period, results in various centers in 
which the experiments were performed varied widely. As a 
result of this inconsistency it is impossible to determine 
whether the differences were due to previous knowledge of 
the subject, or variations in the technique of teaching, or both. 

In more recent experiments, this aspect has not been so 
generally neglected. Arnspiger (2), for instance, used initial 
tests and so constructed his final tests that they would repre- 
sent learning during the experimental period. Wood and 
Freeman (59) also used initial tests and treated results in 
terms of gains during the experimental period. Rulon (48) 
took elaborate precautions to control factors during the 
experimental period. 

An important aspect of the amount of knowledge obtain- 
ing before the experimental period is pointed out by Mount 
(41). Where a large amount of initial knowledge is present, 
the opportunity for gain in knowledge is diminished, and the 
treatment of data in terms of gains obtained may not be a 
true index to the effectiveness of instructional method. 


(4) Limitations of the control group technique. 5 The 
technique most generally used (in the experimental studies of 
visual aids) has been that of control groups. The use of 
this technique involves an activity of one type on the part 
of one group, and an activity of another type on the part 
of the other. The purpose of this technique is to control all 
variable factors except the one being measured, but while 
this activity is occupying the experimental group another 
activity is being indulged in by the control group. 

Yet, in the measurement of results of instruction, little 
attempt, if any, is made to measure equally well the mental 
activities of both experimental and control groups. For 
instance, while the experimental group is viewing a motion 
picture, the control group is watching slides, reading text- 
books, listening to oral presentations, etc. The activities of 
the two groups are different. In the one group a certain 
type of mental outcome may be developing, in the other, 
another type. This possibility, however, is not adequately 
considered in measuring results. 

One example of failure to measure the activity of both 
the experimental and control groups is furnished in a 
report on the effect of moving-picture titles as study guides 
following film presentation. Mimeographed copies of the 
film titles were furnished to the experimental group. The 
control group received no such study guides. Both groups 
then engaged in a short period of study with the textbooks 
and reference books available on the material illustrated by 
the film. At the end of this study period, tests were given 
both the experimental and control groups. These tests con- 
sisted of almost the exact film titles furnished to the experi- 
mental group above. A comparison of the film titles with the 
test items brought out the fact that no item was given that 

5 For a more detailed criticism of the control group technique in experimental 
education see W. A. Brownell. "Some Neglected Safeguards in Control-Group 
Experimentation." Journal of Educational Research. 27:98-107 


was not an almost exact excerpt from the film titles and that 
almost all film titles were covered in the test items. 

Such is one criticism of the control-group technique. 
Recent investigations by Rulon (48), Gatto (17), and Arn- 
spiger (2), indicate that wherein the activity of the control 
group is measured, the control group is superior to the 
experimental group on those activities in which the former 
were engaged. Nevertheless, the measurement of the activi- 
ties of both groups equally well has been neglected in most 
experimental studies in visual education. 

Another criticism of this technique concerns experi- 
menters' notions of equivalence. While a number of vari- 
ations are found in methods of equating "equivalent" groups, 
the factors upon which equivalence is based are generally 
age, grade level, sex, and measures of central tendency and 
dispersion on tests of "intelligence" and knowledge of some 
particular subject matter upon which instruction is to be 
given. Occasionally, individual pupils from two "equated" 
groups are paired on the basis of these factors, but the 
general procedure is to equate merely the groups. After this 
"equation" has been completed, "identical" methods of in- 
struction are used with the "equivalent" groups, with the 
exception of the variable factor of instruction. 

Despite these procedures of "equation," experiment after 
experiment showed that one method of instruction is superior 
in one group, and another method is superior in the other 
group, both groups being "equivalent." The obvious con- 
clusion is that equivalence has not obtained, and that, further- 
more, equivalence of groups in all factors is almost impossible. 

(5) Insufficient analysis of data. Another major factor 
neglected in experimentation in visual aids is depth of analy- 
sis of data. Experimenters are so engrossed in the abstract 
problems they have formulated for study that they neglect 
to determine the factors of a motion-picture film, a slide, or 


a demonstration that make it particularly effective in relation 
to a particular type of response. 

Two analytical studies of pupil responses were made. 
The one is H. C. Davis's analysis (7) of data secured on 
the essay topical tests of the Wood and Freeman study (59), 
and the other is Terry's analysis (54) of children's responses 
to the Yale Chronicles of America photoplays. These latter 
were obtained from the stenographic report of classroom 
activity secured by Knowlton and Tilton (31) and of re- 
sponses of children on a check experiment in which a his- 
torical photoplay produced by the Eastman Company was 

In general, analysis of data consists in the statistical com- 
putation of measures of central tendency or dispersion 
(medians, means, standard deviations, quartile deviations), 
differences of means or medians for comparative methods of 
instruction, and the reliability of these differences. (Gener- 
ally, the statistical formulation for reliability of differences of 
equated groups is neglected the formula (J^.^-Vcf^To"^ 
is used for determining the standard deviation of differen- 

Occasionally, as in the case of McClusky's report (34), 
these data are presented for all experiments in the various 
cities in which they were performed. Analysis, however, 
generally ceases at this point. Factors inherent in the vari- 
ous visual aids are neglected, incorrect responses are not 
recorded, responses to various types of items such as ex- 
planation, reasoning, and the like, are not classified. Relative 
effectiveness on various levels of mental ability is overlooked 
in many investigations. So, too, are the responses of pupils 
during the regular classroom procedure. Such studies as 
those by Davis and by Terry are very greatly needed to 
throw light on the real problems of instructional methods. 
These analyses must be intensive, and as such will neces- 
sarily be limited to a relatively small area of investigation. 


(6) Diversity of grade classification. A sixth neg- 
lected factor of experimental procedure is grade classifica- 
tion. In several experiments pupils from several grades have 
been instructed in the same material by the same methods. 
R. L. Davis (10), for instance, used pupils from the third 
to the eighth grades in his study. In this particular case, 
differentiated responses of pupils within this grade distri- 
bution was one of the factors investigated. In another study, 
however, the film material was presented to pupils in the 
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grades by three different 
methods without regard for the adaptation of the material 
to these levels. 

A consideration of the psychological aspects of visual 
education leads to the theory that different methods of teach- 
ing are effective with different levels of mental development. 
The neglect of this factor of mental development in the use 
of pupils of various age and grade levels will tend to influence 
results from the various grade levels taken as a whole. 

Wood and Freeman (59) found that the films used in 
their study were not as effective as other methods of instruc- 
tion in teaching some aspects of general science in the fourth 
and fifth grades. It is possible that the use of these films 
was not appropriate for this grade level, whereas for a higher 
grade its use is appropriate. In the study of geography on 
higher grade levels, Wood and Freeman found that the use 
of films was effective. These illustrations lead to the next 
and last of the neglected factors of experimental procedure. 

(7) Incomplete investigation of problems. It is un- 
fortunately true that many investigations stop where signifi- 
cant investigation should begin. This fact is illustrated by 
the instance cited in relation to the effectiveness of films in 
one subject on one grade level, and the effectiveness of films 
in another subject on another grade level. The problem 
raised by the results of Wood and Freeman's investigation 


(59) is: Why are films effective aids in instruction in one 
subject on one grade level and less effective in another sub- 
ject on another grade level? 

Similarly, the results of Mead's (39) and other investiga- 
tions raise the question : Why were results with the same 
method inconsistent in different situations? 

Such are the real problems of research in visual educa- 
tion, yet to date they have been ignored. Until they receive 
experimental attention major problems remain unanswered. 


The preceding section is concerned with the criteria for 
evaluating the effectiveness of films in the classroom, and 
neglected factors of experimental procedure were discussed. 
It is the purpose of this section to present and summarize 
the results of the separate investigations in the particular 
aspects of effectiveness with which the experimenters were 
concerned. No attempt is made to discuss the results of all 
the investigations reported. 

The values of the films, as determined by the application 
of the criteria to the sixty-one investigations evaluated in 
this study, are classified according to eight major aspects: 
(1) Types of pupil responses to films, (2) Elimination of 
wrong responses, (3) Effectiveness of films with "dull" and 
"bright" pupils, (4) Effectiveness of films on various grade 
levels, (5) The film and economy of time in instruction, 
(6) Effectiveness of verbal commentary on film presenta- 
tion, (7) Frequency and distribution of projection, and (8) 
Auditorium and classroom projection of films. 

(1) Types of pupil responses to films. "Types of pupil 
responses" have been divided into nine classifications on the 
basis of various aspects of learning and other pupil activity 
investigated in the studies. These classifications are: (a) 
learning factual information, (b) retention of material 


learned, (c) habits, skills, and so on, (d) development of 
understanding of relationships, (e) description, explanation, 
and the like, (f) "thinking" and "eduction," (g) imagina- 
tion, (h) development of interest, (i) responses to elements 
of films, and (j) responses on non-film items. 

(a) Learning factual information. The great majority 
of investigations on the values of films in the classroom have 
been conducted with respect to the learning of factual mate- 
rial. These experiments have covered a wide range of school 
subjects, grade levels, and comparisons with other methods 
of instruction. 

The value of the film for this purpose is summed up by 
Wood and Freeman (59) in the statement that the film 
"gives the child clear-cut notions of the objects and actions 
in the world about him" (p. 221). Results in agreement 
with this conclusion are found in the experiments of Arn- 
spiger (2), Consitt (7), Knowlton and Tilton (31), Mar- 
chant (37), Watkins (55), Weber (56), and others. In 
most of these studies the film was used as an integral part of 
the instructional procedure and in comparison with other 
methods of instruction. The percentage of increase in factual 
knowledge varied considerably among the studies. 

In other studies, the value of the film has been contrasted 
with purely oral instruction and measurement in terms of 
the film material. Limitations of these studies, however, 
make results inconclusive. 

Mount (41) contrasted the relative effect of the use of 
the film and the use of supplementary reading in high-school 
physics. Both these teaching aids were used in addition to 
other visual aids. He found the greater gain of the film 
group to be very small in comparison to the average gain 
made by either the control or the supplementary-reading 
groups. Measurement was made by means of modified 
standard tests. Results in general agreement with those 


reported by Mount were found by Cameron (4) as pertaining 
to the lecture-discussion method in contrast to the film 

In contrasting the use of the film with that of the film 
slide, Brown (3) found the film-slide presentation, with its 
greater opportunity for exchange of comment between teacher 
and pupils, superior to the film presentation. This result may 
have been due in a large measure to the method of film 
presentation. Verbal accompaniment, as used by Brown, 
would tend to interrupt and interfere with the film, rather 
than to explain its important parts. 

Freeman, Reeder, and Thomas (15) concluded that in 
presenting tables, maps, and charts the film is no better than 
the actual tables, maps, and charts presented as such. 

H. C. Davis (9), in her analysis of the results of certain 
topical tests used in the Wood and Freeman study (59), 
found visual aids other than the film to be more effective 
than the film presenting factual information about objects. 

Gatto (17) measured the comparative effects of films and 
supplementary reading as an integral part of instruction. He 
found that the supplementary reading group was slightly 
higher on a standardized test of comprehension ability in 
geography than was the film group, but that on the tests of 
factual information of the instructional material the film 
groups were superior. 

In conclusion, it may be said that the film is superior to 
verbal methods of presenting concrete material, but that its 
superiority to other visual aids varies with the type of mate- 
rial and the type of learning expected. 

(b) Retention of material learned. Investigations of 
the effectiveness of the films as measured by permanence of 
learning have been conducted by Arnspiger (2), Gatto (17), 
Hansen (20), Knowlton and Tilton (31), Lacy (32), 
McClusky (34), Rulon (48), Skinner and Rich (50), Sum- 
stine (53), Weber (56), and Young (61). Permanence 


of learning was measured by administering delayed tests 
from one week to three and one-half months after the 
period of instruction on the experimental material. In gen- 
eral, these tests measured factual material on the verbal 

The experimental procedures of many of these investiga- 
tions were of such nature that the results cannot be accepted 
as adequate or reliable. Lacy, for example, presented the 
learning material fragmentarily and tested results on the 
basis of incidental details which Terry (54) has since shown 
escape attention of pupils when presented in films. There 
is, however, a high consistency of data among these studies 
to indicate that the use of the film in instruction is superior 
to the use of verbal material alone or to the unorganized 
use of other visual aids, when retention is measured by 
delayed tests of the type mentioned above. There is also 
general agreement among the data of these investigations that 
the percentage of superiority of retention is higher than the 
percentage of superiority of immediate learning, when super- 
iority is considered in terms of the test results for the non- 
film groups. 

The results of the investigations by Gatto and Rulon 
are particularly significant. Gatto found that the mean score 
of the film group increased 11 per cent on the delayed test 
administered five weeks after the instructional period, but 
the mean score of the nonfilm group decreased 11 per cent 
in relation to scores on the immediate tests. Gatto, and 
almost all other experimenters, measured retention by the 
use of tests which the pupils had taken on some previous 
occasion during the experimental period either as a pretest 
or as a test of immediate learning at the end of the instruc- 
tional period. 

Rulon, however, secured results by a method which elim- 
inated the element of practice effect on the tests. To secure 
measures of immediate learning, Rulon administered a 


pictorial-verbal test to one half of the pupils and a purely 
verbal test to the other half. On the measurement of reten- 
tion the order of the two tests was reversed. He found, as 
did the other experimenters, that the superiority of the scores 
of the film group over the nonfilm group was higher than 
the corresponding superiority in immediate learning. 
Furthermore, Rulon's tests were designed to measure "think- 
ing" ability as well as a mere knowledge of facts. With 
practice effects eliminated in the manner described, his results 
are in harmony with those secured on test scores to which a 
practice effect might have accrued. 

It may be said, in summary, that the use of films as an 
integral part of classroom instruction produces more per- 
manent learning of factual information and more permanent 
mental reactions of a "thought" variety than do methods of 
instruction in which nonvisual material is predominantly 
used, or in which there is unorganized use of other visual 
aids. This statement does not apply to any type of mental 
activity beyond that measured by pictorial-verbal and purely 
verbal tests of the objective type. Unfortunately, no experi- 
mental work has been reported on permanence of other types 
of learning. 

(c) Habits, skills, and the like. While a large number 
of investigations have been made on the influence of the film 
with respect to learning of one type or another, relatively 
few studies have been made on the influence of the film on 
learning to perform acts of skill required in certain school 
subjects, or on personal habits which function outside the 
school. 6 Freeman, Shaw, and Walker (16), Hollis (25), 
F. D. and H. Y. McClusky (36), and Rolfe (46) investigated 

6 A number of studies on the social influence of the motion picture have 
recently been made under a grant from the Payne F9undation. These studies 
are ably summarized by W. W. Charters in his Motion Pictures and Youth, 
New York. Macmillan Company, 1933. They are not treated here because this 
discussion is limited exclusively to the instructional film. However, every educator 
should read Charters' summary for the development of insight into the potentialities 
that the motion picture holds for education and its rapidly enlarging goals. 


the effectiveness of the film in teaching skills required in 
school subjects. Freeman and Hoefer (14) and Hoefer and 
Keith (24) made studies on the influence of the film on 
health habits in the everyday life of the pupils. 

The results of the studies by Hollis, the McCluskys, and 
Rolfe are in agreement that the demonstration is a method 
of instruction superior to the use of the film in teaching 
manipulatory skills in domestic science, in high-school physics 
laboratory exercises, and in industrial arts. In all three of 
these experiments, oral instruction was given before the 
pupils were required to perform their tasks, but no instruction 
was given while the children were engaged in working out 
their projects. The test made of instructional methods was 
the relative worth of the pupils' completed work as judged 
by certain established criteria. 

Despite the fact that no oral instruction accompanied any 
of the visual methods used in these experiments, the worth 
of demonstration seems to be inherent in its reality; i.e., the 
actual task is performed before the pupils in all dimensions 
of objective reality. On the other hand, the film is an 
impersonal presentation in only two spatial dimensions, and 
as such furnishes an experience less concrete than is the 
demonstration. Mere verbal instruction in manipulatory 
skills is even farther removed from psychological reality. 
It involves language instruction in a complex tactual per- 
formance in which the pupils have had little if any previous 

On the other hand, Freeman, Shaw, and Walker found 
that in teaching position in handwriting, the use of a motion 
picture, shown three times during the course of regular class- 
room instruction, was a more effective method than the 
procedure ordinarily followed in the classroom, or this pro- 
cedure plus frequent reports to pupils of their scores on 
handwriting position. On actual improvement in quality of 


handwriting, however, none of the three methods of in- 
struction was apparently superior to the others. 

In this experiment, the value of the film seems to be the 
clear visual demonstration it gave to all pupils with respect 
to good and bad positions. In the ordinary class instruction, 
followed in all groups throughout the experiment, the teacher 
merely corrected the pupils individually no special demon- 
stration of good and bad positions was made for the benefit 
of all pupils. The failure of the film as a particularly effec- 
tive means of improvement in the quality of handwriting may 
be due to (1) the emphasis given to position as a means 
to an end and the ignoring of the end itself, (2) the fact 
that measurement was made over a three-week period during 
which measurable improvement in quality of handwriting 
may not reasonably be expected, or (3) a combination of 
these two factors. Furthermore, the measurable factors of 
position in handwriting may not be as complex as those 
required in the performance of domestic science, industrial 
arts, and laboratory experiments in high-school physics. 
Hence, the actual demonstration may not be necessary. 

Two studies were concerned with effectiveness of films 
as compared with other visual aids and oral instruction for 
inculcating desirable habits of diet and care of the teeth. 
Neither study (that by Hoefer and Keith, and that by Free- 
man and Hoefer) disclosed any superiority adhering to the 
use of the film. This fact may be explained by a considera- 
tion of the eminent possibility that pupils had relatively little 
control over the factors that were measured, i.e., diet, dental 
treatment, and the like. 

Ruff a (47) reported that a film especially prepared for 
specific purposes provided an excellent medium for teaching 
elements of track sports. 

From these few experiments the tentative conclusions mav 
be drawn that the demonstration method of instruction is 


superior to the film and other visual aids in teaching certain 
complex manipulatory skills required in some of the school 
subjects. As a method of teaching less complex skills of 
bodily position the film was found to be effective, but its 
value in comparison with objective demonstration of a 
similar nature was not determined. Conclusions regarding 
the effectiveness of the film in inciting "proper" health habits 
must be held in abeyance, largely because of the lack of 
control of pupils over those conditions which make such 
habits possible. It must be remembered, however, that these 
conclusions are based on the use of films now outmoded and 
that since these data were gathered, greatly improved films 
have been made available for teaching skills. 

(d) Development of relationships. Knowlton and Til- 
ton (31) found that historical photoplays tended to inter- 
fere with the development of a pupil sense of time relation- 
ships, and that groups who saw no films were superior to 
film groups on verbal tests designed to measure this relation- 
ship. On the other hand, the authors found the photoplays 
to be most effective in teaching a knowledge of interrela- 
tionships involving the interaction of events and forces. 

(e) Description, explanation, and the like. Wood and 
Freeman (59) interpreted the results of their essay-type 
"topical" tests as indicative of the value of the film in 
developing descriptive ability, as this ability was measured 
by the tests. On essay-type questions which are even more 
abstract than those involving description, namely, explana- 
tion and comparison, the authors note that the film and 
nonfilm groups were approximately equal. The Wood and 
Freeman investigation, however, was attended by many limi- 
tations. Woodburn (60) reported a small but positive gain 
through the use of films in teaching knowledge of relation- 
ships, size, and shape in ninth-grade general science. 


(f) "Thinking" and "eduction." Clark (5) measured 
the relative effectiveness of sound and silent pictures on the 
first-year college level in the development of "ability to 
think." He found, in so far as short essay tests measured 
this ability, that the two methods of film presentation were 
equally effective. 

Rulon (48) classified some of his test items under the 
general head of "eduction." By "eduction" items he meant 
those which called for more than a mere recall of facts. 
He was particularly interested in the types of mental activity 
involving perception of relationship or application of some 
general principle. In other words, his "eduction" items re- 
quired intelligent thinking from factual knowledge or general- 
izations. He found that, in so far as his tests measured 
"eduction," the film groups were superior to those which 
had studied only textbook material, and that these groups 
were relatively superior on "eduction" than on purely factual 

(g) Imagination. Consitt (7) reported, on the basis 
of pupil and teacher opinion, that the use of films in teaching 
history stimulated the imagination of children. "The chil- 
dren realize the past, gain more sympathetic insight into the 
lives and feelings of the men and women of the past, and 
get a fuller and clearer picture of the environment; thus, 
they can the better imaginatively reconstruct for themselves 
other scenes of the same period as those seen on the films" 
(p. 378). In support of this contention she reproduces 
scenarios written by girls who had viewed historical pictures 
in the experiments. She also cites reports of children's 
evaluations in which the children describe films as "clearer," 
giving "more details," and so on. 

While the experimental evidence is inconclusive, yet it is 
in agreement with common experience. However, purely 
verbal presentation and visual presentation by media other 


than the film may also be expected to stimulate the imagina- 

(h) Development of interest. Several investigations 
have been concerned with the effect of motion pictures on 
pupils' interests and activity in the classroom. There is 
evidence from these studies that the film stimulates pupils 
to great interest and activity in the subject of instruction 
and in classroom participation. 

Objective measures of some aspects of pupil interest de- 
veloped through motion-picture presentation have been re- 
ported by Clark (5), Freeman and Hoefer (14), Knowlton 
and Tilton (31), Westfall (57), and Dash (8). 

Knowlton and Tilton kept a record of the number of 
recitations, voluntary and directed, and of the amount of 
voluntary reading done by seventh-grade history pupils both 
in class and outside of class. These investigators found 
that the Yale Chronicles of America photoplays stimulated 
classroom participation in recitation and discussion, and also 
stimulated pupils to do voluntary reading in the classroom 
to a far greater extent than did the use of ordinary class- 
room methods. No increase in the amount of reading done 
outside of class was found in the film group, however. 

Freeman and Hoefer reported that in teaching, health 
films stimulated children to bring in more clippings, pictures, 
and the like, on the topics studied than did the unorganized 
use of other visual aids. On the other hand, there was no 
noticeable difference in the amount of voluntary reading 
outside of class as between the film and nonfilm groups. 

The apparent ineffectiveness of the film in stimulating a 
greater degree of reading outside of class may have been 
due to the lack of available reading material, the press of 
other classwork, or the unreliability and inadequacy of the 
pupil reports of this reading. Evidence secured from these 
two experiments indicates that films are effective in develop- 


ing classroom participation in discussion and recitation, in 
stimulating interest in other visual and popular reading 
material on the topic of the film, and in stimulating voluntary 
reading of materials on the film topics available in the class- 

Corroborating evidence on the values of the film in the 
development of interest and self-activity of pupils was se- 
cured by Consitt (7) and by Wood and Freeman (59). 
Their method was to summarize the judgments of teachers 
who used films in teaching geography, general science, Latin, 
and history. These judgments were obtained from teachers 
in widely differing geographical areas, on different subject 
matter of instruction, and under widely differing conditions 
of teaching. They were remarkably consistent and in agree- 
ment with the more objective measures secured by Knowlton 
and Tilton and Freeman and Hoefer. This general con- 
sistency indicates the reliability of teachers' subjective judg- 
ments of values of teaching methods observed over a 
considerable period of time, on a background of wide 
experience, and on close observation of a wide variety of 
pupil reactions. 

In the judgment of the teachers in the British inquiry 
conducted by Consitt, and in the elaborate experiment con- 
ducted by Wood and Freeman, the use of films as an integral 
part of classroom procedure arouses and maintains pupil 
interest and increases the amount of voluntary reading and 
class discussion. Unfortunately, neither of these studies 
inquired into the effectiveness of other visual aids in stimu- 
lating pupil interest and activity. The reports of the Wood 
and Freeman study were confined to the film teachers. It is 
entirely possible that had similar reports been secured from 
the nonfilm teachers who made wide use of other visual aids, 
similar values would have been reported. 

The use of visual aids furnishes the primitive experience 
necessary to meaningful generalization. The thrill of learn- 


ing and the awakening interest in the subject arise from the 
use of teaching methods which make meaningful learning a 
psychological consequence of instruction. 

The measurement of effectiveness of demonstration, 
sound films, and silent films in developing interest and sus- 
taining attention was attempted by Clark (5). For his 
investigation he used questionnaires to compare the effec- 
tiveness of these three methods of presenting science material 
on the first-year college level. Attention was measured by 
determining the number of students whose attention was 
distracted from the films or demonstration by the ringing 
of a bell. As far as the results of the questionnaires indi- 
cated, no one of the three methods was superior to the other 
two in developing and sustaining interest in the subject. In 
the presence of a distracting auditory stimulus the attention 
of fewer students was visually distracted at the sound film 
presentation, more at the silent film, and the greatest number 
in the case of the demonstration. The various combinations 
of sound and light intensity during these methods of presen- 
tation may account largely for the results. 

To summarize the data from the various investigations: 
there seems to be ample evidence that films are effective 
in developing and sustaining interest and activity on the part 
of the pupil in various school subjects on various grade levels. 

(i) Responses to elements of films. Despite all the 
experimentation in the use of films, little attention has been 
given to the elementary features of films which produce the 
responses observed in children. Moreover, there has been 
little study of the specific responses made to these elements. 
The suggestion has been advanced that the film element of 
"action" is the one important film factor which is not dupli- 
cated by other visual aids. While this may be true, the 
value of "action" in the abstract is neither conclusively 
proved nor specifically demonstrated. 


The most elaborate in fact the only objective analysis 
of pupil responses to elements of films was made by Terry 
(54). She analyzed the types of children's responses to the 
Yale Chronicles of America photoplays as recorded in the 
stenographic report of the class proceedings in the Knowlton 
and Tilton investigation (31). From this analysis Terry 
found that "adolescent children show a decided preference 
for historical personages" (p. 133). Sixty per cent of the 
children's responses in class were classified as responses to 
persons. Furthermore, she concluded that "inasmuch as 
there were many scenes in the photoplays depicting action, 
yet so large a percentage of the responses were about per- 
sons, it would seem that children are not able to discriminate 
between people, and people as a part of action" (p. 133). 

Contrary to the expectation of many optimistic edu- 
cators, Terry found little evidence of "incidental" learning. 
Only 25 of the 3,446 responses recorded by the observers 
were about manners. A slightly greater number, but a rela- 
tively small percentage of the total responses, were made to 
speech, dress, recreation, and customs as portrayed in the 
films. It is the theory of some more modern educators that 
as interest is aroused toward one goal, pupils will "inci- 
dentally" learn many of the outcomes set for instruction in 
the more traditional organization of pupil experience. The 
result of film instruction in American history, as predicted 
on the basis of "incidental" theory, would be a knowledge 
of the dress, manners, customs, and so forth, of the actors 
as well as the knowledge of those things toward which 
the interest of the pupils was originally aroused. 

Terry did find, however, a great degree of interest in 
details on the part of the children, "a knowledge of which 
would prove of value to them in their further study of his- 
tory" (p. 134). 

Despite the fact that commercial moving pictures have 
been found to affect the emotions of children to a surprising 


degree, Terry reported that "the primary appeal in pictures 
of the type described in the study seems intellectual rather 
than emotional as revealed by the larger number of responses 
to certain types." (p. 134). It is quite possible that the 
effect of the "mental set" engendered in the classroom is 
sufficient to offset emotional appeal of the didactic film, par- 
ticularly if that emotional appeal is not strongly developed 
in the film. 

Terry's classifications are not above reproach, in that they 
did not sharply differentiate reactions (if such differentiation 
is possible). Nevertheless, they indicate the great necessity 
of analytical study of the factors of motion-picture films 
to which children respond as an essential step in determining 
the values of the films. 

From the analysis of Terry, it may be concluded that 
pupils react to persons in historical photoplays more than 
to any other one element, including the abstract element of 
action. Apparently the thing in action is important to the 
child, i.e., the particularized action. 

(j) Responses on nonfilm items. A few experimenters 
differentiated the items of tests used to measure results of 
instruction into (1) the items whose answers were found 
directly or indirectly in the films and (2) the items whose 
answers were found in material other than the films. 

H. C. Davis (9), in analyzing the topical test results of 
the Wood and Freeman study (59), found that the groups 
to which films were shown tended to be superior on those 
items shown in the film, but that the groups to which other 
visual aids and the study material were available tended to 
be superior on those test items found in sources of informa- 
tion other than the film. 

In Rulon's experiment (48), especially written and il- 
lustrated textbooks were used in all experimental groups, and 
films especially constructed to correlate with the material of 
the textbook were presented three times on each unit to the 


film groups. His data show that groups to which the films 
were not shown scored 15 per cent higher on nonfilm items 
of the immediate tests than did the groups to which the 
films were shown. On the retention test, however, this 
difference was wiped out. 

Arnspiger (2) found that the gains of nonfilm groups 
tended to be slightly higher in three of the four natural sci- 
ence units on items not shown in the film, but that in all 
music units the film groups were slightly higher on these 

Results secured on experiments in which standardized 
tests were used Cockrum (6), Gatto (17), Knowlton and 
Tilton (31), and Mount (41) showed no significant differ- 
ence between groups using films in instruction and those using 
other methods including demonstrations, experiments, supple- 
mentary reading, and so on. Standard tests are not built to 
measure particular material covered in a film. The results 
from the four experiments mentioned above, therefore, indi- 
cate that the mere use of certain films is no guarantee of 
increase in all types of learning, or of increase in learning in 
all areas of subject illustrated by a film. Furthermore, these 
results, and those secured by Davis, Rulon, and Arnspiger, 
indicate that when the learning activities of the control 
groups are measured to even a slight extent, the control 
groups are superior to somewhat the same extent in the 
mental activity in which they engaged and that the experi- 
mental groups are superior in the particular activity in which 
they engaged. These trends are indicated only in so far as 
the tests actually measure the results of all types of instruc- 
tion and the objectives of these types of instruction. 

There is evidence, however, to indicate that on retention 
of information not directly illustrated by the films but closely 
related to the film material, groups to whom the films are 
shown retain approximately the same amount of this mate- 


rial as do the non-film groups, even though the latter are 
superior on this material when measured at the end of the 
instructional period. 

(2) Elimination of wrong responses. The conven- 
tional method of measuring effectiveness of any method of 
instruction is to record the number of correct responses on 
tests designed to measure certain functions. In this way, 
the effectiveness of any particular method can be determined 
in relation to the amount of specified information, thinking, 
explanation, and so on, which the pupil possesses, subject, 
of course, to the limiting factors of the experimental pro- 
cedure and measures of results. Such a procedure, however, 
provides no measure of wrong learning. It is of equal im- 
portance in the evaluation of any instructional method to 
determine the extent to which this method tends to eliminate 
wrong learning as it is to determine the extent to which it 
facilitates right learning. In only one investigation of the 
values of motion pictures in education was this aspect of 
measurement recognized and analyzed. 

H. C. Davis (9) set about the task of analyzing the 
topical essay-test scores secured by Wood and Freeman 
(59). She found that the value of the film in eliminating 
wrong and irrelevant statements varied with the units of 
instruction and the types of questions. While in a large 
number of questions there was no significant difference be- 
tween children to whom films were shown and children to 
whom they were not shown, on some questions there was a 
significant difference. On these latter questions in geography 
units, the percentage of children making wrong or irrelevant 
responses was lower in the film group, and in the general 
science units the percentage of the film group who omitted 
answers was less than that of the nonfilm group. In terms of 
fewer wrong responses the film group was superior on ques- 
tions calling for description. 


From Davis's analysis one value of the film may be said 
to lie in its function of reducing the tendency on the part of 
pupils to make inaccurate statements and to include unneces- 
sary remarks. It cannot, however, be said that the film is 
more valuable in this function than are other methods of 
instruction. In one subject one method of instruction appears 
to be better, and in another subject the other. The value of 
the film, then, in eliminating the tendency toward wrong 
learning and unorganized thinking varies with the type of 
response measured and with the subject matter of instruction. 

(3) Effectiveness of films with "dull" and "bright" 
pupils. The effectiveness of motion picture films with "dull" 
and "bright" children has been studied by Arnspiger (2), 
Consitt (7), Davis (9), Knowlton and Tilton (31), Mason 
(38), Mock (40), Terry (54), Westfall (57), Wolfe (58). 
These investigations were carried on in several different sub- 
jects, and the effectiveness of the film was compared with 
that of several different methods. 

There is agreement of opinion (Consitt, Knowlton and 
Tilton, Mock, and Wolfe) that films are relatively more 
effective for "dull" than for "bright" children when effec- 
tiveness is measured by verbal tests of factual information. 
On the other hand, Arnspiger's data indicate that the effec- 
tiveness of films with "dull" and "bright" children varies 
with the subject matter of the films, and that in neither of 
the two school subjects studied in his investigation was the 
difference statistically significant. A statistically significant 
difference on test scores for "dull" and "bright" pupils 
would not necessarily be expected, since the method of in- 
struction is identical, and the range of intelligence relatively 

Davis, in analyzing the responses of children on topical 
tests of the Wood and Freeman investigation (59), found 
that films were equally effective for "dull" and "bright" 


pupils. These tests, however, were designed to measure gen- 
eralizations and not specific information as were those used 
in other investigations. 

Terry analyzed children's responses to historical photo- 
plays and found that "dull" children respond as readily to 
films as do "bright" children, but they do not see as many 
details in a film as do the "bright" children. 

Westfall reported that "dull" children benefit more from 
oral accompaniment to films than do they from the presenta- 
tion of films with printed captions or without any verbal 
accompaniment whatsoever. 

Mason (38) reported that two showings of the same 
film were more effective with "dull" than with "bright" chil- 
dren. This study indicates the need for different methods 
of using films with different types of pupils. 

In summary, the effectiveness of films with children of 
different levels of "intelligence" must be expected to vary 
with the subject taught and with the learning outcomes 
measured. Where effectiveness is considered in terms of 
verbal responses on factual information, films seem to be 
relatively more effective for "dull" than for "bright" chil- 
dren, depending on the subject of instruction and the method 
of presentation. Where effectiveness is considered in terms 
of ability to make verbal generalizations, films do not seem 
to be more effective for "dull" than for "bright" pupils. 
Where effectiveness is considered in terms of number of dis- 
criminations, the films are more effective for "bright" pupils, 
because "bright" pupils tend to make more discriminations 
than do "dull" pupils. 

(4) Effectiveness of films on various grade levels. The 
effectiveness of the film with respect to various grade levels 
was investigated directly by Consitt (7) and R. L. Davis 
(10), and indirectly by Mead (39). Many investigations 
have been made of the values of the film in different school 


grades, but these three experimenters are the only ones who 
have given direct attention to the problem as such. 

Consitt and Davis found that below the third grade in 
school, the use of films was less effective than on grade levels 
above the third. Both agree that there is a general increase 
in effectiveness of the film from the ninth year upward, but 
Davis concluded that this increase is not uniform. No evi- 
dence has been furnished to indicate the rate of increase or 
the point at which effectiveness ceases to increase, if at all. 
Consitt noted that the length of the film should be short on 
the lower grade levels. 

Mead remarked an increase of effectiveness of all methods 
of instruction used in his investigation, including nonvisual, 
film alone, and film accompanied by verbal discussion, from 
the third to the sixth grade, but did not note any particular 
increase for any of the three methods of instruction. 

Despite the importance of the problem of effectiveness of 
films for various age and grade levels, there are few reliable 
data available. Consitt's conclusions were arrived at on the 
basis of a few teachers' judgments from a few observations; 
Davis' data were secured from one four-minute presentation 
of a single film; and Mead's interpretation is based on un- 
equivalent material and tests. 

An increase in pupil reaction to a film would be expected 
as the age and grade level of pupils increase. The extent 
of the increase, the curve of the increase, and the optimum 
point of effectiveness remain to be investigated. The limita- 
tions of pupil reaction to films below the third grade may 
be due, not to the films or to the grade level of the children, 
but to the type of measures used and the type of outcome 
expected. Psychologically, the reaction of a seven-year-old 
child and a twelve-year-old child to the same film may be, 
and probably is, very different in kind, but each child reacts 
in some way or another to the film. The problem, then, is 


to determine in what way the movie is effective on various 
levels of mental maturity. 

(5) The film and economy of time in instruction. Gibbs 
(18) and Rogers (45) investigated the value of the film as 
an economical method of instruction. Their measures were 
in terms of amount of factual information learned per 
minute of instruction. Several different methods of study in 
which the film and verbal methods of instruction were used 
in varying amounts were compared in these investigations. 

While there is agreement between Gibbs and Rogers that 
the film is an economical method of teaching, the limitations 
of the reliability of their tests, the limitations of the tech- 
niques of experimentation, and the narrowness of the concept 
of "learning" make their data inadequate and their conclu- 
sions unsound. The problem of economy is how well pupils 
learn to make certain desirable mental reactions in terms of 
the amount of time spent in instruction. The time element 
will be conditioned by many factors, such as the mental 
ability of the pupil, the difficulty of the material, the previous 
experience of the pupil, and so on. These factors have been 
completely ignored by both Gibbs and Rogers. 

(6) Effectiveness of verbal commentary on film presen- 
tation. The effectiveness of verbal commentary on film 
presentation has been investigated by a large number of 
experimenters from several points of view. In practically 
all studies, however, the measurement has been in terms of 
verbal responses of pupils on objective tests of factual in- 
formation. The data from these investigations, consequently, 
are applicable only to those types of learning which were 
measured on the verbal level by these tests. Such outcomes 
as vividness of imagery, variety of visual detail, and so on, 
were ignored by the experimenters. 

There is general agreement among the results of investi- 
gations by Einbecker (13), Mead (39), McClusky (34), 


R D. and H. Y. McClusky (35), Weber (56), and Westfall 
(57) that oral commentary on a film is more effective than 
presentation of a film without oral commentary or with 
written titles. Einbecker and McClusky agree that verbal 
accompaniment is better than purely film presentation. Hollis 
(25) found evidence that the film followed by verbal dis- 
cussion was more effective than the presentation of the film 
following the discussion. Consitt (7) reported agreement 
with this conclusion. 

There is an inconsistency of results in experiments in 
which the sound and silent film were compared. Einbecker's 
data indicated that the silent picture accompanied by teacher's 
comments was superior to talking pictures in the learning of 
new technical words or unfamiliar words, but that both were 
equally effective in other respects as measured by factual 
information. Westfall, on the other hand, interpreted his 
results as indicating that a mechanically produced lecture was 
significantly superior to any of the other forms of verbal 
accompaniment used in his experiment. Both investigations, 
however, are attended by rather important limitations. 

Clark (5) found that silent and sound films were equally 
effective as instructional methods when results were measured 
in terms of factual information. Sumstine (53), on the 
other hand, found that verbal accompaniment was positively 
detrimental in film instruction. Both these investigations, 
particularly the latter, are considerably handicapped by limi- 
tations of technique of measurement. Hansen (21) reported 
no reliable difference between teacher and film commentary, 
when the verbalization was identical. 

When sound films were compared with demonstrations, 
Clark found neither of his two methods significantly superior, 
although the demonstration was slightly superior as measured 
by tests of factual information. On the other hand, Eads 
and Stover (12) found a sound film superior to a demon- 


stration in teaching techniques of diagnosis and remedial 
treatment in arithmetic to teachers on the college level. 

From the data available on the problem of verbal com- 
mentary on film presentation it may be concluded (a) that 
some verbal accompaniment is necessary to films when learn- 
ing is measured by verbal tests of factual information, (b) 
the superiority of sound films or silent films accompanied 
by teacher comment depends on the type of material and the 
type of comment, (c) verbal discussion after film presentation 
is more effective than film presentation after verbal discus- 
sion, and (d) oral comment is superior to written comment 
because the former eliminates the factor of pupil reading 

(7) Frequency and distribution of projection. The 
problem of frequency and distribution of film projection has 
not been investigated as such in the experiments reported 
on the effectiveness of the film. Poland (43) touched upon 
the problem, but did not probe deeply. Rulon (48) made 
a short preliminary investigation to determine the number 
of projections of film material pupils considered optimum, 
and on the basis of pupil opinion selected three projections 
as a method in his experiment on values of sound films in 
general science teaching. McClusky (34) made several 
comparisons of frequency of film projection, but the basis of 
comparison was the use of some other visual aid. Wood and 
Freeman (59) arbitrarily selected the method of presenting 
the whole film first and the various reels later in those parts 
of the unit which they illustrated. Eads and Stover (12) 
compared the effectiveness of one and two projections of 
films, but not in relation to other classroom procedures. 
Dash (8) varied the number of projections but obtained no 
significant data for general usage. 

Eads and Stover found that students who saw a film twice 
made higher scores on a test of factual information than did 
students who only saw it once. 


No conclusions on the problem of frequency and distri- 
bution of projection are justified on the basis of experimental 
data reported so far. 

(8) Auditorium and classroom projection of films. 
The problem of use of films in relation to the size of the 
instructional group was investigated by Knowlton and Tilton 
(30). In this investigation, average-sized class groups were 
shown historical photoplays in the classroom in addition to 
the regular verbal instruction, and groups of over two hun- 
dred pupils were shown the same films in the school audi- 
torium. In the auditorium instruction other visual aids were 
generally used to fill in the class period before or after the 
film presentation. It was found that the results on factual 
tests were consistently higher for the groups who had seen 
the films in the classroom. 

This result follows from the fact that pupils, like adults, 
react to total situations, and that the situation in the audi- 
torium is entirely different from that of the classroom. A 
school auditorium is generally used for assemblies, entertain- 
ments, and the like, and as such produces a different "mental 
set" in the pupils than does the classroom, which is the normal 
situation for instruction. 

Stoddard (52) compared auditorium film use with class- 
room nonfilm use, but since a duality of factors was involved 
his conclusions do not pertain to the problem of auditorium 
versus classroom projection. 


This section is devoted to suggestions on the use of 
motion pictures and related visual aids in the classroom, as 
gleaned from the results of the various investigations. 

It is not the purpose here to present a Talmud, a Koran, 
or a Bible of authoritative doctrines which must be followed 


by the orthodox teacher, the conservative administrator, or 
the aspiring research worker. The discussion is purely 

Educational Use of Visual Aids. The suggestions here- 
with presented apply in the main to the use of the motion 
picture, but are also extended in application to the use of 
other visual aids closely allied to the motion picture. In some 
situations the motion picture has no inherent advantage over 
other visual aids, such as the demonstration, the slide, and 
the like. The discussion, therefore, is extended to the motion 
picture and related aids. 

Suggestions pertaining to the use of visual aids in school 
situations are presented under four aspects: (a) the place of 
visual aids in instruction, (b) the amount of visual instruc- 
tion, (c) the type of visual aid, and (d) the technique of use 
of visual aids. Various factors which should determine these 
various aspects of instruction are presented in this discussion. 

As these aspects are inseparably related to one another, 
so it will be found that the application of the suggestions 
in regard to any one aspect is contingent upon conditions 
in relation to the other aspects. For instance, in the dis- 
cussion of the amount of visual instruction, this aspect cannot 
be isolated and abstracted from all other aspects; rather, the 
amount of visual instruction is related to the place of visual 
education in instruction, to the type of visual instruction, and 
to the technique of the use of visual aids. Similarly, this 
interrelation of aspects involves a fundamental functional 
unity of conditioning psychological factors, i. e., the same 
conditioning psychological factors are basic to all four aspects. 
Consequently, the procedure suggested in any one of these 
aspects is not only a function of the other three, but of the 
same psychological factors operative in all four. 

(a) The place of visual aids in instruction. The place 
of visual aids in instruction is a function of (1) the educa- 


tional outcomes which are set for instruction, and (2) the 
mental development of the children in relation to the par- 
ticular subject matter of instruction. If, in a given unit of 
learning, the outcome of instruction is to be improved facility 
in language expression, in reading ability, in study habits, 
and the like, the use of visual aids, if used at all, must be 
subordinate to verbal instruction. If, on the other hand, the 
outcome of the unit is to be richer experience, more vivid 
imagery, or more detailed concrete knowledge, visual aids 
become increasingly important. Still again, if the outcome 
of instruction is ability to form meaningful generalizations, 
a combination of visual aids, verbal instruction, and teaching 
of generalization should be used. The mere use of visual 
aids without verbal instruction and without tuition in gen- 
eralization is no guarantee that meaningful generalization will 
result from instruction. 

In the determination of the place of visual aids in the 
curriculum, the important consideration is not the visual aid. 
The center of importance is the child the changes to be 
made in him toward set outcomes. The value of the visual 
aid (motion picture or otherwise) is relative to the change 
in the child in the direction of the desired outcome. 

The question is not this visual aid or none, or this visual 
aid or that visual aid. The real question which confronts 
the teacher is : How can I bring about the desired change in 
the child? Visual aids, like verbal instruction, are means 
toward the larger end. 

The determination of the place of visual aids in instruc- 
tion, then, is a function of the desired outcome of instruction 
in relation to the present mental development of the child. 

(b) The amount of visual instruction. The extent to 
which visual aids must be used is a function of (1) the 
intellectual level of the pupil, (2) his previous experience in 
the subject, and (3) the difficulty of the learning material. 


The difference in ability to discriminate psychological objects, 
the difference in rate of generalization, and the difference in 
habits of concrete and abstract mental activity between the 
"dull" and the "bright" pupil determine the extent to which 
visual aids should be used with these pupils. Apparently 
"bright" pupils do not require the same amount of visual 
experience as do "dull" children for either elementary dis- 
crimination or abstract generalization. It is a mistake to 
believe, however, that visual aids are harmful to "bright" 
pupils. This misconception arises from the failure to con- 
sider all the possible types of value to be derived. "Dull" 
pupils get one thing; "bright" pupils get another from the 
same film. Visual experience does not always result in 
meaningful abstraction on the part of the "bright" pupil to 
the extent that the presentation of more abstract study 
material does. On the other hand, "bright" pupils seem to 
observe more material in visual aids than do "dull" children. 
Consequently, visual aids must be used more often with the 
"dull" child than with the "bright" child. 

A second condition of the amount of visual instruction, 
in addition to the intellectual level of the pupil, is the extent 
and adequacy of previous experience. Thus, pupils in cer- 
tain sections of certain Southern states will not require the 
same amount of visual instruction in the economic geography 
of cotton culture as will pupils in other sections of the 
country in which cotton is not raised. 

Finally, amount of visual instruction is determined by the 
complexity of the learning material. The relative amount of 
visual experience necessary to the various desirable outcomes 
of instruction will increase, in proportion to the complexity 
of material, from the relatively simple to the relatively 

(c) The type of visual aid. The type of visual aid the 
school journey, the object or model, the stereograph, the film, 


the slide, the flat picture, the map, the chart, or the like to 
be used will be determined by (1) the previous experience 
of the pupil, (2) the type of learning outcome, and (3) the 
type of material being studied. 

If the purpose of instruction is to reconstruct the past, 
to show the interaction of persons, processes, or events, and 
to do these things in detail, the film is an excellent medium 
of instruction. The value of any particular film or films is 
determined by the amount of previous experience of the 
pupil with this type of activity. If, on the other hand, a 
knowledge of objects, particular settings, or particular 
things, is the desired outcome of instruction, the presentation 
of the object itself, or of various types of reproductions of 
the object will be equally effective if not superior to the film. 
The advantage of flexibility of instruction inheres in a 
method which can be adapted in time and amount of instruc- 
tion in relation to the particular needs of the pupils and the 
particular outcomes of instruction. If, finally, the object of 
instruction is to teach how to do a certain act, the actual 
demonstration of how to do the act is probably superior to 
a film or other visual aids. 

(d) Technique of use of visual aids. The particular 
way in which visual aids are to be used, whether they should 
be presented with or without verbal accompaniment, whether 
they should be presented before or after verbal instruction, 
and how rapid and rhythmical the sequence should be, is a 
function of (1) the previous experience of the pupils, (2) 
the objective of instruction, and (3) the difficulty of the 
material of instruction. 

If, for instance, pupils have had relatively little previous 
experience in a certain subject, and the objective of instruc- 
tion is vivid visual imagery, a short introductory talk on the 
relation of the visual material to the subject and a few re- 
marks on the direction of observation toward certain parts 


of the visual material may be sufficient. If, however, the abil- 
ity to generalize and to relate this material to other material 
is the desired outcome, verbal discussion following the pres- 
entation is advantageous. The rapidity with which the visual 
aids should be presented and the rhythm of their presentation 
are largely functions of the difficulty of the material of in- 

No hard and fast rules may be laid down on the matter 
of verbal accompaniment or when it should be used. Verbal 
experience is a prerequisite to verbal learning. Its use is a 
function of the particular mental reaction desired. 


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10:135-7. May 1931. 

56. Weber, Joseph J. Comparative Effectiveness of Some 

Visual Aids in Seventh Grade Instruction. Educa- 
tional Screen, Inc. Chicago. 1922. 132 p. 

57. Westfall, Leon H. "A Study of Verbal Accompani- 

ments to Educational Motion Pictures." Contribu- 
tions to Education, No. 617. Bureau of Publications, 
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. 

58. Wolfe, Harold G. "An Experimental Evaluation of the 

Motion Picture as an Aid in Classroom Teaching." 
Unpublished M. A. thesis, University of Rochester. 

59. Wood, Ben D. and Freeman, Frank N. Motion Pictures 

in the Classroom. Houghton MifHin Company. New 
York. 1929. 392 p. 

60. Woodburn, Lester O. "An Experimental Study of the 

Effectiveness of Silent Motion Pictures in Ninth 
Grade General Science." Unpublished M. A. thesis, 
University of Cincinnati. 1936. 

61. Young, A. L. "Teaching with Motion Pictures." 

Peabody Journal of Education. 3 :321-6. May 1926. 







The need for preparation of teachers in the utilization 
of visual aids is commonly recognized in administrative pro- 
grams * and has been voiced in public addresses and published 
articles for at least fifteen years. Such statements are found 
as the following: 

"We cannot hope to achieve the results that are predicted through 
the use of visual materials without training teachers in this new tech- 

"The director of visual education, in cooperation with specialists 
throughout the school system must provide for the training of teachers 
in service. There are definite techniques for the use of visual aids, and 
teachers should be specially trained in those techniques." 

"The visual-aids department should train teachers in proper methods 
of using aids and equipment. Provide means whereby teachers may 
learn methods of visual presentation before the equipment is purchased." 

These statements may be interpreted as suggesting as 
means to be employed both pre-service and in-service training, 
college courses, in residence or extension, and supervisory 
activities of general supervisors or directors of visual 

This compilation is concerned particularly with institu- 
tional provision through college offerings to be used by 
teachers either before or during actual employment. For a 
bibliography dealing with the in-service education afforded 
through supervisors within the school system, the digests on 
administration of visual aids should be consulted. 

A survey 2 in 1922 revealed a beginning of definite pro- 
vision both for pre-service and in-service training of teach- 

1 See articles by Strayer, Gregory, Reitze, Whittinghill, Sigman, Worrell, and 
Brunstetter in the section on Administration. 

2 Dorris, Anna V. "Training of Teachers in Visual Instruction." 


ers. Half a dozen normal schools were offering courses in 
visual instruction, of which four were in the regular session 
and two in summer. Some schools not offering courses 
reported use of visual aids in the teaching of science and 
geography. In at least one city system, provision was being 
made for training teachers in service. 

Practically ever since the publication of this survey, a 
campaign of promotion has been carried on in more or less 
organized fashion by administrators and teachers impressed 
with the need of teacher preparation in the visual field. Re- 
sults are noticeable if not noteworthy. In the summer of 
1937, eighty-six such courses were reported 3 from eighty 
institutions, mainly state universities and teachers' colleges. 
Two states have made preparation in this field mandatory for 
teachers, Pennsylvania by requiring it for certification, and 
New Jersey by making it a requirement in the four-year 
teachers' college courses. 

In view of the widespread and increasing interest today 
in the educational use of visual materials and the expression 
of this interest as notably illustrated in Pennsylvania's and 
New Jersey's recent provisions for the preparation of teach- 
ers in this field, it has become extremely important to con- 
sider what the nature and content of the preparation should 
be. Diverse opinions are held by leaders in the field, both as 
to the desirable inclusion and the curriculum organization of 
the offerings to be made. 

The most conspicuous question of organization is whether 
a specific course, or courses, in visual education, sometimes 
called a core course, should be offered, 4 or whether the field 
should receive attention through exploitation of the visual 
aspects and materials of all college courses. 5 The field is 
somewhat analogous to English. Indeed, in a recent con- 

8 "Summer Courses in Visual Instruction." Educational Screen. May 1937. 

4 Merton, McClusky, Yeager. 

B Freeman, McClusky (Finding the Facts), Anderson, Gregory. 


f erence 6 on Teacher Training in Visual Instruction, one par- 
ticipant stated that visual materials constitute a new language 
of communication, the use of which is comparably important 
to the use of the spoken or printed word. It is a common 
position of English instructors that they alone are unable 
to give all the teaching needed in that field and that every 
teacher, of whatever subject, has a part to play in developing 
his students' control of the mother tongue through their 
practice in employing it effectively to the ends appropriate 
in his course. 

Common positions with respect to visual education are 
of three types : ( 1 ) It is an essential part of practically every 
field -of education, and the best possible preparation of teach- 
ers to make use of visual materials is to observe and use 
them in their functional relationships in each course. (2) 
Special courses are necessary in order to effect the necessary 
learnings involved in the full scope of visual education. 
(3) A combination or compromise between the two posi- 
tions is the best solution. 

Arguments are advanced both for and against the "core" 
course 7 or special department provision for visual education. 
It is claimed in support of special provision that what is 
everybody's business is nobody's business. The opposing 
argument is twofold : ( 1 ) the scope of visual education is 
too broad for any one person's or department's grasp; and 
(2) the most effective educational procedure ties materials 
and technique to content. 

The scope contemplated by leading representatives in 
the field of visual instruction is indeed extensive, including 
orientation both historically and philosophically; acquaint- 
ance with all types of visual aids, from the excursion to the 
sound motion picture, both as to their use and their produc- 
tion through photography, scenario writing, slide making, 

See footnote 11. 

7 See footnotes 4 and 5, above. 


and the like; knowledge of sources of both free and com- 
mercial materials; criteria for .selection; technical and me- 
chanical problems in the use, care, and repair of apparatus 
and equipment; methods of use in various school fields and 
on the several educational levels, including psychology and 
techniques; application of the theatrical motion picture to 
education; and problems of supervision and administration. 

The tendency in some teachers' colleges to minimize 
emphasis on methods of teaching to the extent of offering 
no separate courses in methods is an illustration of the 
extreme application of the second argument against special 
courses in visual education, since the field is probably best 
interpreted as a method of teaching, rather than as a self- 
contained body of content. 

An answer to the question of the appropriate organiza- 
tion of teacher training in this field can be reached only 
through consideration of the objectives and functions to be 
served by visual materials, and of the knowledges, under- 
standings, skills, attitudes, and appreciations with respect to 
usual materials which are needed by teachers and principals. 
Such a study is yet to be made. 

An illustration of a compromise, or compromise position, 
which utilizes every department of the college and provides 
in addition a special spear-head course is to be found in the 
recently developed curriculum for New Jersey's four-year 
teachers' colleges. A course in visual education is here 
offered in the third year, with the purpose of organizing, 
supplementing, and systematizing the more incidental learn- 
ings with respect to visual materials which are designed to 
characterize the course offerings in any subject wherein they 
are pertinent throughout the college course. Thus courses 
in geography presumably will make use of maps, excursions, 
slides, still pictures, models, films, or other materials con- 
tributing to the acquisition of desired geographical learnings, 


and will arouse the awareness of the prospective teacher to 
the contributions of such resources in this field of study; 
courses in English will utilize motion-picture presentations 
of Shakespeare's plays or Dickens' novels and develop dis- 
crimination and appreciation of the art of the cinema; 
courses in the physical sciences may study the mechanics of 
projection or photography; courses in psychology may con- 
sider visual stimuli and their effect on attention, or the 
place of objective and concrete experience in the development 
of ideas. 

It will be the province of the visual-education course in 
this total program to draw upon all these preceding learnings, 
synthesize them, and organize them with such supplementary 
content as is necessary, so as to point toward the application 
and use of visual materials in pursuing the general and 
special objectives of the several fields of teaching or admin- 
istration which lie before the students. Whatever the ulti- 
mate decision on this question of organization (if a single 
answer should indeed be reached in every case), it seems 
probable that the whole problem of teacher preparation may 
need to be attacked in two stages or along two parallel lines. 
There possibly should be in most situations both short-time 
and long-time programs, the former including elementary 
acquaintance with the simpler materials and techniques, the 
latter involving a large approach to the whole purpose. 
Manuals, similarly, may be of two types. 

A means of instruction for teachers generally recognized 
as of paramount value, is demonstration, involving both the 
mechanical and instructional aspects of the utilization of 
visual materials. Courses in visual education which use the 
laboratory method should include not only the handling and 
preparation of materials, but also demonstrations whereby 
students may observe how visual aids are used in teaching 
and to what advantage. 


Another important factor upon which the question of 
training teachers is based, is the need for cooperative work. 
Such cooperation is needed among members of the faculty 
of an institution of higher learning, and between the institu- 
tion and teachers or school systems in the field. 

The greatest need, however, with respect to in-service 
training of teachers is for efficient supervision. This need 
has been well summarized by Brunstetter. 8 

Supervision is probably the most important means of insuring the 
development of film-teaching skill. The initial basic training serves to 
give teachers a background of knowledge and understanding of the film 
medium, but supervision guides them as they grow in the ability to 
utilize the film in the classroom. Intelligent, sympathetic criticisms and 
suggestions, given by supervisors who have a keen appreciation of the 
part which audio-visual materials of instruction may play in the attain- 
ment of objectives and in the mastery of subject matter, will stimulate 
teachers to creative use of all the devices at their command. On the 
other hand, a supervisor who is either uninterested or unaware of the 
possibilities inherent in the working tools of the classroom may eventu- 
ally dampen any enthusiasm which the teacher might generate. 

One of the activities of the Committee on Motion Pic- 
tures in Education of the American Council on Education 
has been the initiation of several conferences on teacher 
training in visual education. The proceedings of the con- 
ferences held at Milwaukee and Teachers College, Columbia 
University, N.Y. respectively are now available in mimeo- 
graphed form from the American Council on Education, 
744 Jackson Place, Washington, B.C. 9 " 10 All the problems 
of teacher preparation in visual education were discussed 
at these meetings by persons concerned with teacher training 
in this field. 

8 Bminstetter, M. R. How to Use the Educational Sound Film. University 
of Chicago Press. 1937. 

"A Conference on Teacher Training in Visual Instruction." Report of 

conference sponsored jointly by the University of Wisconsin and the American 

Council on Education. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. November 5, 1936. Edgar Dale, 

ro "Teacher Training in Modern Teaching Aids." Report of conference 
sponsored jointly by Fannie W. Dunn, Teachers College, Columbia University and 
the American Council on Education. Held at Teachers College, N.Y., January 18, 
1937. Charles F. Hoban, Jr., chairman. 


The compilation that follows has been organized into 
sections representing different aspects of the problem of 
teacher guidance in visual instruction. In making these 
divisions, however, the editors found that some discussions 
covered more than one phase of the topic. Such articles 
have been cross-referenced wherever possible. 

Some basic questions in the minds of administrators and 
leaders in institutions for the preparation of teachers have 
been the following: 

1. What is the need for teacher preparation in visual edu- 
cation ? Why, in other words, is this preparation so important ? 

2. What have been the trends in teacher preparation for 
the use of visual aids? Who has made important contributions 
in this field? 

3. How can teachers in service be trained or guided in the 
use of visual aids ? 

4. What scope of instruction is desirable in the use of visual 
aids? Or, as one author expressed it, what should a course in 
visual instruction include? 

5. What responsibility have educators in developing an 
appreciation of theatrical motion pictures? 

6. Should courses in visual education be separate, or should 
guidance be offered in special methods courses ? 

7. What is being taught in courses in visual education? 

These questions have been answered by several eminent 
educators, some of them pioneer leaders in the visual- 
education movement. It must be remembered, however, that 
we were limited in our quotation of opinion to such contri- 
butions as have appeared in print. It is very likely that 
important analyses have been omitted from this compilation, 
owing to the fact that they are not accessible in published 

In some instances, it seemed desirable to review materials 
published some time ago. These have been included for 
purposes of comparison with more recent findings and to 
show to what extent the early proposals for the preparation 
of teachers have been carried out. Since the large-scale 


movement for teacher training in visual education is only 
now beginning, the suggestions of pioneer thinkers may still 
be of value. 


One of the first requirements of administrators and 
teachers after they have been impressed with the need for 
using visual-sensory aids in the classroom is some form of 
guidance in handling and correlating these aids. Dorris, in 
her book, Visual Instruction in the Public Schools, considers 
the problem at length. A digest of her discussion will serve 
to introduce the subject. 

Dorris, Anna V. "The Need of Teacher-Training in Visual 
Instruction." In Visual Instruction in the Public Schools. 
Ginn and Company. Boston. 1928. Chapter 8, p. 369-81. 

Four fundamental problems briefly treated in this chapter 
on the training of teachers are as follows : Why should capable 
teachers need special training in visual instruction? Who should 
be trained in the technique of visual instruction in the public 
schools? How should teachers be trained in this new field? 
What should be the content of this training? 

Visual instruction, as interpreted today, is a comparatively 
recent problem in education and involves the use and care of 
new, and more or less complex, materials and apparatus. The 
majority of teachers are still trained to use textbooks and sub- 
ject matter as such in the teaching of, say, geography or history, 
rather than tools such as objective materials and projection 

It is essential, therefore, that teachers be given an opportunity 
to acquaint themselves with these new methods. Opportuni- 
ties should be provided within each school system, since it is 
often impossible for teachers to undertake university extension 
courses while actually engaged in teaching. 

Another urgent need is the supervision of procedures already 
in practice. Many schools throughout the country are equipped 
with visual equipment, but it is used in a haphazard fashion 
and with little knowledge of any definite technique. The finest 
tool is worthless if placed in unskilled hands. 


In order that visual instruction may function educationally it 
is all but essential that principals and supervisors be trained as 
well as teachers, particularly in the proper techniques for using 
visual materials. When such training is required of all primary 
and secondary supervisors in both city and rural schools, greater 
efficiency will result in every department. If more adminis- 
trators had a clear conception of the educational need for visual 
materials and their many uses, the training of the classroom 
teacher would naturally follow and her task would be much 
simplified. Administrators are greatly concerned over the choice 
of textbooks and their influence in the classroom; but though 
slides and motion pictures may be capable of wielding a far 
greater influence over the minds of young children than texts, 
their choice, both as to quality and subject matter, is often left 
in unskilled hands and even to laymen who do not understand 
public-school needs. 

The training of the classroom teacher involves more inten- 
sive study than that of any other school person. Since she 
actually handles the material and works with the children, she 
must master the correct techniques. Her training, further, 
must be more than theory to her; it must be actual practice 
day after day. As teachers are usually overworked, it is sug- 
gested that extra training be made simple and interesting and 
that all possible cooperation be given the teacher during her 

Various plans have been used successfully. General instruc- 
tional classes, for instance, may be held by the educational head 
of a visual-instruction department. Such classes may meet 
weekly for five or six weeks with attendance optional on the 
part of teachers. Instruction should be given by means of 
lectures and demonstration lessons in the use of visual materials. 
According to another plan, general training for rural schools 
may be given through conferences with rural supervisors and 
through annual institute lectures and section work. Such sessions 
may stimulate teachers to take more comprehensive work dur- 
ing summer sessions at teachers' colleges and universities. Or 
courses may be had at teacher-training institutions. In such 
courses visual instruction is sometimes classed with vocational 
guidance, character development, or educational tests and 
measurement, as a new method in educational procedure. 


From studies made of the extent to which visual instruction 
was taught in 1924 and in 1927-28, it is concluded that there 
is need for two types of training one for students preparing for 
the teaching profession ; the other to meet the needs of teachers 
already in service. 

The way in which San Francisco State Teachers College 
handled the situation is interesting. This college offered a full- 
credit visual-instruction course for teachers to encourage and 
aid schools in securing equipment for a wider and more sys- 
tematic use of visual instruction. The course presented good 
practical methods of using visual materials. Other courses were 
offered after school and on Saturday mornings. One of these 
consisted of lectures, demonstrations of all visual materials, 
reports of progress on individual problems, and laboratory 
work. Topics discussed in the lectures included the need for 
improving and enriching classroom work, fundamental reasons 
underlying the uses of visual instruction, practical pedagogical 
methods of procedure in the classroom, special uses and sources 
of supply, care and use of apparatus, how to start a distributing 
center, how to equip schools for visual instruction, and ways 
and means of earning money for equipment. The demonstration 
consisted of typical lessons, presented either by the instructor 
or by members of the group. This feature was probably the 
most helpful part of the course, as it showed concretely what 
the members were actually accomplishing in their regular class- 
room work under the influence of the instruction. 

Another type of course offered by the State Teachers College 
was the field course. Upon request, the instructor visited 
principals and individual teachers in their schools and endeavored 
to give them concrete help in solving the problems that arose 
daily in visual instruction. Twenty-one different schools were 
visited at least a few times. By the end of the year, twelve 
of the twenty-one were fairly well equipped to carry on visual- 
instruction work and three had started school libraries of visual 
materials. Every teacher, by the time she had finished the 
course, had accumulated her own collection of well-mounted 
pictures, exhibits, charts, and graphs to use in enriching her 
own classroom teaching. The improvement in the atmosphere 
of the schoolrooms was remarkable. 

An advanced course was then offered for those who wished 
to proceed further. Courses, using the same instructor, were 


eventually offered at the University of California in Berkeley 
and at the State Teachers College in San Francisco. The courses 
are rated by the Board of Education as courses in education, 
and full college credit is given for their completion. 

A beginners' course should treat three problems. One of 
these is the fundamental reason and technique for using visual 
instruction in classroom teaching. A consideration of this 
topic would necessarily include a consideration of modern 
pedagogy and the psychological principles on which it depends. 
The second problem is that of the source of supply and con- 
cerns the care and use of materials and apparatus. Each visual 
aid should be dealt with separately. Ample opportunity should 
be given students for practice in using visual materials and 
apparatus. This may be managed by arranging with special 
training-school classes for demonstration periods ; or the teacher- 
training group may assume the attitude of a regular class while 
various students participate in solving definite problems by 
using different illustrative material and apparatus. The third 
problem treated should be that of enriching the curriculum 
by means of visual instruction. This problem is so inclusive 
that it is almost necessary to incorporate it into an advanced 
course. Thirty-six-hour courses allow scarcely enough time 
for adequate training in visual education. In an advanced course 
of thirty-six to fifty-four hours, several days may be devoted 
to each of the most important subjects of the curriculum. 

A syllabus should be placed in the hands of students which 
includes an adequate bibliography on visual instruction in rela- 
tion to modern pedagogy. Specialists in the field will profit by 
short courses in photography, electricity, graph making, and 
so on. 

Special courses in visual instruction can be greatly simplified 
and shortened if instructors in educational procedure in sub- 
jects such as geography, history, and the like will include in 
their courses on methods the principles involved in the use of 
visual materials. 

Hoban, C. F. (formerly State Director of Visual Education, 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania) "Enlisting Visual-Sensory Aids." 
Journal of Education. 115:516-18. September 19, 1932. 

Hoban gives examples of verbalism in the schools and sug- 
gests that the introduction of visual-sensory aids will do much 


to correct this situation. He states: "It is my firm conviction 
that next to educational psychology, this visual-sensory aids 
course possesses greater values, from the instructional and 
learning viewpoints, than any other professional course in edu- 
cation." He points out, too, that Pennsylvania's Board of 
Teachers College Presidents has made a visual-sensory aids 
course mandatory in all the state-owned teacher-preparation 
institutions of thai state. 

A significant series of proposals was outlined in 1932 by 
the newly formed Department of Visual Instruction of the 
National Education Association. These are quoted by Hoban 
in another article as ample proof of the need for some form 
of teacher preparation. 

Hoban, C. F. "Possibilities of Visual-Sensory Aids in Edu- 
cation." Educational Screen. 11:198-9,202. September 1932. 
An address given before the College Section of the National 
Education Association at Atlantic City, June 30, 1932. 

Some of the shortcomings of elementary-school instruction 
may be laid to verbalism. A cure may be found in the intelligent 
use of visual-sensory aids in the instructional and the learning 
processes. To use visual-sensory aids effectively, however, 
teachers must be familiar with these tools of teaching where 
to get them and how to use them. Responsibility for the dis- 
semination of this knowledge and technique rests with the 
teacher-preparation institutions of the country. An analysis, 
recently made of over one hundred experimental studies in the 
field of visual instruction, established beyond question the value 
of visual aids in education. This is a challenge to every superin- 
tendent and supervising official in the country. 

When the National Academy of Visual Instruction and the 
Department of Visual Instruction of the National Education 
Association merged in 1932, the following declarations were 

1. Experimental studies, research, and surveys have 
revealed definite and important values for visual aids. 

2. A knowledge of these visual-sensory aids and a technique 
for their use require special preparation. 


3. The contribution that visual-sensory aids make to im- 
proved instruction justifies a requirement that every 
teacher in training in the public schools of the United 
States take a laboratory course in visual-sensory aids. 

4. Some means should be developed to train teachers in 
service in this field. 

The opinion of students in this field is that the practice of 
offering separate visual-sensory-aid courses in each of the several 
subjects, such as history, science, and the like, is a mistake 
since such a procedure results in confusion and duplication 
of effort. The feeling prevails that the core curriculum of visual - 
sensory-aids training should consist of the following elements 
common to practically all subjects: research and historical back- 
ground; psychological aspects and verbalism; projectors and 
projection; school journeys; object-specimen-models and museum 
procedure; pictorial materials; still-photography and motion- 
picture camera techniques; blackboard and bulletin-board 
techniques; administration and budgeting of visual material; 
radio-vision ; bibliography. 

If a course in visual-sensory aids were to be made mandatory 
for every person preparing to teach in the schools of the nation, 
if superintendents of schools were to encourage teachers in 
service to take such a course either in extension or at summer 
schools and if visual-sensory aids were to be used effectively 
in the schoolrooms of America, the next ten years would witness 
one of the greatest contributions to the improvement of instruc- 
tion that has ever been made in the history of our country. 

Hoban also expressed his opinion regarding teacher train- 
ing for visual education in an address before the 1931 con- 
vention of the National Education Association. It is his 
contention that teacher-training institutions must assume 
responsibility for the adequate preparation of teachers in 
the use of visual aids. 

Hoban, C. F. "Responsibility of Teacher-Training Institu- 
tions for the Preparation of Teachers in the Technics of 
Visual and Other Sensory Aids : Abstract." National Edu- 
cation Association Proceedings. 1931 :957-9. 

It is necessary that teachers know the types of visual and 
other sensory aids, where to get them, how to evaluate them, 
and how to use them in the instructional process. 


The Pennsylvania classification of visual and other sensory 
materials for teaching purposes is as follows : ( 1 ) apparatus 
and equipment; (2) school journey or field lesson; (3) objects, 
specimens, and models; (4) pictorial material; (5) miscellaneous 
aids, such as dramatization, demonstration, exhibit, pageant, 
sand table, and the like. 

Schoolroom apparatus and equipment include blackboard, 
bulletin board, charts, globes, maps, models, pictorial files, pro- 
jectors, and various other instruments and devices necessary for 
meaningful instruction. Modern educational procedure requires 
that teachers know high-standard materials, the minimum ma- 
terials necessary for teaching the respective subjects, the sources 
from which they may be obtained, and proper methods for their 
effective use. Lack of this knowledge has resulted in an 
accumulation of inferior and unnecessary materials in many 
school districts. 

The school journey, or field trip, is one of the richest and most 
practical of all educational methods. The school journey has 
proved so valuable that it is used throughout Germany, Great 
Britain, and Czechoslovakia. The London County Council has 
subsidized such trips and the progressive European countries are 
rapidly adopting them. Russia is becoming highly enthusiastic 
over their value. 

The use of objects, specimens, and models provides for 
instruction in realistic and concrete elements. The object may 
be a plant or animal brought into the classroom ; specimens may 
consist of a sample of coal or cloth ; the model may be a small 
representation of a building, machine, brain, or the like. Modern 
schools are providing collections of such materials so that they 
are immediately at hand for teachers and pupils to use. Journeys 
to museums offer valuable experience with models. 

Pictorial materials include textbook illustrations, post cards, 
prints, stereographs, lantern slides, and motion pictures. They 
appeal to the eye, attract attention, and arouse interest; but to 
use pictorial materials effectively teachers must not only know 
how to adapt them to the curriculum but must have standards for 
their evaluation, guiding principles for their use, and a definite 
technique for instructional procedure. The valuable materials 
that have been and are being developed make this type of visual 
aid of first importance. 


Miscellaneous aids contribute certain definite values to in- 
struction. These include dramatizations, demonstrations, 
pageants, exhibits, and sand tables all of which make the pupil 
an active agent. To use them successfully requires training 
in their values and in the technique for their use. 

Schools fall behind in the matter of attracting and holding 
the interest of children because teachers are not taking advantage 
of the new devices and aids in the presentation of content ma- 
terial. School administrators complain of the teachers' lack 
of knowledge of these values and techniques. If the quality 
of instruction is to be improved, and if the objectives of edu- 
cation are to be met, teachers must be provided with adequate 
preparation and a profound knowledge of the philosophy that 
underlies learning through the senses. The consensus of opinion 
is that training in the various standards for evaluating visual 
and other sensory aids and in the guiding principles and tech- 
niques for their use should be part of the preparation of every 
teacher in elementary, secondary, or special schools. 

We must appeal to the teacher-training institutions to include 
a course in visual instruction in the professional preparation 
of teachers. Because of the contribution such a course makes 
to meaningful instruction, because such a course fits more in- 
structional and learning situations than many of the courses now 
required, it ranks in my judgment next to educational psychology. 
We should dedicate our efforts in the year that lies ahead toward 
making a credit course in visual and other sensory aids a re- 
quirement for a teacher's license in every state in the union. 

The opinions of several of the educators quoted in these 
pages, with respect to the necessity for teacher preparation 
in visual education, were summarized by Fannie W. Dunn 
in an address before the Twelfth Annual Conference of the 
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures in February 
1936. This address, entitled "Teaching Visual Instruction," 
was published in the March 1936 issue of the National 
Board of Review Magazine. 

The need for teacher preparation and a variety of pro- 
cedures for meeting this need were set forth by Edgar Dale 
at a recent meeting of the Department of Visual Institution 


of the N.E.A. in New Orleans. These have been outlined 

Dale, Edgar (Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio) 
"Progress in Teacher Training in the Use of Visual Aids." 
Educational Screen. 16 :81-4. March 1937. 

The training of teachers to use visual aids effectively may 
be afforded in several ways. First, there is the training offered 
by teacher-training institutions either through a separate course 
(required, or elective), or through units on visual aids in special 
methods courses. Another important form of teacher prepara- 
tion, and one which will influence the teacher-in-training in 
her own teaching techniques, is the widespread use of visual 
materials by college instructors. Such use, however, should 
be meaningful and integrated. When motion pictures or slides 
are used in college in a careless, non-integrated fashion, the 
student will reflect this attitude in her teaching career. 

Each teacher-training school should provide some kind of 
instruction in visual aids for the prospective teacher. It is 
important, too, that the schools provide equipment and 
materials to meet the needs of each teacher. 

Another form of teacher education which has been much 
neglected is in-service training. This may be provided through 
various channels: (a) through teachers' institutes such as have 
been held at state universities in Ohio; (b) through guidance 
by directors of visual education in city school systems; 
(c) through national, state, and regional meetings of visual 
education groups, and through a discussion of the problems of 
visual education by specialized professional groups, such as the 
Women's Physical Education Association, and others; (d) 
through committees of teachers to evaluate available films in 
their special subjects; and (e) through the cooperation of class- 
room teachers in the production of educational films. 

A third and very important method of teacher training is 
through printed materials. Here, too, the information may 
be published in a magazine devoted exclusively to visual educa- 
tion, such as Educational Screen, or the News Letter, published 
at Ohio State University; or it may appear at frequent intervals 
in the numerous subject-matter journals of the teaching profes- 
sion. The information being compiled and disseminated through 


the American Council on Education will also be invaluable to 
teachers in service. 

Another method of teacher training which offers a good 
deal of promise, is to give graduate and undergraduate college 
students an opportunity to develop special abilities in the field. 
Such activities as producing independent motion pictures, 
cooperating with various departments of the college in the 
production of films, participating in psychological research deal- 
ing with visual aids, or conducting a survey of the status of 
materials and equipment provide excellent training for prospec- 
tive directors of visual education. 

A final type of teacher-training is furnished by courses in 
motion picture appreciation. Such guidance is helpful to the 
teacher-in-training, as well as to the teacher-in-service. 


Trends in visual-education guidance before 1925 have 
been summarized in the article one of a series by F. Dean 
McClusky. McClusky believes that the inadequacy of teacher 
guidance in many city school systems may be charged to the 
numerous outside duties laid upon the directors of visual 

McClusky, F. Dean (Director, Scarborough School, Scar- 
borough-on-Hudson, New York) "Finding the Facts of 
Visual Education: II. Growth Through Teacher Training." 
Educational Screen. 4 :203-5, 272-6. April, May 1925. 

Until teacher training in visual instruction is developed, 
the market for visual aids will move slowly. Growth in visual 
education depends on the training of teachers, which in turn 
depends on the development of college instruction, textbooks, 
and courses of study for visual instruction. Lack of under- 
standing of this factor by commercial companies distributing 
visual aids has caused much waste of time and effort. 

There is evidence that in a few instances directors of visual 
instruction in educational institutions have not been able to give 
attention to the promotion of an adequate program of teacher 


training. The directors of visual instruction in Berkeley, Cleve- 
land, Newark, New York, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh, were 
found in a recent investigation " to have numerous outside duties 
which made provision for teacher training negligible. Exten- 
sion departments that have undertaken to distribute films and 
slides have become aware of the need for teacher training in the 
use of these aids. 

Progress in teacher training was evident, however, the survey 
showed. In over twenty institutions [1923] courses in visual 
education were being offered, usually in the summer session; 
conferences of teachers of visual instruction were being held 
at the Universities of Missouri and Utah; the State Department 
of Education in Michigan was giving a series of short courses 
in the normal schools of the state ; a small number of city normal 
schools offered similar courses ; a number of city school depart- 
ments of visual education were making serious efforts to train 
teachers in service in the technique of visual instruction. 

Teachers may secure training in visual instruction in formal, 
semiformal, and informal ways. In the formal method, instruc- 
tion is gained through courses in institutions of learning; in 
the semiformal, at teachers' institutes and from short courses; in 
the informal, through such vicarious means as lectures or 
scattered reading. 

The visual-education instruction offered as formal training 
comprises resident and extension courses, summer- and regular- 
session courses, and prescribed, elective, and noncredit courses. 
Semiformal training may be afforded by teachers' institutes, 
short courses, systematically arranged conferences, a lecture 
series, or methodical supervision. There is considerable oppor- 
tunity to gain information by the informal method through 
newspapers, radio, the theater, and advertising. Methods 
usually include the reading of magazine articles, listening to 
occasional lectures on visual education, observing demonstrations 
of visual materials, reading books, and listening to salesmen of 
commercial products in the field. 

The growth of visual education is in no small degree due to 
the spread of information by informal methods. The desire of 
advertisers to place before school people a considerable amount of 
information on visual materials has been especially influential. 

11 A survey made by McClusky in 1923 for the Committee on Visual Education 
of the National Education Association. 


Informal training will not, however, develop so lasting an 
interest as is gained through formal or semiformal methods. 

Formal instruction. The National Academy of Visual Instruc- 
tion found in 1924 that twenty-three educational institutions were 
offering courses. These constitute but a small percentage of the 
teacher-training institutions in the United States, but they include 
some of the finest. The courses offered are all elective, not 
prescribed. In three institutions they are given by correspond- 
ence or in extramural classes; the majority are offered only in 
the summer session. 

Semiformal instruction. Semiformal programs should sup- 
plement the core of formal courses. Teachers in service should 
be kept informed on the subject. In Michigan, a short course 
was set up in 1923 in each of the normal schools of the state 
under C. J. Primm of the Michigan State Department of Public 
Instruction. These courses aimed to acquaint pupil teachers 
with the theory and techniques of using films in teaching; the 
sources and care of films; and how to operate and care for a 
motion-picture projector. The courses carried no credit, but 
a certificate was awarded. There were eight lectures for each 
course and six courses daily. Individual coaching in handling 
projectors was provided on request and all teachers in adjacent 
areas were invited to attend round-table discussions on Saturdays. 

Another desirable type of semiformal training was afforded 
in several instances through teachers' institutes. The directors 
of visual instruction in Berkeley, Detroit, Newark, and Kansas 
City have been active in organizing conferences and committees 
of visual education in their respective cities. 

Informal training. Information gained in this way is loose, 
distorted, and undesirable. If the development of visual instruc- 
tion lies in teacher training and if the way to train teachers most 
rapidly is through prescribed courses, it would appear that the 
establishment of such courses is fundamental. This is difficult 
to accomplish, however, when the program in teacher-training 
institutions is already overcrowded. "The solution does not lie 
in directors of special courses, but rather in that of incorporating 
into the already existing prescribed courses in methods, the 
treatment of the topic visual instruction as part of those courses." 
Formal courses should be continued as electives, except in the 
case of students who want to become specialists. 


As early as 1922 a survey was made showing the pro- 
vision made at that time for teacher preparation in the use 
of visual aids. The results were reported in an address by 
Anna V. Dorris before the Visual Instruction Conference 
of the National Education Association at Oakland, Cali- 
fornia, in July 1923. 

Dorris, Anna V. "The Training of Teachers for Service and 
During Service in the Use of Objective and -Other Visual 
Materials." Educational Screen. 2 :335-7. September 1923. 

The report presents the results of a survey of the provisions 
made in the United States in 1923 for the training of teachers 
in the use of visual materials. 

An inquiry was sent to 171 normal schools and to 114 colleges 
and universities. There were thirty returns from the former 
and thirty-seven from the latter. Among normal schools, four 
offered regular courses in visual instruction and two offered 
summer-session courses. The Michigan Normal School offered 
one noncredit course. One normal school taught ''graphs" ; 
another gave a course on photography and slide making. 

Colleges and universities gave more attention to the distribu- 
tion of slides and films than did normal schools. Seventeen of 
the thirty-seven colleges and universities reported that they 
maintained distribution centers. Only four normal schools 
reported such service. The main use of these distributing centers, 
however, appeared to be for the circulation of visual material for 
entertainment purposes. 

Some schools in which courses were not offered reported 
using visual aids in the teaching of science and geography. One 
teachers' college thought their art course would come under the 
head of "visual instruction." 

A number of questions arise from the findings of the survey : 
is it justifiable to allow teachers already in service to go on in the 
old traditional way? Shall no provision be made by teacher- 
training institutions for teachers in service to learn how to use 
newly installed equipment with the least expenditure of time 
,and energy? 

[An account of the work offered in the San Francisco State 
Teachers College follows. This has been described in detail 


elsewhere (see page 378). Briefly, it includes (a) classroom 
lectures and demonstrations, and (b) field work.] 

Much material had been accumulated in the Berkeley schools. 
A committee was organized to prepare a handbook, 12 demonstra- 
tion lessons were given before teachers, and finally a visual- 
instruction center with a part-time director and an attendant 
was set up. 

The report of a committee on teacher training in visual 
instruction submitted to the Department of Visual Instruction 
of the National Education Association in 1926 suggests that 
a separate laboratory course is needed for pupil teachers, 
and extension courses for teachers in the field. 

Ankeney, J. V. (Chairman) "Report of Committee on 
Teacher Training in Visual Instruction." Educational Screen. 
5:489-91. October 1926. 

A survey made in 1925-26 showed that several institutions 
were offering teacher-training courses, with the University of 
Wisconsin assigning a professorship to the subject. 

Visual education is concerned with two well-defined problems : 
(a) that dealing with the selection and construction of visual 
aids; (b) that dealing with correct or better methods of using 
aids. The question of how these problems may be approached 
is controversial. Should visual education be introduced in 
courses in other subjects, such as geography education, history 
education, and the like, with no additional staff but with proper 
correlation with the subject under consideration? Or should 
visual education be presented in a separate course, given by a 
specially trained instructor ? 

The arguments for the latter view are : ( 1 ) Not all teachers 
of special methods have had experience in training student 
teachers in the use of visual aids. (2) Special methods courses 
are overcrowded and leave little time for ample consideration 
of visual instruction. (3) Teachers in service are in need of 
supplementary training for that subject. (4) Visual instruction 
needs one person responsible for training in methods and ma- 
terials, or little will be accomplished. (5) Separate courses are 

12 Visual Instruction. Course of Study Monographs. Public Schools, Berkeley 
California. 1923. 


temporarily justified to develop an awareness of the need for 
visual aids properly used. 

Skill in the use of visual aids may be developed by demonstra- 
tion lessons given under actual teaching conditions to "set a 
pattern," followed by a discussion as to why this procedure 
was used, and finally by practice teaching under supervision 
using visual aids and follow-up discussion. This last step, 
involving actual participation, is most desirable ; "reading about" 
or "talking about" the use of visual aids will not quickly modify 
practices of young inexperienced teachers. 

In-service teachers may be assisted by summer-session 
courses, such as a separate course in materials and methods; 
a special methods course; a teachers' institute, or round-table 
demonstration and discussion. Helpful, also is supervisory 
assistance whereby demonstrations and illustrated source lists 
and bibliographies are made available. 

Proceeding to more recent judgments on the problem of 
teacher preparation, we note that the State of New Jersey 
has shown interest in the question, although it has not as 
yet made courses in visual education compulsory as did its 
neighbor state, Pennsylvania. The New Jersey Visual Edu- 
cation Association, part of the State Teachers' Association, 
publishes the proceedings of its annual meetings. In the 
bulletin for the 1935 meeting, there were two addresses 
regarding the need for teacher guidance in the use of visual 
aids. Crawford favors the view that unless a teacher has 
been trained to observe intelligently through field trips, 
laboratory courses, pictorial aids, and the like, she cannot 
be expected to teach children to do so. The responsibility 
for her training, Crawford feels, rests with normal schools. 

Winchell likewise deplores the failure on the part of 
teacher-training institutions to offer visual-education prepara- 
tion. He urges that school administrators encourage teachers 
in service to enrich their backgrounds by taking special 
methods courses. 


Crawford, E. Winifred (Director of Visual Education, 
Montclair, New Jersey) "Some Significant Values of Visual 
Education in the Training of Teachers." New Jersey Visual 
Education Association. 1 :17-19. November 1935. 

One thing needed by young people who are preparing them- 
selves for teaching is a feeling for life a ' 'precious seeing." 
It is easy to look, to touch, to hear, to let one's senses be casually 
conscious of what comes to them. To look deeper, to be silent, 
to compare, to think so that values, causal relationships, interpre- 
tations, and appreciations are realized to an increasing extent, 
is the precious seeing that knowledge adds to the eye and other 
sensory organs. It is this that visual education in its broadest 
aspects unfolds to students who are trying to have seeing eyes, 
listening ears, and sensitive touch. 

The field trip, the laboratory, the drama, the pictorial aid, 
the symbolic aid all offer opportunity for seeing and interpreting 
the more significant values of life. 

Courses in visual education in an institution for teacher 
training aim to open to the student teacher this door to sincere 
thinking and deep feeling so that they may do the same for their 
future pupils. When this purpose in the use of visual and other 
sensory aids is felt, the student will be eager to investigate 
the technical side. The findings of research studies are 
accordingly considered and a study is made of the significant 
value of each of the aids and of the sources from which it may 
be obtained. Methods of selection, standards of evaluation, and 
principles underlying the use of aids in relation to units of 
work, creative activities, school subjects, clubs, and assemblies, 
are tentatively formulated. The students will be anxious to 
know how to use the field trip, the laboratory, dramatics, plastics ; 
they will wish to take still and motion pictures; to make slides, 
properties, and many other aids ; to operate and care for 
stereopticon, film slide, opaque, and silent and sound motion- 
picture projectors. 

A study of the photoplay is being included in the curriculum 
or club activities of an ever increasing number of high schools. 
Visual education, in conjunction with English and art, can help 
student teachers to evaluate and interpret the photoplay for 
themselves and teach them how to approach the subject with 
high-school groups. 


Winchell, Lawrence R. (Superintendent of Schools, Vine- 
land, New Jersey) "The Need of Teacher Training in Visual 
Education." New Jersey Visual Education Association. 1 : 
15-16. November 1935. 

If visual instruction is to keep pace with the modern school 
program, we must provide opportunities for teachers who seek 
to improve their techniques in this field. Our normal schools 
and colleges have recognized the fact that teachers should be 
trained in the proper use of subject matter and textbooks, but 
practically nothing is being done to train teachers in the proper 
use of tools such as objective materials and projection apparatus. 
In a nation-wide survey of visual equipment, it was found that 
in some instances this apparatus stands idle and dusty from 
lack of use. The condition will not be remedied until the average 
teacher in service has an opportunity to learn of the newer and 
better methods of teaching. Ways and means must be provided 
by administrators and supervisors for teachers to take special 
courses in methods of using visual aids. 

It will readily be agreed that a course in visual education 
should deal primarily with the actual technique of using visual 
aids in the various phases of teaching and in the various school 
subjects of the elementary and secondary schools. By technique 
is meant pedagogical, not mechanical, technique. Attention 
should be given in any course to the mechanics of visual instruc- 
tion, but it is scarcely necessary for every teacher to know how 
to manipulate a motion-picture machine. Every teacher should, 
however, know how to handle a classroom stereopticon and 
should know enough of the laws of optics and electricity to be 
able to meet emergencies. 

E. E. Macy, in a recent article, reiterates the need for 
teacher preparation. He advises teachers to educate their 
administrators, and administrators to educate school boards. 
School boards, in turn, should convince the taxpayers that 
skilled teachers, aided by adequate equipment and materials, 
will make the educational process worth while. 


Macy, E. E. (Director of Visual Education, Indian School, 
Warm Springs, Oregon) "Training in Visual Education." 
School Executive. 54:206-7. March 1935. 

Are teachers properly trained to use visual aids intelligently? 

In a recent investigation in Chicago, an average gain in 
achievement of 24 per cent was shown as a direct result of the 
use of visual aids. The development of visual education is 
often hindered, however, by enthusiastic but unintelligent use 
of visual aids by teachers who are unfamiliar with the proper 
use of such equipment. Such misuse will not be of much benefit 
to the pupil. Then there are those teachers who do not even 
seem interested in visual aids and make no attempt to correlate 
them with classroom work. The best results in visual educa- 
tion will be attained through the intelligent use of visual aids 
in the classroom and through the intelligent selection of proper 
type of material. 

Among the causes of difficulty for teachers are lack of 
training in music and dramatics, dearth of teaching materials, 
and training in passive rather than dynamic methods of organiza- 
tion. Teachers who want to be successful and progressive 
should master a wide range of visual aids, should use them 
naturally, let the individual pupils select vital points, provide 
for reciprocal pupil effort, cultivate an open mind, note uses 
of aids in other lines, and lead pupils to note values of different 

Some desirable topics for teacher training are the following: 
field trips; diagrams; maps; display racks; scrapbooks; bulletin 
boards; magazines; newspapers; construction; collections; 
replicas, models; relics; specimens; objects; statuary; phantoms; 
local history; clubs; pageants; special days; dramatizations; 
pioneer clubs; posters; charts; graphs; types of equipment; 
exhibits; cartoons; congresses; library; blackboards; stereo- 
graphs; chalk skill; museums; motion-picture cameras; 16 mm. 
and 35 mm. projectors; slides; film-slide and opaque projectors; 
micro-cinematography; samples; sources of free materials; day- 
light projection; screens; films silent, sound, and still; home- 
made slides cellophane, typed, glass, and film; mechanics of 
projection lenses, mirrors, electrical devices. 

Progressive teachers should educate their administrators, 
school boards, and others, to the need for teacher training in 
visual education; administrators should educate teachers, pupils, 


and school boards to the point where they will demand teacher 
training. Taxpayers should also require this training in the 
school systems. 

At a spring conference of the Visual Aids Section of 
the California Teachers' Association, it was decided that a 
promotional program for teacher training should be planned. 
The abstract which follows describes the plan in full. 

White, Margaret S. (Pasadena) and Irion, Mary Clint (Los 

Angeles) "News Briefs from California." Educational 
Screen. 11:143. May 1932. 

The Visual Aids Section of the California Teachers' Asso- 
ciation, Southern Section, adopted a program of teacher training 
as its main objective at the spring conference in 1931. The 
development of the program has been put in the hands of a com- 
mittee known as the Committee on Teacher Training of the 
Visual Aids Section, California Teachers' Association, with Mary 
Clint Irion as chairman. 

The committee decided upon certain preliminary procedures. 
These were: 

1. To ascertain from deans of education, presidents of teach- 
ers' colleges, and other administrators, just what is being done 
throughout the United States, and in California in particular, to 
train teachers in this field. The following questions were to be 
asked by letter or interview : 

Is any training given in the use of visual aids to your 
teachers in training, or through extension courses to 
teachers, supervisors, and administrators in service? 

If so, does this training pertain to the pedagogical appli- 
cation of the various types of aids, or does it refer to 
mechanical problems, or both ? 

If you have any such courses, will you send us a copy of 
the syllabus of the course? 

Do you expect to do anything further than you are now 
doing in this field ? 

Is it your belief that any further training than teachers 
now have is necessary ? 

2. To secure through personal interviews the advice and 
cooperation of the educational leaders close at hand. 


3. To submit to the various publications in the field accounts 
of successful experience in the use of visual tools and articles 
of interest regarding the work of the committee. 

4. To prepare a bibliography of visual aids for the use of 
instructors in teacher-training institutions who might wish to 
inform themselves more fully in this field. 

5. To consider the preparation of a handbook on visual 

6. If the results of our survey so justify, to present to the 
State Board of Education a plea for the inclusion of training in 
the use of visual aids in the curricula of California teachers' 

7. To be prepared to furnish definite help to teacher-training 
institutions on request. 

The outstanding need for teacher preparation in the use 
of visual aids was pointed out in a survey conducted by the 
American Nature Association in 1930. It was then noted 
that although visual aids are used universally and although 
many teacher-training institutions possess projection equip- 
ment, there is no provision for the training of teachers of 
nature study in handling this equipment. 

McNall, Jessie J. (New York State Normal School, Potsdam, 
New York) "Study of Content and Organization of Ma- 
terials Offered in Teacher-Training Institutions Together 
With An Examination of Methods Used in Visual Educa- 
tion." Nature Almanac. 1930:132. American Nature Asso- 

This study of the content of courses offered in normal schools 
and teachers' colleges in nature study or elementary science 
covered subject matter, manner of presentation, and equipment 
used in class work. It was thought that a survey of the physical 
equipment available for use in teacher-training institutions might 
throw some light on activities in progress in nature education. 

Replies were received from 108 institutions, representing all 
the states except Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, Missis- 
sippi, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, New Hampshire, Utah, 
Vermont, and Wyoming. 


Number of Schools 
Type of Visual Aid Equipped 

Lantern slides 65 

Motion-picture equipment 35 

Photographic equipment 28 

Models and model-making equipment .... 27 

Reflectoscopes 23 

Stereographs 17 

Sound-film equipment 

Fresh living things seemed to be most commonly used as 
equipment in nature study. Charts, pictures, preserved material, 
and slides were all used to an equal extent. There seemed to 
be comparatively little teaching in this field without visual aids. 
This may account for the fact that one nature teacher, who 
claimed to be "naturally gifted with the ability to speak" and 
who testified that he relied essentially upon this ability to suc- 
ceed, is no longer on the teaching staff of which he was once a 
prominent member. 

Ten schools reported that all their graduates were trained in 
the use of a stereopticon. It appears that few teachers are as 
yet trained in the use of the machines that promise to do so 
much to revolutionize educational method. Very few, apparently, 
are taught anything about the operation and care of the 16 mm. 
motion-picture equipment that is becoming so popular and is so 
splendidly supported by useful educational films. 

In all fairness, however, it should be stated that there 
are many educational institutions offering courses for teach- 
ers in the use of visual aids. The list which follows gives 
ample evidence of the extent to which such courses are to 
be offered during the summer of 1937. 



"Summer Courses in Visual Instruction." Educational Screen. 

16:152-3. May 1937. 



Alabama Polytech- 
nic Institute 


Univ. of So. Calif. 
(Los Angeles) 

State College (San 


State College of 
Education (Gree- 

Univ. of Colorado 

Univ. of Denver 


Univ. of Florida 


Univ. of Georgia 


Northwestern Univ. 

State Normal Univ. 

Univ. of Illinois 

Purdue Univ. 


Iowa State College 


Visual Instruction 

M. L. Beck 

Fundamentals of Motion- 
Picture Production and B. V. Morkovin 

Motion-Picture Story and 

Social Psychological As- M. Metfessel 

pects of Motion Pictures 
Audio- Visual Education Sarah Muller 

Methods of Teaching the Sarah Mullen 

Use and Appreciation of 

Educational Films and 

Radio Programs 
Photography S. Morse 

Visual Aids in Education Helen Davis 

Visual Aids Lelia Trolinger 

Education Through Motion Lelia Trolinger 


Visual and Auditory Aids E. H. Herrington 

Visual Education 

W. L. Goette 

Visual Aids in Education T. R. Wright 

Visual Aids and Radio in Paul C. Reed 

Visual Education 

C. L. Cross 

Visual and Auditory In- Louis Astell 
structional Aids 

(La- Visual Education 

H. A. Henderson 

L e c t u r e Discussions on H. L. Kooser 
Visual Aids 




Univ. of Kansas 

Univ. of Wichita 


Univ. of Kentucky 


Univ. of Maryland 
(College Park) 

State Teachers Col- 
lege (Fitchburg) 

State T. C. (Moor- 

State T. C. (Win- 


Teachers College 
(Kansas City) 

New Jersey 

State Teachers Col- 
lege (Montclair) 

State Normal Col- 
lege (Trenton) 

Rutgers University 
(New Bruns- 

New York 
New York Univ. 

Teachers College, 
Columbia Univ. 

Chautauqua Sum- 
mer Schools 
( Chautauqua) 



Visual Education in Ele- Fred Montgomery 
mentary and Secondary 

Visual Sensory Aids in w - A - Bonwell 

Visual Instruction 

Visual Education 

Louis Clifton 

Henry Brechbill 

Visual Aids in Education C. W. Erickson 

Supervision Through Vis- C. P. Archer 
ual Aids 

Visual Instruction 

Ella C. Clark 

Methods in the Use of Vis- Rupert Peters 
ual Aids 

Visual Instruction 
Visual Instruction 
Visual Instruction 

Visual and Auditory Mate- 
rials in the Social Studies 

Laboratory Course in Vis- 
ual Aids 

Practical Applications of 
Visual Aids 

Materials and Methods in 
Visual and Auditory Edu- 


Research in Visual and 
Auditory Education 

Laboratory Course in Vis- 
ual Aids 

E. W. Crawford 
Geo. W. Wright 
L. R. Winchell 

D. C. Knowlton 
John Shaver 
John Shaver 

Fannie W. Dunn 
V. C. Arnspiger 
C. M. Koon 

Fannie W. Dunn 
V. C. Arnspiger 
C. M. Koon 

G. H. O'Donnell 



Edgar Dale 


Ohio State Univ. Visual Aids 

Western Reserve Institute of Visual Educa- W. M. Gregory 


(Cleve- tion 

and others 


A. & M. College Visual Education J. C. Muerman 



Univ. of Texas The Use of Visual Aids in B. F. Holland 
(Austin) Education 


State Teachers Col- Visual Instruction 
lege (Platteville) 

State T. C. (Stev- Visual Education 

Stout Institute Visual Instruction 

Univ. of Wiscon- 
sin (Madison) 

Visual Instruction 

V. M. Russell 
C. D. Jayne 
Paul Nelson 
J. E. Hansen 

Univ. of Wyoming Radio and Visual Educa- Cline M. Koon 
(Laramie) tion 




The following teacher-training institutions will give courses in Visual 
Education. As complete information was not available ... we present 
only a partial list of instructors. . . . 

Albright College (Reading) 
Allegheny College (Meadville) 
Beaver College (Jenkintown) (J. 

E. Malin) 

Bucknell University (Lewisburg) 
College Misericordia (Dallas) 
Drexel Institute (Philadelphia) 

(Mr. Galphin) 

Elizabethtown College (Elizabeth- 
town) (E. Wenger) 
Geneva College (Beaver Falls) 
Gettysburg College (Gettysburg) 
Grove City College (Grove City) 
Immaculata College (Immacu- 

Juanita College (Huntington) 

(Paul Rummel) 

LaSalle College (Philadelphia) 
Lehigh University (Bethlehem) 
Mary wood College (Scranton) 

(S. M. Sylvia) 
Mercyhurst College (Erie) 
Muhlenberg College (Allentown) 

(H. E. Miller) 
Pennsylvania State College (State 

College) (H. E. Thompson 

and J. G. Sigman) 
Rosemont College (Rosemont) 
Seton Hill College (Greensburg) 

St. Thomas College (Scranton) 
Susquehanna Univ. (Selinsgrove) 
Temple Univ. (Philadelphia) (J. 

T. Garman) 

Thiel College (Greenville) 
Univ. of Pennsylvania (Phila.) 
Univ. of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh) 

(E. E. Sechreist) 
Villa Maria College (Erie) 
Villanova College (Villanova) 
Washington & Jefferson College 


Waynesburg College (Waynes- 
burg) (C. O. Riggs) 

State Teachers Colleges at: 

East Stroudsburg 

Indiana (W. E. Emmert) 
Lock Haven 
Slippery Rock 
West Chester 
Cheyney Training School 

Further evidence of trends in the visual-education move- 
ment among teachers may be drawn from the News Notes 
printed in the Educational Screen during 1935. The list 
given here is not intended to be complete, but merely indica- 
tive of trends. 

January 1935) 

tion Section of the Texas State Teachers Association held its 
regular annual meeting at Galveston, November 29-December 
1, 1934. (14:14. January 1935) 

WINTER MEETING NEXT MONTH. The Department of Super- 
intendence meets in Atlantic City during the latter part of 
February and the Department of Visual Instruction has 


selected February 25 and 26 as the dates for its sessions. 
(14:14. January 1935) 

Department of Visual Instruction of the National Education 
Association will be held in the Auditorium of the Women's 
Club July 1st and 2nd. (14:132. May 1935) 
Chicago Visual Education Association held its spring meeting 
Saturday, April 13th. (14:132. May 1935) 
DENVER, July 1-2, 1935. (14:163. June 1935) 
Jersey Visual Education Association exhibit and demonstra- 
tion. . . Friday evening, May 24th, attracted visitors from far 
and near. (14:163. June 1935) 

Federation of Education Associations, meeting in Oxford 
the past month, attracted 2,000 foreign educators. . . . Visual 
Education came in for a large share of consideration. (14: 
189. September 1935) 

September 1935) 

The thirty-second annual meeting of the National Association 
of Teachers in Colored Schools, held July 30-August 2 at 
Tallahassee, Florida, included . . . two afternoon programs 
by the Department of Visual Instruction. (14:189. Septem- 
ber 1935) 

Aids in Education" was selected as one of the major topics 
of this year's conference of the State Teachers Colleges and 
Teacher Training Schools of Massachusetts at Bridgewater 
September 4, 5, and 6. ( 14 :190. September 1935) 
of the Visual Instruction Section of the Indiana State Teach- 
ers Association, held in Indianapolis on October 17, attracted 
a large attendance. 

Sixty-Sixth Annual conference in Dayton, Friday and 
Saturday, October 25th and 26th. (14:264. November 1935) 
The University of Southern California, Columbia University 
Teachers College, New York University, Colorado State 
Teachers College are among the score of universities that 
have already successfully instituted these courses. (14:272. 
November 1935) 



A. By In-Service Teacher-Training Projects, Extension 

Courses, and Institutes 

The following references might be consulted for a descrip- 
tion of this type of teacher guidance: 

"A Conference on Teacher Training in Visual Instruction." 
American Council on Education. Washington, D.C. 1936. 
mimeo. The proceedings of a conference sponsored jointly 
by the University of Wisconsin and the American Council on 
Education, with Edgar Dale as chairman, November 5, 1936. 

"Teacher Training in Modern Teaching Aids/' American 
Council on Education. Washington, D.C. 1937. mimeo. 
The report of a conference sponsored jointly by Fannie W. 
Dunn of Teachers College, Columbia University, and the 
American Council on Education, with Charles Hoban as 
chairman, January 18, 1937. 

Brunstetter, M. R. The Organization of an Audio-visual In- 
struction Program. Erpi Picture Consultants, Inc. New 
York. 1934. 

A plan proposed for the use of educational talking pictures 
in the Derry Township Schools, Hershey, Pennsylvania. 

Dorris, Anna V. Visual instruction in the public school. Ginn 
and Company. Boston. 1928. (See page 376) 

McClusky, F. Dean. "Finding the Facts of Visual Education: 
Growth Through Teacher Training." Educational Screen. 
4 :203, 272. April, May 1925. (See page 385) 

"New Approaches to Education Through Materials of Instruc- 
tion." Subcommittee on Teacher Education, Committee on 
Motion Pictures in Education, American Council on Educa- 
tion. 1937. mimeo. 

"Program for Peoria County Institute on Visual Education." 
Educational Screen. 2:117. March 1923. 

"Teachers' Institute on Visual Education." By One Who 
Was There. Educational Screen. 2:31. March 1923. 

B. By Special Monographs or Handbooks 

Aughinbaugh, B. A. Descriptive Catalog of Slides and Films. 
State Department of Education, Columbus, Ohio. 1935. 
p. 91-104. 


Aughinbaugh, B. A. Visual Instruction Bulletin. State Depart- 
ment of Education. Columbus, Ohio. 1926. 

Committee on Visual Aids in Education. Report on Visual 
Aids in Education. Department of Education. Belmont, 
Mass. 1934. 24 p. mimeo. 

"Course of Study in Visual Education." Board of Education. 
Detroit, Michigan. 1926. 

Dale, E. and Ramseyer, L. L. Teaching with Motion Pictures : 
A Handbook of Administrative Practice. American Council 
on Education. Washington, D.C. April 1937. 

Dent, Ellsworth C. Audio-visual Handbook. Society for 
Visual Education. Chicago. 1937. rev. ed. 

Dorris, Anna V. (Chairman) Visual Instruction: Course of 
Study for the Elementary Schools, Including Kindergarten 
and First Six Grades. (Course of Study Monographs, No. 7) 
Elementary Schools. Berkeley, California. 1923. 

Dunn, F. W. and Schneider, Etta. "Activities of State Visual 
Education Agencies in the United States." Educational 
Screen. 14:99-100, 126-7, 158-61. April, May, June 1935. 

Gilbert, A. E. A Preliminary Handbook of Visual Instruction. 
Board of Education. Schenectady, New York. 1927. 

"Handbook for the Use of Visual Aids in Elementary and Jun- 
ior-Senior High Schools." (Bulletin No. 18) Board of 
Education. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 1929. 

Hansen, J. E. Visual Instruction in Our Schools : A Handbook 
for Teachers, Principals, and Superintendents. Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, University Extension Division, University 
of Wisconsin. Madison (no date). 19 p. mimeo. 

Hays, Dudley G. and McAndrew, William. Suggestions on 
Visual Aids for Principals and Teachers. Board of Educa- 
tion. Chicago, Illinois. 1924. 

"Types of Visual Aids and Projectors for Classroom Use." 
(Superintendent's Bulletin, Course of Study Series, No. 127) 
Oakland Public Schools. Oakland, California. 1930. 

Visual Aids Division, Committee on Educational Progress, 
New York State Association of Elementary Principals. 
Visual Aids in the Schools : A Report of Present Uses and 
Suggestions for Improvement (1935). Apply to R. W. 
Thompson, Conkling School. Utica, New York. 

Unzicker, Samuel J. (Chairman) Visual Education Com- 
mittee, Wisconsin Education Association. Visual Education : 
Report to the 1935 Representative Assembly. 

"Visual Education : Object-Specimen-Model and a Black- 
board Technique." (Educational Monograph, No. 8) 
Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction. Harrisburg. 


"Visual Education and the School Journey." (Educational 
Monograph, No. 6) Pennsylvania Department of Public 
Instruction. Harrisburg. 1930. 

Handbooks which accompany educational motion pic- 
tures provide valuable material for directing teachers in the 
proper use of the films. A discussion of the effectiveness 
of this type of guidance is found in the article by J. A. 
Lauwerys, lecturer and tutor in the Institute of Education 
at the University of London, entitled "How to Use Class- 
room Films: Handbooks to Aid Teachers." Sight and 
Sound. 4:190. Winter 1935-36. 

C. By Suggestions Incorporated in Elementary or Secondary 
Courses of Study 

The most logical place for guidance in the use of visual 
aids would appear to be the course of study for each school 
subject. Visual aids are not to be used separately but as an 
integral part of the classroom work. 

The California State program for elementary science 
instruction provides for a Committee on Visual Aids in 
Education to formulate a definite visual aid program, and a 
Planning Committee which, among other duties, coordinates 
the use of visual aids and the science program. 13 

The extent to which current courses of study in geog- 
raphy provide teacher guidance in the use of pictures or 
other illustrative material has been carefully analyzed by 
Beutel in her master's thesis. It is interesting to note that 
several of the state courses of study that fail to mention 
sources of illustrative materials are issued by states maintain- 
ing a central library of films and slides in the state univer- 
sity. 34 

18 Pickwell, Gayle. "Visual Aids and the Science Program in California." 
Visual Review. 1937:10-14. 

14 For a list of states having a department of visual instruction, see Koon, C. M. 
Sources of Educational Films and Equipment (Circular ISO). United States Office 
of Education. Washington, D.C. 1936. 


Beutel, Lucille Ethel. "Guidance for Teachers in the Use of 
Pictures Afforded in Courses of Study in Geography." M. A. 
Thesis, University of Chicago. 1932 (Unpublished) 

Purpose of the study: To extract from representative 
current courses of study in geography all material concerned with 
pictures and their use and to analyze it to discover ( 1 ) the various 
phases of guidance for teachers in the selection and use of pic- 
tures, (2) the relative emphases on such phases of guidance as 
were found, (3) any tendencies discernible in the courses in the 
distribution of emphasis on various phases of guidance, and 
(4) insofar as standards for judging values were available, the 
relative value of different types of suggestions given. 

Ninety-nine courses of study in geography were used in the 
investigation. Included in this total were forty-five state courses 
and fifty- four courses published by cities and towns. All the 
states in the Union from which a geography course of study 
was available were represented, with the exception of Rhode 
Island, Ohio, and South Dakota; also represented were cities 
from nearly all sections of the country with populations ranging 
from less than ten thousand to over one million. All courses of 
study published within the last ten years were examined. Courses 
found to offer a great deal of guidance in the use of pictures 
were Baltimore, Boston, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Lakewood 
(Ohio), Springfield (Missouri), Trenton, and Wichita. 

The courses of study were analyzed for the following types of 
guidance: Were teachers afforded any bases for selection of 
illustrative material, such as geographical quality, mechanical 
quality, or fitness for unit? What kinds of illustrative materials 
were mentioned; e.g., pictures, stereographs, slides, or moving 
pictures? What type of objectives were offered for using these 
materials; e.g., enrichment, or the development of general abilities 
and attitudes, or the development of specific picture-reading and 
evaluating abilities? What types of teaching procedures were 
mentioned, such as handling, general directions for use, the pur- 
pose or place of use, or specific aid in use? What suggestions 
were offered regarding pupil activities with pictures, such as col- 
lecting and filing, general activities, or specific activities? Were 
specific or general sources given and how did state courses of 
study vary in this respect from city courses? Were the sugges- 
tions for use of pictures distinctively geographic in nature, or 
were they generally applicable? 


The figures for the above-mentioned aspects have been given 
in a series of tables. Following is Table II, which gives the 
percentage of all comments relating to the six major types of 

Types of Guidance 



~ All 


Bases for selection 



1 7 



31 5 




Objectives , 

... 3.1 




Teaching procedures 

, . . 9.7 




Pupil activities 












Significant facts to be noted from this table are the following : 

1. Comments on picture guidance in the fifty- four city 
courses are more than 2.6 times as numerous as are such com- 
ments in the forty-five state courses. 

2. In the city courses, state courses, and all courses ex- 
amined, bases for selection receive least comment, kinds receive 
most comment, and pupil activities next most. 

3. Comments on teaching procedure rank third in percentage 
in the state courses and fourth in city courses; those on 
objectives, fourth in state courses and fifth in city courses; 
and those on sources, fifth in state courses and third in city 

4. In view of the fact that comments classified under kinds 
were those that merely named general types of illustrative ma- 
terial without giving any indication of why, when, and how they 
should be used, it would seem that chief emphasis is being 
directed to a phase which does not warrant so large a proportion 
of attention. 

5. In making comparisons of number and percentage of 
comments of each type, one should realize that adequate emphasis 
upon bases of selection, objectives, and general kinds of guidance 
would require, in all, fewer comments than would adequate 
emphasis on specific pupil activities, teaching procedures, and 
sources. Measured in this way, the relatively small emphasis 
on objectives and bases for selection may be adequate. 


The following general conclusion can be drawn from the 
study : 

1. Material designed to afford guidance in the selection and 
use of pictures is found in current geography courses in amounts 
which suggest that the makers of these courses consider it an 
important type of guidance. 

2. Much of the guidance is, however, of a type of relatively 
little value to teachers because it is too general and nondistinc- 
tive; that is, it does not bear concretely on the specific theme 
of teaching geography and puts too much stress on merely naming 
kinds of pictures that almost every teacher knows and too little 
stress on specific objectives, bases for selection, and particular 
types of teacher and pupil performance. 

3. Cities, especially those in the northeast and north central 
parts, are beginning to center attention on the more valuable 
phases of guidance. 

4. Since the one course that gives the most guidance of the 
better type (Baltimore) was published in 1931, and since most 
of the courses that afford adequate guidance were published 
in the second half of the decade in which all courses analyzed 
were published, it seems that the tendency is in the direction of 
affording better guidance. 

5. In improving geography courses with respect to guidance 
in the selection and use of pictures, it would be well to emphasize 
to a greater extent the six specific types of guidance discussed 
and to devote little if any space to those numerous comments 
which, taken together, say no more than: "Use pictures of all 
available kinds well and teach children how to use them." 

D. By Supervisory Help 

The recent publication by Brunstetter contains some very 
concrete suggestions for developing and maintaining an in- 
service training program for teachers. The role of the super- 
visor in this connection is well emphasized. A summary of 
these suggestions is here given. 

Crawford's report serves to illustrate the role of the 
director of visual education in supervising teacher training. 
The two reports supplement each other admirably. 


One supervisor's procedure with teachers is described by 

Brunstetter, M. R. "How to Train Teachers in the Use of 
Sound Films." In How to Use the Educational Sound Film. 
University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1937. p. 96-113. 

One reason for teachers' inefficiency in using audio-visual 
materials of instruction is the lack of professional courses in 
this field in teacher-training institutions. The partial list of 
courses published in the May, 1936, issue of Educational Screen 
testifies to this fact. In progressive departments of visual edu- 
cation, a program of in-service training is provided through the 
cooperation of the director of visual education by (a) planning 
with the teachers and pupils, (b) visiting the teachers, (c) hold- 
ing meetings, (d) giving demonstration lessons, (e) issuing 
bulletins, (f) compiling lists of sources, and (g) making ma- 
terials available. The routine of the department might be left 
with the secretary-clerk, allowing the director to spend time in 
supervisory contacts. Training in the use of visual materials 
may be regarded as a form of professional growth and advance- 
ment, comparable to that which teachers receive from 
participating in a program of curriculum revision. 

Desirable outcomes for a training program. The scope and 
direction of a program for developing skill in the use of audio- 
visual materials is necessarily determined by the goals to be 
achieved. One goal may be improvement in technique; another 
may be a knowledge of the fundamental principles underlying 
the effective use of the sound film; a third may be the knowledge 
of specific film-teaching methods which have proved effective; 
a fourth may be the habit of creative experimentation with film- 
teaching methods and procedures ; and a fifth may be a knowledge 
of the available films in the local library and their application to 
the subjects taught in the local courses of study. 

An in-service training course. One way to develop film- 
teaching ability is through a special course, including the theory 
of film teaching and its practical application in the classroom. 
Such a course has the advantage of focusing the teacher's atten- 
tion from the beginning upon proper techniques of use. It is 
superior to the trial-and-error method by which even the good 
teacher can attain skill only gradually. It is much faster and 
more stimulating than the "infiltration" method of working with 


individuals in supervisory conferences, which at best requires 
considerable time to reach every teacher. 

In answer to the objection that such a course will be adding 
still another load to the teacher's overcrowded schedule, the 
statement is made that the teacher who is content to plod along 
without refreshing his point of view occasionally with new 
perspectives is in danger of professional stagnation. Alert 
teachers are continually upon the outlook for opportunities to 
develop their grasp of educational principles and to improve the 
efficiency of their classroom methods. 

For many school systems, such a course can be provided 
in the extension department of a teachers' college near by. The 
instructor of such a course, however, should know the curriculum, 
should have a grasp of instructional problems, and should be 
familiar with the application of audio-visual devices in specific 
areas of learning. 

A. Suggested content for the training course 

I. Appreciation of the sound film as an instructional aid 
Characteristics of the educational sound film; 
complementary relationship to other instructional 
aids; application to various subject-matter fields 

II. Standards for educational sound films 

How to rate films; suggestive list of standards 

III. Integrating sound films with courses of study 

Advantages of integration of the film in achieving 
the objectives of the course; method of writing 
sound films into courses of study 

IV. Techniques of teaching with sound films 

Planning the use of the sound film; introducing 
each showing of the film ; guiding learning activities 
after the film showing 

V. Operation of 16 mm. sound-film equipment 

There has been a tendency in some courses in visual 
education to stress the physical and mechanical 
aspects. There is no question of their importance, 
but the educational aspects of the use of the film 
overshadows the mechanical. Training, however, 
should include a knowledge of the units of the pro- 
jector, how to prepare a classroom for projection, 
and how to operate the projector. 


B. Teaching the training course 

The method for the training course should be the 
laboratory-demonstration-discussion type, an approach 
which is ideally adapted to the nature and functions of 
the devices being studied. Lectures should be amply 
illustrated with films. 

C. Related training activities 

The practical application of the theories developed in 
the training class may be made through experimental 
film lessons initiated by individual teachers and dis- 
cussed before the group. Another type of activity is the 
integration of films in a curriculum-revision program. 

D. Reference materials 

There should be made available: books, monographs, 
and pamphlets descriptive of types of instructional ma- 
terials and their selection for specific teaching situations ; 
studies evaluating the effectiveness of the sound films; 
monographs describing programs ; superior courses of 
study illustrating the integration of materials of instruc- 
tion; reports dealing with film-teaching techniques; out- 
standing film-lesson plans in mimeographed form ; syllabi 
for training teachers; periodicals in visual instruction; 
film catalogs and lists of sources; teachers' manuals 
accompanying the films in the local film library. 

Special training for principals. Principals as well as teachers 
will profit by intensive study of the various aspects of audio- 
visual instruction. Their contacts with the film program are 
both administrative and supervisory. For the latter it is im- 
portant that they participate in the same preliminary training 
as the teachers, as a foundation for their supervisory service 
in assisting the teachers to plan film uses and to evaluate the 
worth of film-teaching techniques. The principal's function 
as a supervisor is not that of operating the projector for teachers 
timid about mechanical things; he should be an educational 
consultant upon which the teacher relies for perspective and 
suggestions regarding instructional problems and methods. 

The efficient administration of the film program, in so far as 
it devolves upon the principals, may be developed through a series 
of conferences in which the principals meet with the superinten- 
dent, or the individual directing the program, to map out desirable 
routines or to suggest modifications of the administrative pro- 
cedure which seem desirable. 


Supervision of film teaching. This is probably the most 
important means of insuring the development of skill in teaching 
with films. The initial basic training serves to give teachers 
a background of knowledge and understanding of the film 
medium, but supervision guides them as they grow in the ability 
to utilize the film in the classroom. The supervisor should be 
a person able to lead, to detect omissions and faulty methods, 
and to suggest desirable changes in approach and technique. 
This means that the person supervising should know more about 
film teaching than the teacher, should have a background of 
appreciation into which instructional materials and devices have 
been oriented with respect to the whole process of teaching. 
Furthermore, he must know what instructional materials may 
be secured, so that he may be of assistance to the teacher in 
planning units and projects. The supervisor's knowledge of 
films must go beyond the mere knowledge of titles and 
appropriate grade levels; he should know specific sections of 
the films, especially in connection' with topics in the courses of 

The supervisor visiting a classroom where the sound film is 
being utilized must consider the procedure of the film presenta- 
tion in the light of the organization planned for the entire unit. 
Furthermore, the use of this instructional material is an integral 
part of the other teaching activities of the period, not to be 
disassociated in the supervisor's analysis. 

It should be emphasized that the criticism of film-teaching 
methods, like that of any other teaching activity, must be made 
in terms of the purposes which the teacher has planned as the 
guide for the day's lesson. To illustrate, a casual observer 
might criticize the showing of only part of the film during the 
lesson, or object to a lack of discussion following the showing. 
Such techniques might be perfectly valid in terms of the purposes 
of the lesson. 

Some questions which a supervisor might ask in observing 
a film lesson are : 

1. How did the use of the film contribute to the attain- 
ment of the day's lesson? 

2. How had the students been prepared for the showing? 
In what ways was the use of the film meeting learning 
needs and interests? Had the students been prepared 
to understand difficult new words or unfamiliar photo- 
graphic devices? 


3. How well did the discussion after the film showing- 
uncover interest-leads to activities or study ? 

4. Was the use of the sound film well integrated with other 
learning activities proceeding in the class? Did the 
teacher make full use of film impressions in guiding the 
discussion after the showing? 

5. Was the particular film used the best one which could 
have been selected for the purpose? Would another 
film have been better ? 

6. Did the use of the film contribute something unique 
or time-saving? Could the same purpose have been 
better served through the use of some other device 
a field trip, textbook assignment, an experiment? 

7. How well was the mechanical part of the film showing 
handled? Was the picture clear? The room well 
ventilated? Projection managed with a minimum of 
time consumed? 

8. Is the film being utilized to stimulate creative expression 
in writing, speaking, and art work ? 

9. Are there centers of interest on the fringe of the unit 
or of the lesson taught which might profitably be 
developed for individual students ? 

10. Should there be another showing of the same film? If 
so, when, and for what specific purposes ? 

The supervisor should encourage the publication, even if 
only in mimeographed form, of outstanding lessons which his 
teachers have developed. Such recognition of professional 
excellence not only encourages the creative teacher, but helps 
to bring others up to a higher level of skill by suggesting film 
uses and procedures which might not have occurred to them. 
Another stimulating device is to issue periodically a mimeo- 
graphed bulletin which may become a handbook of film-teaching 
methods, such as the Pittsburgh Handbook for the Use of 
Visual Aids. 

Crawford, E. Winifred (Director of Visual Education, 
Montclair, New Jersey) "Director Guides Teachers in Use 
of Visual Aids." Nation's Schools. 16:32-4. November 

A supervisory program includes many phases of work, such 
as planning with the teachers and pupils, visiting the teachers, 
holding meetings, giving demonstration lessons, issuing bulletins, 


compiling lists of sources, arranging teachers' visitations and 
making material available. 

Teachers need wise guidance in the handling of visual aids. 
Many use them effectively ; some feel they are a nuisance, taking 
too much time for preparation; others want to use them but do 
not know what to expect from their use, and some include too 
many at one time. 

The supervisor cooperates with teachers during the planning 
of problems and units of work and throughout the year helps 
them use visual material as an integral part of their teaching. 
In selecting visual aids, thought is given to creative ways in 
which pupils may work under the guidance of the teacher. As 
a result of the spirit of cooperation between teachers and director, 
the pupils often approach the director for assistance. 

Many of the director's visits to the classroom are in response 
to teachers' requests. These visits are for various purposes: 
consultation about what visual aids are available, aid for a 
special group or pupil, help with equipment. The approach to 
teachers who are reticent about using visual aids is gradual 
and psychological. An invitation to give a demonstration lesson 
on the use of visual aids must come from the teacher. 

Teachers' meetings offer a splendid opportunity to discuss 
the philosophy and fundamental educational principles under- 
lying the use of visual aids. At such meetings a demonstration 
lesson, followed by discussion, is found to be effective. The 
showing of films illustrating the use made of visual aids in the 
school system is very stimulating. 

The director also offers cooperation to other supervisors and 
department heads. Bulletins describing new developments in 
the field of visual education, mimeographed source lists, bibliog- 
raphies, and the like, are sent out from time to time. 

The organization and routine of handling visual aids in 
the Montclair schools have greatly promoted their use. The 
central office lends prints, photographs, stereographs, slides, 
film slides, motion pictures, maps, posters, charts, specimens, 
articles, pamphlets, and equipment. Each school has its own 

Through supervision such as this, the director helps the 
teachers in an understanding of the modern trends in philosophv 
of education, for whose application and practice visual aids are 


Torrence, Floro (General Supervisor, Indianapolis Public 
Schools) "Guidance in the Use of Visual Education Ma- 
terial." Educational Screen. 16:24-5. January 1937. 

Supervisors in their direction of teachers find the following 
types in varying degrees: the alert, interested, efficient teachers, 
and the teachers who have become inefficient by reason of ill 
health or from a lack of interest. Both types need stimulation 
and direction, the application of such help varying with the 
relationship that exists between supervisor and teacher, the 
teacher's general attitude toward her work, and her skill and 

There are several ways in which the supervisor may proceed 
to convince a teacher that a different method from the one being 
used is necessary. He may, first of all, visit the teacher in 
question for an appropriate length of time and in the course 
of discussing the work broach tactfully the subject he has in 
mind, as for example, the use of visual aids. In his enthusiasm 
the supervisor should not give the impression that visual aids 
make up a separate subject or are even a new procedure. The 
best argument for their use should be that they enrich the subject 
matter of the course. 

The discussion may be followed by an invitation to the 
teacher to visit a colleague who is using visual aids as a means 
of training powers of observation and of developing ability to 
interpret correctly. The teacher's curiosity may thus be 
stimulated. Ask her to make the visit with this question in 
mind, "How do visual aids effect worth-while learning?" 
Arrangements should be made in advance with the demonstration 
teacher for such visits. Immediately following the demonstra- 
tion, a conference should be held with demonstrating teacher, 
visiting teacher, principal, and supervisor attending. 

The supervisor may then ask the teacher to invite him to 
visit her again at some future time after she has had time to 
reorganize her methods in accordance with modern interpreta- 
tion of fundamental principles. In an advisory capacity, the 
supervisor may offer guidance in such matters as further ex- 
perimentation, use of materials, interpretation of courses of 
study and curriculum records as they relate to visual education, 
research reading, where and how to obtain materials, and their 


Often in the case of teachers unaccustomed to the use of 
visual-education materials, a supervisor finds it necessary to 
break down such inhibitions as not knowing how to operate 
projectors, and fear in initiating the use of unfamiliar materials. 
Recommendations to take a course in visual instruction will 
often solve difficulties for teachers when other measures offered 
by supervisors and principals fail. 

Other instances of supervisory assistance for teachers in 
the use of visual aids have been described in the following 
short articles : "Getting the Faculty Machine Minded," by 
F. G. Hoek (National Elementary Principal 13:167-70. 
June 1934) ; "Teacher Training in Washington, D. C," by 
Rebecca J. Gray (Visual Instruction News. 4:22-3. March 
1932) ; and "Picture Education the Mechanics of Its 
Operation," by Harry H. Haworth (Nation's Schools. 11: 
23-8. January 1933). 

In all the foregoing reports the general position seems 
to be that the responsibility for in-service teacher preparation 
rests with the local school authorities. 


In Picture Values in Education, by J. J. Weber, there 
appeared an outline for a course in visual education which 
had been prepared by Mr. Weber for the University of 
Kansas in 1921. In 1929, Aughinbaugh revised and en- 
larged upon this outline. His version, which appeared in 
the Educational Screen, is summarized as follows. 

Aughinbaugh, B. A. (Ohio State Supervisor of Visual In- 
struction) "Outline for Course in Visual Instruction." 
Educational Screen. 8 :307-8. December 1929. 


A. Evolution from visual to aural communication 

1. Empirical impressions (Dewey) 

2. Natural signs (Dewey) 


3. Intentional signs (Dewey) : gestures; oral speech; 
recorded forms of communication 

4. Poetic imagery; significance of poetic climax in 
Shakespeare; figures of speech vs. pictures. 

B. Evolution from aural to visual communication 

1. Bacon and inductive reasoning : its effect 

2. Evolution to mnemonics, ideographs, and picto- 

3. Evolution of photography: history of photog- 

4. Evolution of projected pictures (Ramsaye and 

5. The motion picture a qualitative gain to com- 
munication ; the close-up, flash back, stop and 
substitute, etc. 

6. The school and poetic expression; the school and 
scientific expression 

7. Future evolution of the motion picture; con- 
venience for (a) direct viewing device for the 
individual, (b) reading and thinking, and (c) 
viewing and thinking. 


A. Types of visual aids 

1. The school appearance 

2. The school journey (Hoban) : general informa- 
tion; industrial; the museum; the laboratory (sci- 
ence, natural, social, literature) 

3. Things, specimens, models, exhibits 

4. Painting, drawings, charts, posters 

5. Cartoons, maps, graphs, diagrams 

6. Stereographs 

7. Photographs, half-tones, prints 

8. Lantern slides 

9. Motion pictures 

10. Outlines, schemes 

11. Pageants. 

B. Sources of visual aids 

1. School environment 

2. Library 

3. The museum 

4. The blackboard 

5. Commercial firms 

6. Government departments 

7. Extension bureaus. 



A. General problems 

1. Fire regulations 

2. Use of electricity 

3. Training and organizing of group of operators 

4. Necessary adjuncts : booths, screens, shades, 

5. Care of apparatus: projectors and films. 

B. Lantern slides 

1. Types of lanterns : glass slides, film slides, opaque 
pictures ; discussion of how to use each 

2. Making slides ; laboratory work 

3. Making photographs: prints (contact), enlarge- 
ments, taking the picture (cameras, lenses, judg- 
ing light, composition) ; laboratory work. 

C. Motion pictures 

1. Types of projectors: standard, semiportable, 

2. Types of film : nitrate, acetate, 35 mm., 16 mm. 

3. Handling the projector: threading, framing, 
focusing, lighting, timing, gaging speed 

4. Cleaning and oiling: how to clean lenses, gate, 
sprockets; importance of oiling and how to do it 

5. Causes of trouble : hooked sprocket teeth, emul- 
sion on film slides or springs, loose take-up, bent 
reels, dirty sprockets, in-and-out of focus, slap- 
ping noise, jumping picture, dim picture, weaving 
picture, loop pulling 

6. Mending film, notching broken sprocket holes, 
inspecting, shipping. 

Hollis; Ellis and Thornborough) 

A. Special methods for : 

1. Social science: geography, history, civics 

2. Linguistic studies: foreign languages, vernacular, 

3. Biological sciences: botany, zoology, anatomy 

4. Health studies : physiology, foods and diet, physi- 
cal training 

5. Physical sciences: physics, chemistry, physiog- 

6. Mathematics : geometry, arithmetic 

7. Vocational guidance: agriculture, industries, home 


B. General methods 

1. Model lesson plans for each visual aid 

2. When to use each type of visual aid 

3. Preliminary preparation 

4. Follow-up work 

5. Classroom use vs. auditorium use. 


A. Supervising the use of visual aids 

1. Classroom supervision 

2. Training-school courses 

3. Demonstration lessons. 

B. Administering the use of visual aids 

1. In a single school: circulation of materials, 
teachers' references 

2. For the school system : purchase costs, inspection 
and evaluation ; classification for use ; correla- 
tion with special subjects; distribution and 
storage ; office records 

3. For state institutions and departments: booking 
and routine; rentals and transportation; film- 
library service; film score cards; teachers' leaflets. 


A. Hygiene of the eye: physiology of, defects and treat- 
ment, lighting of classrooms, binocular vision 

B. Pictorial saturation point: how many pictures, how 
much language, how much activity, word-picture- 
activity balance 

C. Emotional effects of pictures: pleasure and satisfac- 
tion; interest stimulated 

D. Moral values of pictures: information, interests, atti- 
tudes, ideals 

E. Standards for evaluation of pictures : truth, simplicity, 
problematic organization, standard for comparison, 
appeal to feelings, social-moral values, static and 
dynamic content, mechanical perfection, photographic 
quality, adaptation to purpose or age 

F. Factors in pictures and their use: realism, size or 
area, color, definition, lights and shades, composition, 
perspective, projection, stillness, motion, isolation, 
group presence 


G. Why use visual materials and methods ? 

1. Primary sources of knowledge 

2. Necessity for experience 

3. Dangers of verbalism 

4. Motivating learning 

5. Vitalizing subject matter 

6. Time saving in modern life 

7. Retardation and elimination 

8. Concreteness in education. 


A. General problems 

1. Can one learn with less experience when objective 
aids are used ? 

2. Is the motion picture more effective than the still 
picture ? 

3. Does the abstract thinker get more out of visual 
instruction than the "thing" thinker, or less? 

4. What is the specific function of visual aids in the 
learning process? 

B. Administrative problems 

1. How should the classroom be darkened so as to be 
least harmful to vision? 

2. What is the best w r ay to develop a visual-aids 
department in a small school system ? 

3. Can a system of film exchange be worked out for 
rural schools with the county as the unit? How? 

C. Problems in methodology 

1. What is the ideal lesson plan for the use of edu- 
cational films? 

2. How does the time of using a visual aid vary 
with its nature ? 

3. How does the use of realistic aids differ from that 
of the diagrammatic? 


Outlines of some recommended courses in visual educa- 
tion have next been summarized. These include the syllabus 
by the committee of which McClusky was chairman and the 
plans by Gregory, Hutchinson, and Henderson. The plan 
of the French educators, Barrier and Lebrun, surpasses any 
hope American educators have expressed for visual instruc- 


tion. They visualize a cinema-teaching normal school as part 
of the higher educational system. 

McClusky, F. Dean (Director, Scarborough School, New 
York), Jenkins, John J. (Bronxville Schools, New York), 
Knowlton, Daniel C. (New York University), Merton, 
Elda (Waukesha, Wisconsin) Visual Instruction: Syllabus 
of a Proposed Textbook for Use in Teacher-Training 
Schools. 1932. Unpublished. 

The main distinction between visual instruction and other 
instruction is a matter of emphasis. Visual instruction 
emphasizes the value of concrete imagery in the learning process, 
whereas other instruction stresses the importance of verbal 

The justification for discussing the relation of visual aids to 
instruction apart from general methods lies in the fact that there 
has developed, rightly enough, a strong movement to centralize 
visual materials in schools as such materials become increasingly 
common through the rapid growth of photography. This move- 
ment toward centralization has been furthered: (1) by the 
development of elaborate educational departments in museums ; 
(2) by the establishment of school museums, such as those in 
St. Louis, Reading, and Cleveland; (3) by the development of 
visual-instruction extension service in state universities; (4) by 
the growth of city school bureaus for visual instruction; and 
(5) by the organization of companies to manufacture and distri- 
bute material equipment for visual education. 

A second reason for a separate discussion is found in the 
fact that in general- or special-methods textbooks little atten- 
tion has been given to the use of visual materials. Finally, a 
critical analysis and evaluation of the situation is needed before 
mistakes are made which will detract from the advantages of 
using such devices. 

A teacher should be familiar with the following aspects of 
visual instruction : 

1. The place of visual instruction in the modern school from 
the viewpoint of the educational psychologist 

2. What experience has taught us about the value and place 
of visual instruction in the modern school 

3. What research has taught us about the value and place of 
visual instruction in the modern school 

[This section has been adapted from F. Dean McClusky, 
Visual Instruction: Its Value and Needs. The field of 


research is divided into five sections: (a) the determina- 
tion of the pedagogical effectiveness of the different ma- 
terials; (b) the development of effective techniques in 
teaching with visual aids; (c) the correlation of visual 
materials with the curriculum; (d) the improvement of 
the mechanics of constructing and presenting visual ma- 
terials; and (e) the improvement of the administrative 
procedure involved in handling apparatus and materials 
of visual instruction.] 

4. A classification of visual materials 

5. A description of the various types of visual material 

6. The technique of teaching with visual aids 

7. The use of visual aids as applied to various school 

8. The administration of visual education in the modern 

9. The production, care, and distribution of visual materials 

10. Sources of visual material 

11. Sources of visual equipment 

Selected reading references are listed after each section. 

Gregory, William M. 15 (Educational, Museum, Cleveland) 
"A Teacher's Training Course in Visual Aids." Educational 
Screen. 4:88-90. February 1925. 

A teacher-training course in visual education, based on 
sound educational practice, is needed for elementary-school 
teachers. Such a course should take note of the fact that the 
psychological reactions should determine the visual aids best 
suited to produce results in the different school subjects. The 
relation of visual aids to imagination, interest, effort, memory, 
and association is the decisive factor in the choice of visual 

The training course should consist of general lectures on 
principles and practice, discussion of the various visual aids 
and their place in education, practical experience in preparing 
and using exhibits, demonstration lessons with pupils under 
favorable opportunities for observation. 

16 Compare with the prospectus for an Institute of Visual Education under the 
direction of Dr. Gregory, held at Western Reserve University, June through July 
1937. Consideration is given by specialists of the following topics: fundamental 
problems, visual materials, equipment, application of learning aids to the various 
school subjects; research and organization of teaching units, consideration and 
evaluation of the motion picture, administration of visual-auditory aids, information 
on sources of materials, readings, the Cleveland Museum and visual instruction, and 
an evaluation of visual aids in education. 


The following outline is suggested for studying each type of 

1. Its place and value in the course of study; subjects, 
topics, and methods of use. Demonstration lessons with 
objective tests may be given to pupils before and after 
lessons to test the efficiency of the different visual aids 

2. Instructional methods in class and auditorium 

3. Educational value: reactions of the pupils as shown by 
the results of experiments 

4. Standards of quality: picture value, photographic 
quality, and the like 

5. Methods of testing efficiency 

6. Sources and costs : commercial, federal, local 

7. Technique of handling material and equipment, includ- 
ing techniques for filing, mounting, storing 

8. Reading references, including courses of study and sug- 
gested use. 

This course should cover thirty hours of work. A survey of 
courses in the United States at the time of writing shows that 
they emphasize the technical aspects of photography, the me- 
chanics of projection, the motion picture, and that quite generally 
tftey direct the demonstration lessons with pupils. Visual- 
instruction courses tend to be elective rather than required in 
teacher-training institutions. 

Hutchinson, J. Raymond (Director of Visual Education, 
Thomas Jefferson High School, Elizabeth, New Jersey) 
"Fundamentals of Visual Education." School Executive. 
55 : 186-8. January 1936. 

Superintendents and administrators should establish or foster 
existing courses in visual instruction for all in-service teachers, 
with proper credit and immediate application to existing educa- 
tional needs. 

In most systems, courses in visual education could be offered 
by the university extension service with very little expense to 
the school system. In fact, where courses of this type are not 
available, training and experience in the use of visual aids might 
be carried out as a faculty project. Superintendents and adminis- 
trators could lead the way in requiring that new entrants in the 
teaching field have some training in visual and audio-visual 
instruction through adequate teacher-training courses. Penn- 
sylvania has done well to make a laboratory course in visual 


and sensory aids mandatory for certification in teaching in that 
state. It would be wise for all states to require such a course. 

The following items are suggested for inclusion in a course: 
(1) the establishment of the scope of the field; (2) the identifica- 
tion of visual and sensory aids; (3) the determination of the 
use of each; (4) the study of the construction and operation 
of each; (5) the evaluation of materials; (6) the application of 
materials to existing curricula and educational needs; (7) the 
development of classroom procedure. "The whole philosophy 
of the course should deal in objective fashion with the highest 
concepts of learning through the fundamental uses of the visual- 
sensory mediums." 

For the student, the use of such courses should result in 
"a more full and complete life through an enlarged opportunity 
to understand life; for the teacher, natural reluctance for new 
things is often supplanted by an enthusiasm for the practical 
usefulness of the ideas set forth." The average teacher is not 
aware of the value of visual instruction in correlating, clarifying, 
and enriching his own personal ability and merits. The common 
entertainment idea of the movie still persists, but an educational 
motion picture can aid in giving experience. 

This experience must be directed, however. In many of 
the complex situations illustrated on the screen, even when it 
is possible to present the details in proper relation to one another, 
there must be a ' 'controlled reality." One idea at a time must 
be emphasized with other details subordinated, until each im- 
portant item is given its proper place and opportunity. Another 
plan is to teach the student for what to look and to be willing 
to reexamine the many details at length. 

Henderson, H. A. (State Teachers College, Terre Haute, 
Indiana) "What Should a Course in Visual Instruction 
Include?" Educational Screen. 11:186. June 1932. Re- 
print from the April 1932 issue of Indiana Teacher. 

A course in visual instruction should be first of all a labora- 
tory course, whose instructor is familiar with the various types 
of visual aids and can teach their use, manipulation, and care. 
If the students of the visual method of teaching are to derive 
full benefit from the course, each one must do some supervised 
practice teaching following the recognized psychological lesson 
procedure. The procedure is as follows : The instructor should 


motivate the lesson by bringing some known experience before 
the pupil; create interest by relating known to unknown ex- 
perience; give the pupil a concrete and meaningful vocabulary; 
assign tasks and make available sources of information for re- 
search work ; after the research has been done, hold a conference 
with the class allowing pupils to present and discuss pictures, ob- 
jects, and the like, and to bring up questions about these things 
they would like to know or do. 

It is suggested that a course in visual instruction be given 
separately for grade- and high-school teachers. The following 
are the purposes of such a course: To give a background of 
correct imagery for descriptions outside the child's experience ; to 
raise problems the answers to which may be found by reading, 
that is, to motivate silent reading; to make the lesson vivid and 
interesting; to focus the attention of the group upon a given 
subject ; to create an atmospheric background for teaching 
appreciation and literary interpretation. 

Barrier and Lebrun (France) "Teachers' Collaboration in the 
Production and Use of Didactic Films." International Re- 
view of Educational Cinematography. 6:9-13. January 

Teachers must collaborate in many ways in the preparation 
of didactic films in the choice of subjects, in preparing the 
scenario, in mounting (editing) the film, in the actual filming. 

A special course in pedagog-'cal and technical training in 
cinematography is essential. Just as a real cartographer, if he 
is to be more than an ordinary draftsman, must know geography, 
so the cinema specialist must possess professional qualifications. 
A cinema-teaching normal school should be part of the higher 
education system and should be a regular training school for 
those who will be called upon to produce films to fit the needs 
of schools. 

An international normal cinema school is another possibility. 
Such a school would tend to promote the best scientific, technical, 
and literary training. Included would be training in the use of 
the lantern slide, the phonograph record, the sound film with 
its techniques of production and in the preparation of teachers' 

A distributing service on a large scale would encourage 
intelligent criticism from the field, leading to the production of 
desirable didactic films. 


The article on teacher training by Spencer summarizes 
the facts, attitudes, and skills that he thinks teachers should 
acquire after taking a course similar to the one recommended 
by the State of Pennsylvania. 

Spencer, Herbert L. (Principal, Henry Clay Frick Training 
School for Teachers, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) "Training 
Teachers to Recognize Vital Values in Education : Abstract." 
National Education Association Proceedings. 68:920-3. 

The basis of a course given at the Henry Clay Frick Training 
School for Teachers in Pittsburgh is the very complete outline 
of factual content for a course in visual education, "Summary 
of Technics of Visual and Other Sensory Aids for Teachers in 
Service and Teachers in Training," prepared by C. F. Hoban, 
director of visual education for the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania at Harrisburg. The following are some of the facts, 
attitudes, and skills that teachers are expected to possess. 

Facts. Visual education is not a separate subject but an 
effective means or method of instruction that can be success- 
fully applied to nearly all subjects. While teachers will be 
trained in the techniques of using visual and other sensory 
aids by a special methods course, it is highly desirable that these 
techniques be included as a part of the special courses devoted 
to methods of teaching reading, history, science, nature study, 
and the like. Teachers must recognize that visual and other 
sensory aids are vital to the successful teaching of practically 
every subject in the curriculum because they furnish the con- 
crete elements necessary to a complete understanding and 
recognition of vital values in the material composing the school 

Teachers should recognize that visual and other sensory aids 
have played a major part in the successful educational systems 
of the past. The use of pictures by the early Indians, the Greeks, 
the early Egyptians, and even by the cavemen in primitive times 
are examples. 

Teachers should know that sensory experience is the founda- 
tion of intellectual activity. Very few teachers are gifted with 
the ability of making word pictures realistic. And yet, it is the 
realistic and concrete that children are first interested in and 
not the abstract and symbolic. 


Teachers must also recognize that verbalism is probably the 
major weakness in most classroom situations. This weakness 
in teaching can be remedied by proper use of visual material. 

Teachers should recognize, further, the values of visual aids 
not only in teaching but in other fields. Henry Ford realized 
the value of motion pictures as a means of developing better 
automobile repairmen. The United States Government uses 
visual aids extensively in its work in immigration, Americaniza- 
tion, health, and the like. Doctor Wholey, psychiatrist at the 
University of Pittsburgh, has recently developed an extremely 
interesting film on multiple personality. 

Teachers should also recognize that the effective use of visual 
aids will result in these definite outcomes: an economy of time 
in teaching; enrichment of instruction; and development of 
correct initial impressions. 

Teachers should know the various types of visual aids and 
the values of each. 

Attitudes. In order to recognize vital values in education, 
the teacher should develop a scientific attitude so that he may 
determine for himself the relative values of the materials and 
techniques. He should also be aware that though the funda- 
mental principles in teaching change very little, better and newer 
methods of subject presentation are constantly being devised ; he 
should, accordingly, be ever alert to accept and try these new 

Skills. To develop skill in handling effectively the different 
types of visual material, every teaching-training institution 
should number in its curriculum a course in visual education 
which should include not only a study of the factual background 
and the development of mental attitudes but very practical 
laboratory assignments in the actual care and operation of the 
various devices common to visual education. Each student 
teacher could be required to conduct a school journey ; to demon- 
strate with objects, specimens, and models ; and to make extensive 
use of various exhibits. He should have practice in the care 
and operation of projectors. He should know how to correct 
such troubles as clouded illumination, too small or too large a 
picture, failure of lamps to light, poor focus, displacement of 
optical system, and appearance of spectrum colors on the margin 
of the screen. He should also know how to operate a 16 mm. 
projector, and in some school systems a 35 mm. projector. The 


course should further include the making of lantern slides, 
especially those on plain and etched glass and those made with 
cellophane. It is also desirable that the teacher know how to 
take, develop, and finish good pictures, and to make photographic 

The only text books available for students and instructors 
in teachers' colleges and universities are: 

Dorris, A. V. Visual Instruction in the Public Schools. Ginn 
and Co. Boston. 1928. 

Hoban, C. F., Hoban, C. F. Jr., and Zisman, S. B. Visualizing 
the Curriculum. Cordon Company. New York. 1937. 

There are, in addition, an increasing number of reference 
books for students in the field, as the large number of ab- 
stracts in this volume will indicate. 16 


Learning from visual-sensory materials reaches beyond 
the walls of the classroom. That this fact is now accepted, 
the recent motion-picture appreciation movement testifies. 
The findings of the Payne Fund investigation have shown 
the influence of theatrical films on the life and attitudes of 
children. Courses in motion-picture appreciation are spring- 
ing up rapidly in school systems of various sizes in all parts 
of the country. Before a teacher can undertake to influence 
her pupils toward a more critical evaluation of what they 
see at the movies, however, she must be given some guidance 
herself. Edgar Dale explains what sort of preparation 
teachers need for launching a motion-picture study program. 

M See also Appendix. 


Dale, Edgar. "A Comprehensive Program for the Teaching 
of Motion Picture Appreciation." Educational Screen. 13: 
125-8. May 1934. An address delivered before the Visual 
Instruction Department of the National Education Associa- 
tion in Cleveland, February 1934. 

The findings of the Payne Fund investigations have brought 
visual-education groups to a recognition of the fact that it is 
human behavior that we are trying to influence through our 
visual aids. The actual life and feelings of a man who makes 
a tire in a rubber factory, for example, are more important than 
the mechanical processes involved in making a tire. The find- 
ings have also shown that visual influences are at work in the 
out-of -school life of the child and that these influences need 
to be reckoned with in our programs. 

The great need for motion-picture appreciation in schools is 
further evident in the fact that though hundreds of thousands 
of dollars are spent in the school to give young people accurate 
notions about the world, these notions may easily be distorted 
by the inaccurate ideas they are likely to get at the movie theater. 
How, then, are young people to be trained, first, in the wise 
selection of motion-picture entertainment, and second, in 
standards by which they can evaluate what they see on the 
screen? To so train them would involve a whole program of 
education, in which the home, the church, and the school should 
cooperate ; it would require the development in children of the 
habit of using standards for evaluating motion pictures similar 
to those set up in other fields. Since parents must help to 
regulate the movie experiences of children, they should assist 
in the development of these standards. 

The activities of some national organizations with respect to 
motion-picture appreciation are as follows: 
The National Board of the Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation, through its publication, the Woman's Press, offers 
guidance in the page called 'The New Three R's Reels, 
Reading, and Radio" and has published a series of articles 
on the motion picture. The Association is also making ex- 
perimental programs in motion-picture appreciation for which 
some fifty groups have been furnished with free text 

The National Council of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion discusses almost every month, in several national publi- 
cations, some phase of motion-picture research findings for 


discussion groups. Three tentative outlines for discussion 
groups have been worked out. 

The National Catholic Welfare Conference has published 
outlines on motion pictures for study groups and gives much 
space to the findings of the Payne Fund studies. 
The International Council of Religious Education publishes 
articles on the relation of motion pictures to youth. 
The National Council of Teachers of English has sponsored 
a nation-wide program of motion-picture appreciation, using 
the textbook, How to Appreciate Motion Pictures, and other 
printed matter. 

The National Congress of Parents and Teachers has pub- 
lished a series of bulletins on its national program in the 
field of motion pictures; one bulletin is entitled "Teaching 
Motion Picture Discrimination to Children and Youth." 

A program of motion-picture appreciation has been worked 
out in five states : North Carolina, Connecticut, Iowa, California, 
and Ohio, in cooperation with the state departments of education. 

It should be the responsibility of the school, under the spon- 
sorship of the Department of Visual Instruction of the National 
Education Association to include in the visual program the 
out-of -school experiences of children by adding to their film 
libraries outstanding theatrical films and by developing in young 
people habits of critical judgment. 

Dale, Edgar. "Motion-Picture Appreciation." School Man- 
agement. 5:181-2. March 1936. Abstracted from the 
Harvard Teachers Record. 

The goals we have set up in our work in motion-picture 
appreciation are these: (1) To develop an understanding of 
the influence of the motion picture upon the information, 
attitudes, and conduct of children, youths, and adults; (2) to 
develop discrimination in the selection of motion-picture enter- 
tainment; (3) to evaluate critically what is seen on the screen; 
(4) to develop leadership among high-school students in the 
solution of our motion-picture problems. 

Before a teacher can help a student to clarify his ideas as 
to motion pictures, however, she must first clarify her own point 
of view. She must understand the premises, articulate and 
inarticulate, that are present in motion pictures. Are we un- 
consciously accepting premises that are really inimical to our 
own philosophy? 


Note, for instance, the overemphasis on chance, the fortuitous 
in human events, that occurs so frequently in motion pictures. 
Consider the unusual methods by which hero and heroine are 
apt to make each other's acquaintance, or the excessive use of 
supernatural forces as in The Return of Peter Grimm or Peter 
Ibbetsen. Another premise may be found in the numerous 
themes treating the white-man ego-complex. To white people, 
Negroes like Stepin Fetchit may appear funny in their stupidity 
and slovenliness, but they are not funny to colored people. 

Another major premise of American movies is that "labor is 
indecorous." The concept of labor set forth in motion pictures 
is confused, evasive, and even distorted. Most farming on the 
screen is done by gentlemen farmers in well-heeled boots, or 
is introduced to provide a rustic setting for a love scene. Still 
another tendency on the part of motion-picture producers is to 
pay more attention to the social register than to the social scene. 

Other premises are the acceptance of the economic status quo ; 
the notion that war and especially espionage are glamorous; 
the idea that crime is caused by bad people kill or incarcerate 
the bad people and you solve the crime problem; the illusion 
that romantic love solves most problems. 

Teachers, then, must face the question: Shall we accept 
reality or shall we avoid it through escape religion, escape litera- 
ture, escape movies? The alternative is to have motion pictures 
with insight. Many of the genuine problems of modern living 
unemployment, bad housing, poverty might be given dramatic 
and revealing treatment on the screen. 

The teacher of motion-picture appreciation is cognizant of the 
fact that the producer is using a form of suasion, which in times 
such as these especially since movies are in the hand of those 
who are benefiting from the status-quo may be dangerous to 
high-school students. Schools have overemphasized the accretion 
of unfocused information and have neglected the development 
of good taste and good judgment. 

A recent survey of colleges and teacher-training institu- 
tions reveals the fact that many college officials are aware 
of the role of the radio and the motion picture in molding 
the lives of girls and boys. They believe that teacher-training 
institutions have a responsibility in the preparation of teach- 


ers to teach discrimination in the use of these media. Though 
only in a few cases has there been any attempt to offer 
organized courses in radio and photoplay appreciation, it is 
gratifying to note that fifty- three institutions are considering 
the introduction of such instruction in their curricula. A 
brief summary of the findings of a national survey is here 

"Training Teachers in Appreciation." The Nezvs Letter. 

February 1937. 

The results quoted here are adapted from the report by 
Dr. Cline M. Koon on the survey conducted by the U.S. Com- 
missioner of Education in April 1936. A detailed summary is 
available from the Editorial Division of the U.S. Office of Edu- 
cation, and is entitled, "Teacher Training in Radio Program 
and Photoplay Appreciation," by Cline M. Koon. 

The growth in courses in photoplay and radio program 
appreciation in high schools throughout the country indicates 
the need for teacher training in the technique of this type of 
instruction. To ascertain how many teacher-training institutions 
in the U.S. are offering such preparation, the U.S. Commissioner 
of Education John W. Studebaker sent letters of inquiry in 
April, 1936 to 1,530 officials in 1,142 institutions. Replies were 
received from 828 officials in 720 (63 per cent) of the institu- 
tions and further data were obtained by additional correspon- 
dence and an examination of college catalogues. 

The study discloses that only 14, or less than 2 per cent 
of the institutions replying are offering regular courses in either 
radio or motion picture appreciation. Six of these are in both 
subjects, and eight in motion picture appreciation alone. Some 
instruction in these fields is afforded by 224 institutions, 
(31 per cent), as units of work in courses in education, sociology, 
English, and other subjects. Some form of instruction in the 
field is being planned by 74 institutions. This reveals that a 
total of 284, or 40 per cent of the teacher-training institutions 
replying are offering or planning to offer some instruction in 
radio and motion picture appreciation. 

On the other hand, three-fifths of the colleges replying 
indicated that they were not only failing to offer this instruction, 
but were not even planning to do so. It is pointed out, however, 


that many of the colleges in this category are affording their 
students training in discrimination through school broadcasts 
and motion picture production. 

In most of the cases, the instruction being offered in apprecia- 
tion of the radio and motion picture is through units in other 
courses. They are included in special methods, visual education, 
English, art appreciation, music appreciation, or play production 

The method of instruction usually prevailing in these courses 
is discussion of available programs or motion pictures and an 
evaluation of their contribution to education. Study guides and 
teachers' manuals are usually used to supplement the discussion. 

Consideration will now be given to texts and manuals 
available in the field of motion picture appreciation. 17 

For teachers of high-school pupils, there is a teachers' 
manual to be used with the textbook, How to Appreciate 
Motion Pictures, by Edgar Dale. The manual is entitled 
Teaching Motion-Picture Appreciation: A Manual for Teach- 
ers. The abstract follows. 

Pollard, Elizabeth Watson. Teaching Motion-Picture Appre- 
ciation: A Manual for Teachers of High-School Classes. 
Bureau of Educational Research, Ohio State University. 
Columbus. 1933. 60 p. 

The manual, it is explained in the preface, was developed 
after experimental courses in city and rural schools had been 
organized and later studied by means of interviews, verbatim 
minutes, and much direct observation. It has special application 
to the textbook by Edgar Dale, Plow to Appreciate Motion 

The outline of chapters is as follows : 


Purpose ; teacher's preparation ; use of literature as illus- 


Common types of discussion, including developing, com- 
menting, collecting, building; method in discussion, i.e., 
approach, discussion, conclusion; points to remember 

17 A bibliography for use in motion picture appreciation courses was printed 
in the April 1937 issue of the News Letter, published at Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio. See also Appendix. 

18 The Macmillan Company. New York. 1933. 



The textbook ; books and magazine articles ; study guides ; 
radio ; talks ; tests 


Eleven units to correspond to the chapter headings of 
the textbook; suggestions for other activities 

The second part of this manual develops the basic problems 
of the motion picture as suggested by the textbook. These 
problems include selecting the picture, the story and its produc- 
tion, the purpose and future of motion pictures. 

A very valuable course of study in motion-picture appre- 
ciation has recently been published. This booklet contains 
suggestions, for teachers of all subjects in the high school, 
for using the out-of-school motion-picture experiences of 
students. This is the most comprehensive teachers' manual 
produced to date. 

Sterner, Alice P. (Barringer High School, Newark, New 
Jersey) and Bowden, W. Paul (East Orange High School, 
East Orange, New Jersey) "A Course of Study in Motion=- 
Picture Appreciation." Educational and Recreational Guides, 
Inc. 138 Washington St., Newark, New Jersey. 1936. 
63 p. 

This course of study is made up of a series of units which 
will coordinate naturally with social and physical sciences, 
history, modern languages, and English. In its broader scope the 
course will contribute to the teaching of all the subjects presented 
in a modern high-school curriculum. The units offered are so 
arranged that they may be adapted to class age and intelligence 
and to the amount of time allotted for instruction in motion- 
picture appreciation. 

In addition to the list of general objectives and general 
activities, there are outlined twelve units, with objectives, content, 
materials (bibliography), appraisal, and suggested activities for 
each. The topics treated in these twelve units are : Introduction 
to the Study, History of Motion Pictures, Motion-Picture 
Vocabulary, Story, Types of Motion Pictures, Acting, Director, 
Sets, Sound and Music, Photography, Seeing a Motion Picture, 
Value of Motion Pictures. 

A comprehensive bibliography is appended. 


A very helpful bulletin has been published by the Cali- 
fornia Department of Education, offering suggestions to 
teachers in the elementary schools with respect to a motion- 
picture appreciation program. The purpose and plan are 
here outlined. Still another booklet, How to Judge Motion 
Pictures, by Sarah MacLean Mullen, is designed for use with 
high-school students. 

Potter, Gladys L. (Assistant Chief, Division of Elementary 
Education and Rural Schools) (Chairman of Committee) 
Motion Picture Appreciation in the Elementary School. 
Department of Education Bulletin, No. 9. Sacramento, Cali- 
fornia. May 1, 1934. 37 p. 

Vierling Kersey, Superintendent of Public Instruction, states 
in the foreword that Motion Picture Appreciation in the Ele- 
mentary School is the first of a series intended to give aid to 
superintendents, principals, teachers, parents, and students. It 
is notably significant, says Kersey, that we should have come to 
realize that through a study of out-of -school influences, teachers, 
parents, and educators may be aided in the provision of more 
adequate educational opportunities for children. 

In the preface, Mrs. Gladys L. Potter, chairman, states that 
the suggestions presented in the bulletin are for the use of the 
teacher in awakening children to the educational possibilities 
of the films and in arousing appreciations that will raise the 
standards of movie audiences. It is in no way an attempt to 
promote the attendance of children at motion-picture theaters. 

The bulletin is divided into two parts. In Part I, "The 
Motion Picture and Its Relation to Education," are considered 
the influence of the motion picture, recent studies relative to 
the motion picture, educational possibilities in motion pictures, 
and the responsibility of the teacher. In Part II, "Suggestions to 
the Teacher/' we find a discussion of photography, making a 
screen play, tone values, documentary films, costumes and make- 
up, music, sets, and bibliographical notes. 

Mullen, Sarah MacLean. Ho^v to Judge Motion Pictures. 
Scholastic. Chamber of Commerce Building. Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 1934. 60 p. 

This pamphlet discusses motion-picture appreciation under 
the following headings: Rules Before the Play; While We 


Watch ; Plot What It Is and How to Judge It ; Talk After the 
Play; Working with the Theme; The Story; Directors What 
They Do; Acting, Good and Bad; Appreciating the Sounds We 
Hear; Good and Bad Talk; Eyebrow Pencil and Grease Paint; 
Building the Stage Set; Photographing Light; The Camera and 
the Camera Man; More About Sound; More About Directors; 
The Last Step ; and Making Our Own Judgments. 

Teachers of photoplay appreciation have been greatly 
aided in developing discussions around current films, by the 
valuable suggestions and bibliography provided in the study 
guides published by Educational and Recreational Guides, 
Inc., of Newark, N.J. These appear from time to time 
immediately preceding the release of an exceptional photo- 

Another bulletin compiled for use in photoplay appre- 
ciation classes is Motion Picture Appreciation (Bulletin 98), 
issued in 1935 by the Pennsylvania Department of Public 
Instruction in Harrisburg. 




The argument that visual aids may be fitted into almost 
any type of higher-education course and that a separate 
offering is hardly necessary is offered by Freeman. Similarly, 
McClusky, in his article, "Finding the Facts of Visual Edu- 
cation," (see page 385) concludes that "the solution [of 
teacher preparation in visual education] does not lie in 
directors of special courses, but rather in that of incorporat- 
ing into the already existing prescribed courses in methods, 
the treatment of the topic visual instruction as part of these 
courses." A recent address by the Dean of the School of 
Education of the University of Wisconsin also advances the 
argument that a separate course is undesirable. W. M. 


Gregory, director of the Educational Museum in Cleveland, 
is of the same opinion. Gregory writes: "I believe that 
educators are making a great mistake in pushing a course 
in visual education or instruction. What should be done is 
that each subject such as history, geography, science, and 
so on, should develop its visual material within its course. 
To separate visual instruction into a distinct course is a 
mistake, and in many places has not succeeded very well. 
It does reach a few visual enthusiasts, that is true, but to 
reach a great mass of teachers, the visual material should be 
integrated into each course of study and recognized as an 
essential part of that course of study. Perhaps that might 
be the thesis of a visual-instruction course how to introduce 
into each curriculum in the school the appropriate and essen- 
tial visual material, and to give the teacher skill in using that 
material in the subject for which it is designed." 

Freeman, Frank N. "Graduate Training in Visual Instruc- 
tion." Quoted in Educational Screen. 5:489-91. October 

Courses in visual instruction are classified as dealing with the 
problems (a) of particular positions, (b) of groups of jobs 
having methods or processes in common, and (c) of basic sci- 
ences, bodies of knowledge, or research techniques. Courses that 
consider the problems of particular positions deal, for example, 
with the duties of the superintendent or principal, or with special 
methods in, say, geography. Courses of this type should include 
a discussion of visual education. Courses that deal with problems 
of groups of jobs having methods or processes in common may 
take up the administration or methods of teaching. They may 
then include visual education as one of the topics to be treated. 
Courses dealing with the problem of basic sciences may con- 
sider educational psychology, for example, with visual education 
as a method of presentation, or they may consider experimental 
education, statistical method, or historical methods. 

"The conclusion which I draw from this analysis is that 
visual education is a natural topic in a variety of courses. It is 
of interest to various types of students and is to be approached 


from various points of view. For this reason, it is most appro- 
priately treated in connection with various courses where it is 
pertinent, rather than as a subject of a separate course. 

"The suggestion I make, therefore, is that problems of visual 
education be discussed or treated in any course in which they 

Anderson, C. J. (Dean of the School of Education, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, Madison) "Some Unsolved Problems in 
the Development of Visual Education." Educational Screen. 
15:73-4. March 1936. 

One of the problems of visual education is how visual instruc- 
tion may be presented to the teacher so that she may be able 
to use this technique efficiently. A separate course in visual 
instruction has not been offered at the University of Wisconsin 
because it is felt that this problem is similar to the one pre- 
sented by the introduction of remedial instruction and diagnosis 
several years ago. Separate courses appeared necessary for 
learning the techniques of diagnosis, but now it is understood 
that this technique is a fundamental and organic part of every 
course in techniques of instruction and not an appendage to 
be presented under a separate label. The same reasoning might 
be followed in the development of visual-instruction techniques. 
If it is an appendage or merely a desirable "follow-up" feature 
of instructional techniques, perhaps a special course should 
be offered, but if it is to become an organic part of all educational 
procedures it should be made an indispensable part of the core 
courses in teacher training. Purely as a temporary procedure, 
however, schools of education will in all probability find it neces- 
sary to differentiate between teachers-in-service and teachers- 
in-training in their provisions for inducting them into this new 

Other problems of visual instruction are the reorganization 
of curricula at the elementary, secondary, and college levels, 
the reorganization of textbooks, and the financial problem. 

On the other hand, some educators feel that special 
training in the use of visual sensory aids must be given 
apart from any other course. This type of training, it is 
contended, may be used for any subject in the curriculum. A 


general course in visual instruction may, if desired, be fol- 
lowed by a more specialized treatment in special methods 
courses for the various school subjects. 

It is interesting to note that in the preface to a syllabus 
for a visual-education course, McClusky in 1932 had modi- 
fied his recommendation to state that a separate course is 
needed for emphasis. It is also significant that in discussing 
the work offered at the University of Pittsburgh, Yeager 
makes the statement that "since methods courses do not place 
adequate emphasis on the use and care of visual-sensory aids, 
separate courses are necessary so that every prospective and 
in-service teacher will be brought in direct contact through 
participation and application with visual-sensory aids de- 
veloped sequentially and practically applied." 19 

Merton in the article summarized below also justifies the 
need for a separate course. 

The judgment of certain supervisors of instruction in 
Pennsylvania have been briefly summarized from a report by 
Mclsaac in 1937. 

Merton, Elda L. (Assistant Superintendent of Schools, 
Waukesha, Wisconsin) "Responsibility of Teacher- Prepara- 
tion Institutions for Visual Education Courses from the 
Viewpoint of the Classroom Teacher/' National Education 
Association Proceedings. 1933 :783-4. 

The problem arises as to whether state teachers' colleges 
should offer a required course in visual education based on the 
nature and correct use of visual aids in teaching, or whether 
this program shall be presented incidentally in the present general 
methods courses in reading, languages, and the sciences. 

Every teacher needs first an overview of the scope of field 
and knowledge of the advantages and limitations of each aid in 
various teaching situations. Furthermore, the teacher must 
take specific teaching situations and incorporate into the lesson 
plan the visual aids best fitted to meet them. 

Teachers with training in visual-education courses have been 
found to use vicarious experiences in their teaching more fre- 

18 See also Ankeney, p. 389. 


quently and more intelligently than teachers dependent upon the 
incidental training of general methods courses, since the general 
courses cannot present the work with sufficient emphasis to assure 
correct use of visual aids in actual teaching experiences. Students 
of visual-education courses recognize the inadequacy of verbal 
instruction alone in many teaching situations owing to the lack 
of experience or similarity of experience among any group of 
children. They also understand the lack of teaching possibili- 
ties in many textbook pictures and their accompanying legends, 
and the need for teachers to train their pupils to interpret pic- 
tures. They recognize, further, that a single picture, at best, 
is static. It can only show a scene as it was the moment the 
camera was flashed. It cannot show change, it cannot show an 
object from more than one angle, nor can it show more than 
one step in a process. A single picture is filled with abstractions 
of size, sound, color, odor, taste, temperature, weight, distance, 
depth, texture or substance, feeling, emotion, speed and motion; 
and frequently there are also abstractions of location, time of 
day or year, structure, or relationship. The student sees, also, 
that these abstractions and limitations of pictures must be met 
with clear vivid descriptions, interpretative questions, careful 
testing of what the child has gained from the picture, and class 
discussions. The teacher may turn to the rich and varied field of 
visual aids and select those especially designed to overcome 
these limitations. Each visual aid makes its own contribution 
to teaching situations. 

So vital a factor in the successful program of the classroom 
teacher should not be left to incidental training. A special 
visual-education course, broad in scope and practical in its 
applications, should be part of the required training of every 
classroom teacher. 

Mclsaac, John S. (Department of Education, Geneva Col- 
lege, Beaver Falls, Pa.) "What the Supervisor Wants in 
Visual Education." Educational Screen. 16:151-2. May 

This is a summary of a study made among supervising 
officials to determine what they considered to be the relative 
efficiency of the different sensory aids, and the extent to which 
special training should be provided for each in normal schools. 
The check lists were sent to about seventy superintendents, 


principals, and supervisors of instruction in three states in the 
service area of the college. Some forty responses were secured, 
although some did not answer all questions. 

The returns showed a definite majority in favor of a special 
course in visual instruction, rather than stress in subject matter 
or special methods courses. About 22 per cent were in favor of 
offering teacher preparation in the use of sensory aids in special 
methods courses and 25 per cent in content courses in the various 
fields. About 53 per cent were in favor of a separate course 
in visual education. 

Supervisors indicated that a knowledge of and information 
concerning the visual aids was more important than techniques 
and skill. 

Further, the questionnaires revealed that the more common 
sensory aids, such as maps, blackboards, and graphs are rated 
more important than the more technical ones usually associated 
with visual education. 


The outlines of some courses have already been printed 
in educational journals. They are reprinted here for pur- 
poses of comparison. 

Stracke, George A. (School of Engineering, University of 
Arizona, Tucson) "What is Being Taught in Courses in 
Visual Instruction ?" Educational Screen. 1 1 :204. Septem- 
ber 1932. 

As the answer to the question, "What is being taught in 
courses in visual instruction?" could be found only from a 
study of the courses themselves, each of the eighty-six institu- 
tions offering such instruction, according to the 1931 directory of 
the Academy of Visual Instruction, was asked for a detailed 
outline of its course. Replies were received from forty- four 
institutions. Of these, eleven stated that they had no course 
or department of visual instruction, or that courses were no 
longer being offered. Of the remaining thirty- three, some offer 
the work in regular sessions, others in summer sessions only, 
and a few in both. To determine the amount of time allotted 
to the course or the units of credit allowed was impossible in 
the majority of instances. The lower limit was fourteen one- 


hour periods, while the upper limit was a division of the work 
into three classes, each consisting of three one-hour classes and 
one laboratory period per week for one semester. 

Analysis of the outlines revealed a total of forty-nine topics 
of which eight were taught in but one course each, while two 
were listed in thirty courses. The thirty-three universities, 
colleges, and normal schools that sent outlines displayed a 
remarkable concurrence in emphasis on twelve topics. From 75 
to 90 per cent of the institutions listed these topics, which are 
given here in inverse order according to frequency : 

1. The philosophy and psychology of visual instruction 

2. Projectors : operation, mechanics, and optics 

3. Motion pictures : types, standards of evaluation instruc- 
tional, informational, auditorium or entertainment 

4. Sources of visual aids 

5. Lantern slides and their use 

6. Stereographs and their use 

7. Photographs and prints and their use 

8. Exhibits 

9. Organization of a city department 
11. History of visual instruction 

11. Field trips 

12. Care, repair, and storage of materials and equipment 

Seven additional topics were offered in a majority of courses. 
Five courses offered all nineteen of the topics. The second group 
consisted of : 

13. Museum trips 

14. Specimens 

15. Models 

16. Bibliography 

17. Film slides 

18. Blackboard materials and techniques 

19. Photographic principles and practice 

Ten institutions agreed on fifteen of the above nineteen 
topics. The remaining thirty-one topics are indicative of the 
diversity of opinion existing among visual-education instructors 
as to the value of these phases of our work. Most of. the thirty- 
nine are offered only in one or two or, at the most, five institu- 
tions. One third or less of the courses included the following 
topics: visual aids in specific subjects, television, a general 


discussion of types of visual aids, organization of a school depart- 
ment, maps, charts and graphs, teacher training, diagrams, 
standard equipment recommendations, photographic darkroom 
practice, research, classroom conditions, globes, laboratory prac- 
tice in preparation of visual aids, dramatization, demonstration 
lessons involving use of aids, functions of a state department, 
posters, tests of visual aids, radio, school and community, still 
films, cartoons, organization of a county department, textbook 
illustrations, screens, school museums, puppets, classroom demon- 
strations and experiments, duplicating processes mimeograph, 
hectograph, and the like. 

Some courses which do not list a number of these topics as 
such may include them under more general headings. Whenever 
such inclusion was indicated, however, the subtopic was listed 
in order to make the survey as comprehensive as possible. 

The importance of some topics has undoubtedly been under- 
estimated, and an arithmetical count such as was necessary to 
use here is not a measure of true values. A weighted value 
arrived at by a consideration of the relative importance and 
history of the department or institution offering each topic 
might effect a considerable change. 

All the nineteen topics included in the first two divisions, 
with possibly four or five of the remainder, including teacher 
training, research, general discussion of all types of visual aids, 
demonstration lessons involving use of aids, and laboratory 
practice in preparation of aids, constitute a good basic outline for 
a course of study in visual instruction. 19 

"Another Course Outline." Educational Screen. 9:280-1. No- 
vember 1930. 

The outline given below was developed by Abraham Krasker 
and used by him at Boston University in the course in visual 
education offered by the School of Education. 


1. Introduction: the need for guidance in the use of this 
visual-aid method in education. 

2. The aim of the course is to prepare the teacher for the 
use of the available visual-aid materials that correlate with the 

"See also Starnes, W. Gayle. The Present Status of Teacher Training in the 
Use of Visual Aids. Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington. 1937. mimeo. 


subject taught. Each teacher prepares a list of the available 
visual aids for the teaching of a specific subject or subjects in 
a given grade. This material is correlated with the course of 
study, and methods for the use of the visual aids are discussed 
and practiced. 

3. The history of the use of visual-aid materials in education. 

4. The present status of the use of visual-aid materials. 

5. Advantages and disadvantages of this new method of 

6. A consideration of some of the problems arising from the 
use of visual-aid materials. 

7. The criteria for the selection of available visual aids ta 
determine their suitability for school subjects. 

8. The application of these criteria in the selection of suit- 
able visual-aid materials. 

9. The use of pictures; the available pictures; the selection 
of pictures for the specific school subject taught; a considera- 
tion of the methods used in teaching; method of filing; practice in 
the use of the necessary machinery to project pictures. 

10. The use of slides; the available slides; the selection of 
slides for the specific school subject taught; a consideration of 
the methods used in teaching; method of filing; practice in the 
use of the necessary machinery to project slides. 

11. The use of film slides; the available film slides; the 
selection of film slides for the specific school subject taught; a 
consideration of the methods used in teaching; method of filing; 
practice in the use of the necessary machinery to project film 

12. The use of motion pictures; the available motion pic- 
tures; selection of motion pictures for the specific school subject 
taught; a consideration of the methods used in teaching; method 
of filing; practice in the use of the necessary machinery to. 
project motion pictures. 

13. The use of other visual aids collections, exhibits,, 
posters, and so on; the other visual aids available; the selection 
of other visual aids; a consideration of the methods used in 
teaching; method of filing; practice in the use of the necessary 
machinery to project other visual aids. 

14. A consideration of the possible schemes for using motion 
pictures in the schools: advantages, disadvantages, specific 
use of each plan ; assembly plan for all the pupils of the school ; 


grade plan for all the pupils of a given grade ; subject plan for 
all the pupils of a given subject; class plan for all the pupils of 
a given class. 

15. Comparative methods for the efficient use of motion 
pictures and how the method varies with the type of visual aid 
and with the type of motion picture: no preparation; predis- 
cussion; discussion during projection; questions directing pupil's 
attention to important points; discussion after projection, and 
the like. 

The core course offered by the State of Pennsylvania has 
been issued in mimeograph form for the use of instructors 
in the normal schools of the state. An outline of the course 
follows. The outline appears in another form in Emmert's 

A Summary of the Techniques of Visual-Sensory Aids for 
Teachers in Service and Teachers in Training. Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg. 1935. 50 p. (Mimeo- 
graphed). Approved by Henry Klonower, chief of the 
Teacher Division, C. F. Hoban, director of the State Museum, 
and James N. Rule, superintendent of public instruction. 

Committee statement. This revised outline is the outcome 
of a meeting of visual-education instructors in the teacher- 
preparation institutions of Pennsylvania. The summary is a 
refinement and amplification of the one used in certain accredited 
colleges and universities in Pennsylvania for the past several 

The committee responsible for the present revision developed 
its outline around the recommendation of the Department of 
Visual Instruction of the National Education Association, which 
it unanimously endorses. The committee feels that in addition to 
its many constructive features the suggested course provides 
for the accomplishment of two very desirable aims: (1) It will 
prevent duplication of effort through the centralizing of 
responsibility for common backgrounds, procedures, and tech- 
niques. (2) The successful completion of this mandated course 
insures to every teacher in training a body of knowledge, skills, 
and constructive procedures that if applied in schoolroom prac- 
tice should contribute tremendously to a more meaningful content 
of curriculum units. 


The committee was made up of the following persons : Leslie 
C. Krebs, State Teachers' College, Shippenberg; Herbert L. 
Spencer, University of Pittsburgh; Wilber Emmert, State 
Teachers' College, Indiana ; L. Paul Miller, Central High School, 
Scranton ; R. G. Walters, Grove City College, Grove City ; Henry 
Klonower (Chairman), Chief of Teacher Division. 



Psychological justification ; history of education ; visual 
methods as used in educational systems of the past; 
present implications 


Examples of verbalism ; how it can be corrected 

Service to agencies other than educational ; service to 
special fields of education ; service to all types of class- 
room teaching 


Specifically: the studies of Pritchett and Merton; the 
report for the International Congress of Educational 
Cinematography, 1934; the survey reported in the 1934 
Elementary Principals' Thirteenth Yearbook ; and that 
of E. I. Way for the United States Department of Com- 
merce. Generalizations from these studies. Studies 
dealing with specific types of aids are listed for con- 



Classified as aids using the eye (vision) apparatus and 
equipment; aids using the eye and ear; aids using the 
ear ; aids using activity ; miscellaneous aids 


Definition; advantages or values; definite purposes; 


Definition; advantages; technique; assembling; housing 


(See Minimum Standard Equipment of Visual-Sensory 
Materials [Appendix C], set up by the State Visual 
Education Committee.) 

Kinds ; uses ; sources ; standards for selection 



Kinds ; how to handle ; types of difficulties ; care ; sources 

Laboratory period 

Silent and sound ; care ; use ; sources 


How to handle ; parts of each ; sources of materials 

Types; standards for selection; techniques of using 


Advantages of each ; standards ; techniques ; sources 


Kinds; values; technique; care; sources; standards 


Types of representation materials; values; techniques 


These include miniature sets, pageants, demonstrations, 
exhibits, dramatizations, booklets, etc. ; values of each ; 
standards ; sources 

Purposes ; techniques of use 


Values; uses; equipment needed; sources of informa- 
tion; techniques for use. Radio vision means use of 
slides in class during a broadcast for illustration 

Two type lesson plans are given 


For elementary schools of less than eight rooms ; for 
elementary schools of more than eight rooms; for 
junior and senior high schools (See Minimum Stand- 
ard Equipment [Appendix C].) 

Twenty- four references 

This would include preparation of teachers, budget 
allocation, integrating with curriculum units, and super- 
vision for effective use 

Appendix A. Glossary of Terms Used in Projection 
Appendix B. Magnification Formula and Tables 
Appendix C. Minimum Standard Equipment of Visual- 
Sensory Materials general visual equipment; visual 
equipment by subjects: art, commercial work, English, 


geography (elementary, junior-high-school), health and 
physical education, history, Latin, mathematics, music, 
science (elementary, biology, physical science, second- 

Appendix D. Minimum Equipment for a Course in Tech- 
niques of Visual-Sensory Aids 

[Specific references and specific student activities are listed 

for each unit.] 

Emmert, Wilber (Instructor in Visual Education and Sci- 
ence, State Teachers College, Indiana, Pennsylvania) "Core 
Course of a Visual-Sensory Aids Program." National Edu- 
cation Association Proceedings. 1932:790-3. A report sub- 
mitted to the Department of Visual Instruction of the Na- 
tional Education Association. 

The proposed core course in visual instruction was developed 
by a committee appointed by the National Education Association 
for that purpose. The report is divided into four major parts. 
The first deals with the significance of the report, the second 
describes how the course was developed, the third gives some 
significant declarations, and the fourth presents the course itself. 
The suggested course represents the combined judgments 
of the leaders of visual instruction in the United States as to 
"what a core course in visual-sensory aids should contain." A 
tentative outline of a core course was submitted to twenty-seven 
visual-instruction teachers in twenty-five states representing all 
sections of the country. Eighteen usable replies were received. 
In addition, a number of printed and mimeographed courses of 
study in visual instruction were used in this study. A tabulation 
of frequencies of common elements for the course was made. 

Content and method in this course, as in all school subjects, 
are the products of an evolution through authority, opinion, 
speculation, and research. 

A determined stand must be taken on certain questions : 
The initial core course in visual instruction should be 
mandatory ; every person in teacher training for public-school 
work should be required to take a laboratory course in visual- 
sensory aids. 

The core course should contain those elements common to 
practically all subjects. 

The core course should carry three semester hours of college 
credit. In the conduct of the course due consideration should 


be given to (a) the philosophy and psychology of visual- 
sensory aids, (b) a technique for their use, and (c) skill in 
the use of the various visual-sensory aids. 

The Department of Visual Instruction of the National Edu- 
cation Association is justified in an aggressive program which 
will see, within the next decade, a core course in visual in- 
struction in every progressive state. 

A course for directors and supervisors is in the offing, and 
special courses, such as visual-sensory aids in science, and 
so on, will be popular. 

If other courses are developed, the core course should be in- 
sisted upon as a separate course before the special courses 
are given. 

General description of the course. "This course is based 
upon the philosophy that sensory experience and mental activi- 
ties parallel each other in the learning process. Visual and other 
sensory aids, therefore, should hold a major place in the teaching 
of practically all subjects and on all levels of learning. To 
be a well-balanced course, and of the greatest value to prospective 
teachers and the teachers in service, it should give training in and 
an effective technic for the use of all types of visual-sensory 
aids. This course should be mandatory on the part of every 
person preparing to teach in the public schools. The course is 
designed for the preparation of teachers of the various subjects, 
and should contain those elements common to practically every 

Objectives. 1. To learn the meaning of the common terms 
used in visual-sensory education; to give the student a concrete 
and meaningful vocabulary. 

2. The development of skill in selecting the suitable teaching 
aids from those available for the teaching of a specific subject. 

3. The development of a projection technique which will 
assure an efficient use of all the essential projectors in classroom 

4. To provide the prospective teacher with a body of knowl- 
edge as well as a direct acquaintance with the useful sources of 
information which will be helpful in the teaching of the various 
subjects of the curriculum. 

5. To give training in the organization of the visual-sensory 
aids for the various subjects so that the aids may be available and 
usable in the classroom. 


6. The development of a proper technique for the efficient 
use of all the teaching aids. 

7. To acquaint the prospective teacher with the value of 
research in determining educational materials and methods. 

8. To acquaint the prospective teacher with the psychological 
aspects underlying visual-sensory aids. 

9. To acquaint the prospective teacher, or the teacher in 
service, with minimum standards for visual-sensory equipment 
and standards for evaluating the various visual-sensory aids. 

Method. The lecture-demonstration, discussion, and labora- 
tory method will be used throughout the course. Certain phases 
of the work can be best presented by the instructor in lecture- 
demonstration form. Other phases of the work lend themselves 
to other methods of instruction. Projects suitable for the 
various grades will be worked out by the group. Emphasis will 
be placed upon suitable methods of presentation and ways of 
further stimulating the interest of the student. The student 
will be taught how and when to use visual and other sensory aids. 
Maps, specimens, objects, models, the blackboard, projectors, 
slides, films, field trips, and the like, will constitute the materials 
of the course. 

Some supplementary references on the Pennsylvania core 
course in visual-sensory aids are as follows : 

"Course of Study in Visual Education." Educational Screen. 
14:135. May 1935. 

An outline of the twenty-five units contained in the Pennsyl- 
vania revised course of study in visual education. 

Emmert, Wilber. "Visual-Sensory Aids in Education : (Core 
Course) Education. 55 :78. October 1934. 
An outline of the same course with a brief history of its 
development. Also printed in the International Review of 
Educational Cinematography. October 1932. 

"Pennsylvania Makes Visual Education Course Mandatory." 
Educational Screen. 13 :272. December 1934. 


The course next described is based on the Pennsylvania 
core course, but the means by which the objectives were 
attained are both interesting and suggestive. 

Yeager, William A. (Professor of School Administration, 
University of Pittsburgh) " Preparing Teachers in the Use 
of Visual-Sensory Aids." Educational Screen. 15:74-6. 
March 1936. 

A discussion of the conception of education as an adjustment 
to and a reliving of life experiences brings us to the problem 
of a more efficient method by which this educational process can 
be accomplished. Life can become rich and full only in so far 
as the environment we live in can be understood and appreciated. 
Since sensory experiences constitute the basis of the child's edu- 
cational pattern, with visual experiences accounting for probably 
three- fourths of our sensory experiences, visual education, or 
more accurately, sensory aids, contribute greatly to the ends 
of education. It is unfortunate that visual education has become 
associated for many people with "seeing experiences" alone, 
when in reality it includes all sensory experiences. Some more 
inclusive and appropriate term should be coined to fit this thought. 

The State of Pennsylvania has recognized these larger im- 
plications of educational development through sensory experience. 
The State Council of Education, after noting the favorable 
response to courses in sensory aids at teacher-preparation insti- 
tutions, passed a regulation requiring "the completion of a course 
in visual education of all persons to whom shall be issued a 
permanent college certificate after September 1935." Teachers 
may complete this required course either as part of their pre- 
service education, or as part of the six semester hours that must 
be completed subsequent to the issue of the provisional college 
certificate, if this certificate is to be made permanent. 

At the University of Pittsburgh a course was offered during 
the 1935 summer session. It was held in the Frick Training 
School. There were forty-five teachers in service enrolled in the 
course, although the course was offered on an undergraduate 
basis. There were four one-hour classroom periods and one 
two-hour laboratory period weekly. During the following fall 
session, the course was given to juniors and seniors in the School 
of Education on a similar basis. 


Some of the activities of the course were as follows: The 
problems of preparing class presentations of each type of visual- 
sensory aid and of constructing or developing the necessary 
material and applying it to given classroom situations, both on 
the elementary and on the secondary-school levels, were assigned 
to committees of from two to four persons. The cartoon com- 
mittee drew cartoons, or collected them from newspapers, and 
demonstrated their instructional value; the puppet committee 
constructed all types of puppets and marionettes and wrote a 
play or dramatized a lesson to show their possibilities as teaching 
aids; the object-specimen-model committee made and collected 
an exhibit of each of these types; the photography committee 
took pictures and demonstrated the use of the camera in teaching. 
A school journey was made to the Carnegie Museum and Art 
Exhibit. All types of homemade slides were made and demon- 
strated. A radio in the classroom offered an opportunity for 
the evaluation of programs. Every member of the class was 
required to learn to operate three different makes of 16-mm. 
projectors to qualify for a license to operate nontheatrical pro- 
jectors. As a final test, each student was required to apply 
as many as possible of the several visual-sensory aids discussed 
to a particular subject or to a special grade level. This activity 
enabled students to select the aids best adapted to their particular 
fields and to evaluate their possibilities in the light of the content 
to be included and the ends to be attained. 

A visual-education exhibit marked the climax of the course. 
An exhibit committee took care of the arrangement of materials, 
but the other committees already described submitted materials 
to be placed on exhibition. Members of the class acted as guides 
to visitors during the exhibit period. 

Mention should be made here of the necessity for adequate 
equipment for the proper conduct of the course. The course 
should not be offered if adequate materials and equipment are 
not available. Students must learn by doing. 

The need for a separate course for visual instruction appears 
to be very urgent. Methods courses do not place adequate 
emphasis on the use and care of sensory aids. Separate courses 
are necessary so that every prospective and in-service teacher will 
be brought in direct contact, through participation and applica- 
tion, with visual-sensory aids developed sequentially and 


practically applied. There should be a conscious effort to 
emphasize and evaluate them as educational tools. 

Now that teacher-preparation institutions have accepted the 
challenge of the changing social order and are offering courses 
in visual-sensory aids, it remains the responsibility for teachers 
in the public schools to evaluate their offerings in the light of 
effective materials and methods adapted to this desired end. 
Perhaps administrators and supervisors themselves ought to be 
awakened to the possibilities of such courses, so that they may 
exercise leadership. In the last analysis, granting an adequate 
preparation, the effective functioning of these procedures depends 
very largely upon the personality and attitude of the teacher. 

Miller describes the way in which a course was developed 
at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. The 
three summaries that follow will give a clear idea of the 
work being done there. 

Miller, L. Paul (Director of Visual Education, Central 
High School, Scranton; Instructor, Bucknell University 
Summer School) "Teacher Training in Use of Visual Aids." 
Educational Screen. 9 :234, 237. October 1930. 

One method of developing a course in visual education was 
tried at Bucknell University during the summer of 1930. Visual 
aids were used in the demonstration school in actual classroom 
situations without changing in any way the term plan. An 
opaque projector, glass slides, and 16-mm. films were among 
the aids demonstrated. Follow-up tests, observation of the 
practice teachers, and school journeys were all introduced in the 
natural course of the lessons. 

After these demonstrations, which occupied several weeks, the 
practice teachers, and school journeys were all introduced in the 
use of visual aids; (2) types of visual aids; and (3) sources 
of materials, particularly with reference to the subjects of major 
interest. The following guide was prepared in mimeograph 
form and rilled in by students taking the course : 

I. Values and Outcomes of Visual Aids. (An extensive read- 
ing list was appended and space was provided for additional 
references. ) 

II. Types of Visual Aids. (A reading list was added and space 
for additional references was provided for each of the 
topics which follow.) 


III. Sources of Materials Which May be Used in My Own 
Teaching-. ( Source lists were suggested. ) 

At the close of the summer session, in an effort to secure 
more comprehensive data, a questionnaire form was sent to all 
institutions running summer courses. 

Miller, L. Paul (Bucknell University) "Practice Teaching 
in the Use of Visual Aids: Bucknell Plan." Educational 
Screen. 10:241. October 1931. 

Training teachers in the use of motion pictures and other 
visual aids by directing their use of such materials in actual 
high-school classrooms was one of the features of the Bucknell 
University Summer Session of 1931. 

A completely organized high school for practice teaching 
is conducted there during the summer. The training teachers 
are heads of departments in large city school systems. Those 
in charge report that the stress on the use of visual aids in the 
demonstration school has been a very successful experiment in 
many ways. Demonstrations of the use of apparatus, exhibits, 
museums, school journeys, charts, graphs, models, dramatizations, 
newspaper and magazine cut-outs, stereographs, glass slides, film 
slides, 16-mm. silent and sound films, were given in the demon- 
stration school in the teaching of all major subjects. 

Teachers were instructed in the construction of these ma- 
terials, including homemade motion pictures. A special class, 
in which more advanced instruction was given in the techniques 
of using visual aids, was conducted daily for summer-session 
students who were experienced teachers. In this class the use 
of visual materials in teaching visual education was effectively 
worked out. One feature of the class was a journey to Reading, 
Pennsylvania, to study the splendid use made of the museum 
by the Reading school district under Levi Mengel, pioneer in 
the country in the use of objective materials in actual classroom 

Equipment used at Bucknell included motion-picture cameras, 
16 mm. and 35 mm. projectors, glass-slide projectors, film-slide 
projectors and attachments, opaque projectors, daylight equip- 
ment, screens, sound projector in a local theater, homemade slide 
materials, sound and silent films, slides, film slides, apparatus 
for a laboratory course, and a comprehensive library of visual- 
education books, magazines, and clippings. 


One project in the class for experienced teachers was the 
listing of visual aids for the Pennsylvania state course of study 
in chemistry. Another was the correlation of visual aids with 
the teaching of vocational guidance a combination of two new 
fields. Original scenarios for educational motion pictures were 
also prepared. Films of pupils in the demonstration school were 
taken and projected in the high-school auditorium. 

Miller, L. Paul (Bucknell University) "Teacher Training 
in Visual Instruction." Visual Review. 1932:15-16. 

A visual-education course has been developed at Bucknell 
University, based on the laboratory method. The course consists 
of forty-five units of instruction, each unit introduced by a 
practical problem referring directly to actual classroom situations. 
Visual aids are used throughout, with a minimum of theory 
and maximum of practice. The materials for the instructional 
work are in mimeographed form. Some of the units were out- 
lined in the Educational Screen, January through May, 1932. 
The topics were : 

1. Why should I study the uses of visual and other sensory 
aids in education? 

2. What should be the nature of a laboratory course in 
the use of visual and other sensory aids in education ? 

3. What is implied by the term "visual and other sensory 

4. What are the main types of visual aids and which types 
can be most useful in my teaching? 

5. How can visual aids be used in teaching my major 

6. What specific visual aids can be used in teaching my 
major subject? 

7. What specific visual aids can be used with each unit in 
the teaching of my major subject? 

8. What is the background of visual aids in education? 

9. What values and outcomes have visual aids which can 
make them useful in my classes ? 

10. What are the principal functions of visual aids in my 
teaching ? 

11. What use can I make of science apparatus ? 

12. What objects, specimens, and models can I use in the 
classroom ? 

13. How can school journeys be effectively used in my 

14. What are the relative values of photographic prints ? 


15. What merits have stereographs ? 

16. What purposes can be served by glass slides? 

17. How are glass slides made ? 

18. What advantages have film slides and still films and how 
are they used? 

20 19. What types of "still" projectors are there? 
20 20. How are "still" projectors used? 

21. What is the place of motion pictures in education? 

22. What kinds of motion-picture films are there? How 
can they be evaluated ? 

23. How are films cared for and repaired ? 

24. How are silent motion-picture projectors operated and 
constructed ? 

25. How are motion-picture projectors with synchronized 
sound constructed and operated ? 

26. What are the possibilities of sound pictures in class- 
rooms ? 

20 27. How are lenses used in projection? 

20 28. What facts about electricity are important in projec- 
20 29. How are classrooms prepared for projection? 

30. How are amateur motion-picture cameras constructed 
and operated? How can they be used by schools? 

31. How are scenarios written? 

32. How are lessons planned in which projected still or 
motion pictures are used ? 

33. Should there be places in my lesson plans for charts, 
graphs, diagrams, posters, and cartoons ? 

34. What are the possibilities of blackboard sketches and 
diagrams in my teaching ? 

35. What kinds of maps and globes are available? 

36. Can pageants, tableaux, or dramatizations contribute 
anything to my subject? 

37. Can radio programs be helpful in classrooms ? 

38. What principles of educational psychology are of special 
interest in our study of visual aids? 

39. What is the minimum standard equipment for the use 
of visual aids in my subject? 

40. Of what should teacher-training courses in the use of 
visual aids consist? 

41. What are some current events in the visual field? 

42. What are some problems of the administration of 
visual aids? 

80 These units have been described in detail in the articles published in the 
Educational Screen. January through May 1932. 


43. What are some research problems in use of visual aids? 

44. What are some future prospects of visual aids ? 

45. What are some important general conclusions regarding 
the technique of visual aids ? 

Some of the courses reported in magazine articles deal 
with certain aspects of visual instruction. For example, the 
course given under the direction of the Bronx Boro-wide 
Teachers Association of New York City is divided into two 
sessions. One, meeting on Tuesdays, is concerned with 
"Methods and Use of Visual Instruction Material"; the 
other, meeting on Thursdays, deals with "The Motion Pic- 
ture" both theatrical and educational. This course was 
reported in Educational Screen (14:288) for December 1935. 

Another course given at the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History in New York City dealt only with the mechan- 
ical aspect of visual instruction. An outline of this course 
appeared in Educational Screen of December 1930 under the 
title, "Teachers' Course in Mechanics of Visual Instruction." 

A more complete outline of a course on the mechanical 
aspect of visual instruction was published by L. P. Miller 
in a series of articles entitled "Units of Instruction for 
Teachers' Training Courses." This series appeared in the 
Educational Screen (11:7, 42, 72, 108, 138), January 
through May 1932. 

Teachers of visual instruction who plan to include a unit 
on the use of visual aids in geography will find "Materials 
for Visual Instruction in Geography," by William M. 
Gregory, Alfred W. Abrams, and Rupert Peters Chapter 
XXIV in The Teaching of Geography, Thirty-second Year- 
book, National Society for the Study of Education (Public 
School Publishing Company. Bloomington, Illinois. 1933) 
one of the best in the literature. Standards are set up for 
satisfactory geographical pictures and suggestions are offered 
for the use of photographs, slides, and motion-picture films 
in the teaching of geography. 




I. General Survey of the Field 

"Aids to Teaching in the Elementary School." Thirteenth 
Yearbook, Department of Elementary Principals. Na- 
tional Education Association. 1934. 

Benoit-Levy, Jean. L'instruction visuelle aux Etats-Unis. 
Editions du Cineopse. 73 Blvd. de Crenelle. Paris. 

Dale, Edgar and Ramseyer, Lloyd L. Teaching with 
Motion Pictures: Handbook of Administrative Prac- 
tice. American Council on Education. Washington, 
D.C 1937. 

Dent, Ellsworth C. The Audio-Visual Handbook, rev. ed. 
Society for Visual Education. Chicago. 1937. 

Dorris, Anna V. Visual Instruction in the Public Schools. 
Ginn and Co. Boston. 1928. 

Ellis, D. C. and Thornborough, L. Motion Pictures in 
Education. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. New York. 1923. 

George, W. H. The Cinema in School. Isaac Pitman. 
London. 1935. 

Hoban, Charles F., Hoban, Charles F., Jr., and Zisman, 
Samuel B. Visualizing the Curriculum. Cordon Com- 
pany. New York. 1937. 

Hollis, A. P. Motion Pictures for Instruction. Houghton, 
Mifflin Co. Boston. 1924. 

Johnson, W. H. Fundamentals of Visual Instruction. 
Educational Screen, Inc. Chicago. 1927. 

Koon, Cline M. Motion Pictures in Education in the 
United States : A report compiled for the International 
Congress of Educational and Instructional Cinema- 
tography. University of Chicago Press. 1934. 

Lauwerys, J. A. ed. Film in the School. Christopher. 
London. 1935. 

"Materials of Instruction." Eighth Yearbook, Department 
of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction, National 
Education Association. Bureau of Publications, Teach- 
ers College, Columbia University. New York. 1935. 

McClusky, F. Dean. Visual Instruction: Its Value and 
Needs. Mancall Co. New York. 1931. 


Motion Picture in Education: Its Status and Needs. 

American Council on Education. Washington, D.C. 

Ottley, D. C. The Cinema in Education : A Handbook for 

Teachers. George Routledge and Sons. London. 1935. 
Visual Aids in the Schools. New York State Association 

of Elementary Principals, Visual Aids Division. Rollin 

W. Thompson. Utica, N.Y. 1935. 

II. The Sound Film in Education 

Devereux, F. L. The Educational Talking Picture, rev. ed. 

University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1936. 
Brunstetter, M. R. How to Use the Educational Sound 

Film. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1937. 

III. Published Research Studies in the Field 

Arnspiger, V. C. Measuring the Effectiveness of Sound 

Pictures as Teaching Aids. Bureau of Publications, 

Teachers College, Columbia University. New York. 

Consitt, F. The Value of Films in History Teaching. 

Bell and Sons. London. 1931. 
Freeman, F. N. and others. Visual Education. University 

of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1924. 
Knowlton, D. C. and Tilton, J. W. Motion Pictures in 

History Teaching. Yale University Press. 1929. 
The film in national life. George Allen and Unwin, Ltd. 

Marchant, James, ed. The cinema in education. George 

Allen and Unwin, Ltd. 1925. 

Rulon, P. J. Sound Motion Pictures in Science Instruc- 
tion. Harvard University Press. 1933. 
Sigman, J. E. The Origin and Development of Visual 

Education in Philadelphia Schools. Temple University. 

Philadelphia. 1933. 
Sound films in schools. Experiment by the National Union 

of Teachers in the schools of Middlesex, England. 

Schoolmaster. 1931. 
Weber, J. J. Comparative Effectiveness of Some Visual 

Aids in Seventh Grade Instruction. Educational 

Screen, Inc. Chicago. 1921. 
Weber, J. J. Picture Values in Education. Educational 

Screen, Inc. Chicago. 1928. 


Weber, J. J. Visual Aids in Education. Valparaiso Uni- 
versity. Valparaiso, Ind. 1930. 

Wood, B. D. and Freeman, F. N. Motion Pictures in the 
Classroom. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston. 1929. 

Westfall, L. H. Verbal Accompaniments to Educational 
Motion Pictures. Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity. New York. 1934. 

IV. Directories or Source Lists 

The Educational Film Catalog. H. W. Wilson Company. 
New York. 1936. With quarterly supplements. 

Educational Screen. Chicago. Monthly. 

Brown, H. E. and Bird, J. Motion Pictures and Lantern 
Slides for Elementary Visual Education. Teachers 
College, Columbia University. New York. 1931. 

Koon, C. M. and Noble, A. W. National Visual Instruc- 
tion Directory. American Council on Education. 
Washington, D.C. 1936. 

National encyclopedia of educational films and 16mm. 
apparatus. Central Information Bureau for Educa- 
tional Films, Ltd. London. 1936. 

Townsend, Mary E. and Stewart, Alice G. Audio-Visual 
Aids for Teachers . . . H. W. Wilson Company. New 
York. 1937. 

Woodring, Maxie N. and Harold, Gilbert. Enriched 
Teaching of Commercial Subjects in the High School. 
. . . (Enriched teaching series) Teachers College, 
Columbia University. New York. 1930. 

Woodring, Maxie N. and Sabin, F. E. Enriched Teach- 
ing of Latin in the High School. . . . (Enriched teach- 
ing series) Teachers College, Columbia University. 
New York. 1930. 

Woodring, Maxie N. and Sanford, Vera. Enriched 
Teaching of Mathematics in the High School. . . . 
(Enriched teaching series) Teachers College, Colum- 
bia University. New York. 1928. 

Woodring, Maxie N. and Schwendener, Norma. Enriched 
Teaching of Physical Education in the High School. . . . 
(Enriched teaching series) Teachers College, Columbia 
University. New York. 1929. 

Woodring, Maxie N. and others. Enriched Teaching of 
English in the Junior and Senior High School. . . . 
(Enriched teaching series) Teachers College, Columbia 
University. New York. 1934. 


Woodring, Maxie N. and others. Enriched Teaching of 
Science in the High School. . . . (Enriched teaching 
series) Teachers College, Columbia University. New 
York. 1928. 

V. Theatrical Motion Pictures and Education 

Adler, Mortimer Jerome. Art and Prudence. . . . Long- 
mans. New York. 1937. 

Bardeche, Maurice and Brasillach, Robert. History of 
Motion Pictures. Norton. November 1937. 

Barnes, Walter. The Photoplay as Literary Art. Educa- 
tional and Recreational Guides, Inc. Newark, N.J. 

Beman, L. T. Selected Articles on Censorship of the 
Theater and Moving Pictures. H. W. Wilson Com- 
pany. New York. 1931. 

Blumer, Herbert. Movies and Conduct. (Payne Fund 
Studies: Motion Pictures and Youth) Macmillan. 
New York. 1933. 

Blumer, Herbert and Hauser, Philip M. Movies, De- 
linquency, and Crime. ( Payne Fund Studies : Motion 
Pictures and Youth) Macmillan. New York. 1933. 

Buchanan, Andrew. The Art of Film Production. Pitman. 
London. 1936. Distributed by Educational and Recre- 
ational Guides, Inc. Newark, N.J. 

Charters, W. W. Motion Pictures and Youth: A Sum- 
mary. (Payne Fund Studies: Motion Pictures and 
Youth) Macmillan. New York. 1933. 

Dale, Edgar. The Content of Motion Pictures. (Payne 
Fund Studies: Motion Pictures and Youth) Mac- 
millan. 1935. 

Dale, Edgar. How to Appreciate Motion Pictures. 
(Payne Fund Studies: Motion Pictures and Youth) 
Macmillan. 1933. 

Dysinger, W. S. and Ruckmick, C. A. Emotional Re- 
sponses of Children to the Motion Picture Situation. 
(Payne Fund Studies: Motion Pictures and Youth) 
Macmillan. 1933. 

Floherty, J. J. Moviemakers. Doubleday Doran. Garden 
City, N.Y. 1935. 

Forman, Henry I. Our Movie Made Children. Mac- 
millan. New York. 1933. 

Frutchey, Fred P. and Dale, Edgar. Evaluation in motion 
picture appreciation. Ohio State Univ. 1937. 


Gale, Arthur L. How to Write a Movie. Brick Row 

Book Shop. New York. 1936. 
Jennings, Talbot. Romeo and Juliet: Shooting Script. 

Educational and Recreational Guides, Inc. Newark, 

N.J. 1937. 

Kiesling, Barrett C. Talking Pictures. Johnson Com- 
pany, Richmond, Va. 1937. 
Lane, Tamar. New Technique of Screen Writing: A 

Practical Guide to the Writing and Marketing of 

Photoplays. McGraw. New York. 1937. 
Lewin, William. Photoplay Appreciation in American 

High Schools. D. Appleton-Century. New York. 

London, Kurt. Film music. Faber and Faber. London. 

Martin, Olga J. Hollywood's Movie Commandments. 

H. W. Wilson Co. New York. 1937. 
Mees, C. E. K. Photography. Macmillan. New York. 

Miller, Helen R. and Lewis, Richard B. Film and School. 

Appleton. N.Y. 1937. 
Miller, Max. For the Sake of Shadows. Dutton. New 

York. 1936. 
Mitchell, Alice M. Children and Movies. University of 

Chicago Press. 1929. 
Motion Picture Review Digest. H. W. Wilson Co. New 

York. Weekly cumulative index. 
Movies. (Building America, vol. 2 no. 8. May 1937) 

Society for Curriculum Study. N.Y. 

Mullen, Mrs. Sarah McLean. How to Judge Motion 
Pictures and How to Organize a Photoplay Club. 
Scholastic Publishing Co. New York. 1934. 

Nicoll, Allardyce. Film and Theatre. Crowell Co. New 
York. 1936. 

Noble, Lorraine. Four Star Scripts. Doubleday Doran. 
New York. 1936. 

Perlman, William J. ed. Movies on Trial. Macmillan. 
New York. 1936. 

Peterson, Ruth C. and Thurstone, L. L. Motion Pic- 
tures and the Social Attitudes of Children. (Payne 
Fund Studies : Motion Pictures and Youth) Mac- 
millan. New York. 1933. 


Pollard, Elizabeth W. Teaching Motion Picture Apprecia- 
tion. Ohio State University. Columbus, Ohio. 1935. 

Quigley, Martin J. Decency in Motion Pictures. Mac- 
millan. New York. 1937. 

Renshaw, Samuel and others. Children's Sleep. (Payne 
Fund Studies: Motion Pictures and Youth) Mac- 
millan. New York. 1933. 

Roberts, Ina. When Books and Movies Meet. The 
Author. Cleveland, Ohio. 1936. 

Rotha, Paul. Celluloid. Longmans, Green. New York. 

Rotha, Paul. The Documentary Film. Faber and Faber. 
London. 1936. 

Rotha, Paul. Movie Parade. Studio Publications. New 
York. 1936. 

Seldes, Gilbert. Movies come from America. Scribner. 

Sterner, Alice P. and Bowden, W. Paul. Course of Study 
in Motion Picture Appreciation. Educational and 
Recreational Guides, Inc. Newark, N.J. 1935. 

Strasser, Alex. Amateur Movies and How to Make 
Them. Studio Publications. New York. 1937. 

Terlin, Rose R. You and I and the Movies. Woman's 
Press. New York. 1936. 

Wead, Frank Wilbur. Our Greatest Story-teller: The 
Story of Talking Pictures. (Our Changing World) 
Nelson. New York. 1936. 


Boldface figures indicate summary of material; other figures 
indicate citation only. 

Abrams, A. W. 19, 95, 97, 257 

Accountancy, visual aids in teach- 
ing, 187, 188-90 

Activity program, visual educa- 
tion in, 190, 196, 284 

Adler, M. J. 462 

Administration of visual aids, 15- 
108; city, 19-74; library, 87-91; 
national, 101-8; school, 74-87; 
state, 91-101 

Administration of visual aids, his- 
tory of, 32-4 

Adult education, films in, 226-30 

Akron, Ohio, 147 

Allen, J. S. 233 

Amateur film production, 87, 188- 
90, 271-306 

American Council on Education, 
film project, 106, 374; publi- 
cations, 5, 374, 402, 460 

American Film Institute, 105 

American history, films in teach- 
ing, 190, 191-6, 197 

American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 160 

Anderson, C. J. 370, 437 

Angell, H. E. 49 

Ankeney, J. V. 389 

Apple, J. H. 283 

Arizona, University of, 92 

Arkansas, proposed film library, 93 

Arnold, R. W. 361 

Arnspiger, V. C. 310, 321, 323, 329, 
331, 335, 336, 350, 361, 460 

Art, films in teaching, 150-2, 185-6, 
230, 234; in visual education, 

Art of the film, 225 

Astell, L. A. 209, 218 

Atlanta, Ga. visual education in, 

Auditorium use of motion pictures, 
78-82, 85, 127, 237-43, 311, 356 

Aughinbaugh, B. A. 54, 402-3, 

Augustine, H. M. 272 

Bailey, H. M. 277 

Baker, A. O. 238, 241 

Bard, C. L. 54, 183 

Bardeche, M. and Brasillach, R. 


Barnes, R. M. 288 
Barnes, W. 462 
Barrier and Lebrun, 424 
Bathurst, E. Ill 
Baumeister, E. 135, 149 
Beauchamp, J. B. 177 
Belmont, Mass. 403 
Beman, L. T. 462 
Benoit-Levy, J. 225, 459 
Berkeley, Calif. 27 
Bernard, E. G. 207 
Beutel, L. E. 405-7 
Bing, M. 209, 222 
Biography, films in teaching, 142 
Biology, films in teaching, 222, 365. 

See also Science, films in 


Bird, J. and Brown, H. E. 461 
Bishop, S. 152, 157 
Blumer, H. 462 

Blumer, H. and Hauser, P. M. 462 
Boos, H. O. 280 
Bowden, W. P. and Sterner, A. P. 

433, 464 

Bragdon, C. 285 
Brasillach, R. and Bardeche, M. 


Brigham Young University, 92, 98 
Bright children, films in teaching, 

168, 350-1 

British Film Institute, 104 
Brodshaug, M. R. 63 
Brown, H. E. 210, 224, 336, 361 
Brown, H. E. and Bird, J. 461 
Brown, H. McC. 203 
Brunstetter, M. R. 29-31, 62-7, 112, 

134, 135-7, 261-3, 369, 374, 402, 

408-12, 460 
Buchanan, A. 462 
Budget for visual education, 24, 28, 

34, 43, 47, 56. 57. 68, 76, 78, 195 



Building America, 247 
Burt, U.S. 97 

California, University of, 92, 126, 

265, 379 
California state elementary science 

program, 404 
California Teachers' Association, 

Visual Education Section, 394 
Calo, G. 115, 128 
Cameron, V. E. 336, 361 
Camp Roosevelt, short course, 249- 


Campbell, L. R. 16, 48 
Cataloging of visual aids, 87-91 
Central Information Bureau for 

Educational Films, 461 
Chambers, Elsie I. 17, 85 
Charters, W. W. 311, 462 
Chemistry, films in teaching, 209, 

211-13, 218, 362-3 
Chicago, University of, and films, 

230, 232, 308 

Chicago, visual education in, 33, 59 
Child, E. D. 281 
Children's comments, 142, 149, 153, 

161, 162 
Childs, A. R. and Tilton, J. W. 

City administration of visual aids, 

Clark, C. C. 310, 321, 325, 343, 345, 

354, 361 
Cleveland, visual education in, 31, 

67, 79 

Club, motion picture, 150, 297 
Cockrum, A. E. 348, 361 
College instruction with films, 230- 

Collier, R. J., Jr. 81, 239 
Color in pictures, 249, 253, 293 
Colorado, University of, 92 
Commercial geography, films in 

teaching, 191, 199 
Commonwealth Fund investiga- 
tions, 308 
Composition, oral and written, 175- 

Consitt, F. 309, 324, 328, 335, 342, 

344, 350, 351, 354, 361, 460 
Cook, G. S. 145 
Cooking, films in teaching, 365 
Cooperative film libraries, 91, 93, 

Course in visual education, con- 
tent, 371, 376-9, 409, 415-27, 

Courses in visual education, list, 
370, 397-400 

Courses of study, films integrated 
with, 63, 404-7 

Courtney, G. A. 152, 156 

Crakes, C. R. 39, 46 

Crawford, E. W. 391, 412 

Criteria for evaluating a film les- 
son, 111, 411 

Criteria for evaluating films. See 

Criteria for evaluating research 
studies, 312-16 

Criteria for evaluating use of films, 
119, 161 

Cummings, C. E. 101 

Dale, E. 80, 105, 260, 374, 384, 428- 

30, 462 

Dale, E. and Frutchey, F. P. 462 
Dale, E. and Ramseyer, L. L. 28, 

403, 459 

Dash, A. J. 343, 355, 362 
Davis, F. W. 290-5 
Davis, H. C. 332, 336, 347, 349, 

350, 362 

Davis, R. L. 333, 351, 362 
Dawson, H. G. and Hopkins, B. S. 


Deady, J. A. 297 

Deaf, teaching with films, 86, 177-8 
Delp, I. W. 166 
Demonstration schools, visual aids 

in, 139-43, 161-4 
Dent, E C. 403, 459 
Denver, University of, 134, 139-43 
Detroit, visual education in, 69, 

Development of visual education 

in the United States, 32-4 
Devereux, F. L. 267, 460 
Dexheimer, L. M. 153, 161-4 
Dick, G. I. 89 

Dieffenbach, C. T. 135, 150 
Diller, H. M. 362 
Director of visual education, duties 

of, 20-1, 25, 27, 33, 42, 46, 47, 

51, 69, 75 
Distribution of visual aids, 100, 107. 

See also Administration 
Doane, D. C. 263-7 
Dolezal, R. M. 167 



Dorris, A. V. 26, 134, 149, 369, 

376-9, 388, 402-3, 427, 459 
Dransfield, J. E. 114, 117, 118 
Drawing, films in teaching. See 

Art, films in teaching 
Dunn, F. W. 374, 383 
Dunn, F. W. and Schneider, E. 

57-9, 91-5, 403 
Dysinger, W. S. and Ruckmick, 

C. A. 462 

Eads, L. K. 144, 236 

Eads, L. K. and Stover, E. M. 236, 
354-5, 362 

Eastman Teaching Films, 135, 149, 
154, 170, 173, 219, 271, 308 

Economic geography, films in 
teaching, 191, 200, 201-3 

Economy of time and films, 353 

Educational Screen, 461 

Edwards, P. G. 59 

Einbecker, W. F. 353, 362 

Elementary education, motion pic- 
tures in, 133-81 

Elgin, 111. visual education in, 61 

Elliot, P. A. 289 

Ellis, D. C. and Thornborough, L. 

Emery, J. N. 15. 39, 47, 135, 150 

Emmert, W. 445, 447-9 

England, use of films in, 115, 124, 
153, 164, 309, 324, 361, 364 

Englewood, N. J. 39 

English, M. and Stratemeyer, F. B. 
90, 256 

English, films in teaching, 176-80, 
204-6, 242-3 

Enlow, E. R.. 17, 43, 44 

Equipment, minimum, 76 

Erpi films, 175, 207, 232, 236 

Evans, M. 18, 24-6, 166 

Evansville, Ind. program of audio- 
visual education, 63-7, 144 

Evaul, C. B. and Snyder, E. W. 

Exceptional children, films in 
teaching, 167-8, 350-1 

Exchange, suggestions for motion 
picture, 18, 104 

Faulty film technique, 137 

Filing materials of instruction, 87- 


Filmslide vs. motion picture, 336 
Filmslides, use of, 187-90 
Finch, H. R. 281 

Floherty, J. J. 462 

Florida, University of, 92, 249 

Fontegne, J. 224, 225 

Forest, E. S. 277 

Forman, H. J. 462 

Fox, F. W. 98 

Freeman, F. N. 230, 307, 323, 370, 

Freeman, F. N. and Hoefer, C. 

325, 339, 340, 343, 362 
Freeman, F. N. and Reeder, E. H. 

Freeman, F. N. and Wood, B. D. 

308, 321, 324, 327, 328, 329, 332, 

333, 335, 341, 344, 347, 349, 350, 

355, 366, 461 
Freeman, F. N., Reeder, E. H. and 

Thomas, J. A. 336, 362 
Freeman, F. N., Shaw, L. A. and 

Walker, D. E. 325, 338, 339 


Freeman, F. N. and others, 460 
Freeman, G. L. 237, 287 
French, films in teaching, 207, 208 
Frutchey, F. P. and Dale, E. 462 

Gale, A. L. 463 

Gary, Ind. visual education in, 78 

Gatto, F. M. 331, 336, 337, 348, 362 

Geary, C. E. 169 

Geography, films in teaching, 138, 

149, 156, 157, 159, 160, 161-4, 

164, 198, 265, 362, 456 
George, W. H. 459 
Georgia, University of, 91 
Gibbs, D. 353, 363 
Gilbert, A. E. 403 
Ginsburg, E. B. 208 
Glover, J. G. 233 
Goodykoontz, B. 254 
Gow, R. 115, 124 
Gramet, C. A. 115, 116, 188, 295, 


Gray, R. J. 415 
Gregg, R. T. 93 
Gregory, W. M. 18, 31, 67, 116, 

369. 370, 421 
Gross, Ella, 84 

Hackett, R. J. 363 
Hadley, A. M. 302 
Halsey, J. H. 198 
Hamilton, D. C. 275 
Hamilton, W. J. 76 
Handbooks for visual education, 
95, 402-4 



Handbooks to accompany films, 

Handwriting, films in teaching, 

339, 362 

Hansen, J. E. 336, 354, 363 
Hardie, J. L. 116 
Harold, G. and Woodring, M. N. 


Hauser, P. M. and Blumer, H. 462 
Haworth, H. A. 71, 230, 231, 415 
Hays, D. G. and McAndrew, W. 

Health, films in teaching, 149, 

168-72, 288, 340, 363 
Heck, A. O. 54 
Henderson, H. A. 423 
Herron, J. S. 238, 242 
Hershey, Pa. program of audio- 
visual education, 62 
Hester, M. S. 86 
Higher education, films in, 230-7, 

342, 354, 363 
Hinman, S. T. 363 
History, films in teaching, 149, 

165-8, 191-6, 197, 203, 342, 346, 


Hoar, F. B. 363 
Hoban, C. F. 76, 379-83, 444 
Hoban, C. F., Jr. 11, 106, 374 
Hoban, Hoban and Zisman, 427, 

Hoefer, C. and Freeman, F. N. 

325, 339, 340. 343, 362 
Hoefer, C. and Keith, E. 339, 340, 


Hoek, F. G. 86, 167, 415 
Hoke, G. C. 171 
Hoke, G. W. 152, 154 
Hollinger, J. A. 15, 18, 23, 75, 115, 

Hollis, A. P. 22, 117, 267, 325, 338, 

363, 459 
Hopkins, B. S. and Dawson, H. G. 


Horn, A. 115, 120, 208, 210 
Horning, S. D. 50 
Hotchkiss, G. 191-6 
Houghton, G. H. 363 
Hutchinson, J. R. 422 

Illinois, University of, 92 
Indiana University, 92 
Industrial arts, films in teaching, 

Industrial films, use of, 135, 204, 

211-13, 218, 226 

Interest and films, 343-5 
International Congress of the 

Teaching and Educational 

Film, 115, 125 
Iowa, University of, 92 
Iowa School for Deaf, 87 
Iowa State College, 92, 98 
Ireland, N. O. 90 
Irion, M. C. and White, M. S. 394 

James, H. W. 323, 363 
Jenkins, J. J. and others, 420 
Jennings, T. 463 
Johnson, L. B. 301 
Johnson, R. S. 115, 126 
Johnson, W. H. 59, 459 
Jones, A. H. 78, 238 
Junior high school, films in, 153, 
203, 365 

Kansas, University of, 92 

Katz, E. 185, 278, 288 

Keeler, O. 282 

Keith, E. and Hoefer, C. 339, 340, 


Keliher, A. 145 
Kiesling, B. C. 463 
Kindergarten, films in teaching, 

134, 147 

Klein, M. A. 88 
Kling, E. L. 284 
Klonower, H. 107, 444 
Knowlton, D. C. 17, 18, 49, 420 
Knowlton, D. C. and Tilton, J. W. 

309, 321, 325, 328, 335, 336, 341, 

343, 348, 350, 356, 364, 460 
Knox, R. B. 91 
Koenig, C. J. 209, 215 
Koon, C. M. 404, 431, 459 
Koon, C. M. and Noble, A. W. 107, 


Kooser, H. L. 98 
Krasker, A. 442 
Krebs, L. C. 445 
Kruse, W. F. 59, 286 
Kuckuk, H. M. 285 

Lacy, J. V. 336, 337, 364 
Lain, D. 70 
Lampe, F. 116, 146 
Lane, T. 463 
Lantern slide service, 48 
Latin, films in teaching, 277 
Lauwerys, J. A. 404, 459 
Lebrun and Barrier, 424 
Lee, E. 180 



Lemon, H. B. 364 

Lewin, W. 204, 205, 463 

Lewis, A. B. 297 

Lewis, D. K. 209, 213 

Lewis, R. B. and Miller, H. R. 463 

Librarians and visual aids, 87-90 

Libraries and visual education, 34 

Lindquist, M. A. 170 

London, K. 463 

Los Angeles, visual education in, 

Lynch, M. 209, 219 

McAndrew, W. and Hays, D. G. 


McAteer, E. C. 166 
McCarthy, K. 175 
McClusky, F. D. 22, 32, 34, 317, 

323, 324, 332, 336, 338, 353, 355, 

370, 385-7, 402, 459 
McClusky, F. D. and others, 420-1 
McClusky, H. Y. 325, 338, 353, 364 
MacLean, W. P. 253 
McMillan, J. G. 85 
McNall, J. J. 395 
Macy, E. E. 393 
Manuals, film, 404 
Marchant, J. 324, 335, 364, 460 
Martin, O. J. 463 
Mason, W. L. 350, 364 
Massachusetts, 92, 97 
Mathematics, films in teaching, 

206, 207 
Maywood, 111. visual education in, 


Mead, C. D. 334, 351, 353, 364 
Measurement in visual education, 


Mees, C. E. K. 463 
Melbo, I. R. 248 
Mengel, L. 453 
Meola, L. K. 79, 238 
Merton, E. L. 420, 438 
Merton, M. 267, 370 
Michigan, University of, 91 
Miller, H. R. and Lewis, R. B. 463 
Miller, L. P. 445, 452-5 
Miller, M. 463^ 

Milwaukee, Wis. conference at, 374 
Milwaukee Vocational School, 286 
Minnesota University, 92 
Mississippi, proposed film library, 


Mitchell, A. M. 463 
Mock, A. A. 350, 364 

Modern languages, films in teach- 
ing, 207-8 

Moline, 111. 46, 70 

Moore, H. K. 130 

Mount, J. N. 329, 335, 348, 364 

Mullen, S. McL. 434, 463 

Munyan, E. A. 226 

Museums and visual education, 33, 
34, 65, 67, 73, 92, 200 

Music, films in teaching. 348 

Myers, S. E. 152, 159 

National Academy of Visual In- 
struction, 39, 43 

National administration of visual 
aids, 101-8 

National Education Association, 
Department of Elementary 
Principals, 459; Department of 
Supervisors and Directors of 
Instruction, 35, 459; Depart- 
ment of Visual Instruction, 
130, 400, 401; Research Divi- 
sion, 16, 51 

National Union of Teachers, 460 

Nature study, films in teaching, 
142, 149 

Nebraska, visual education in, 42 

Neglected factors in research, 317- 

Neuner, E. F. 173 

New Jersey, 92, 370 

New Jersey Visual Education As- 
sociation, State Teachers' As- 
sociation, 390-2 

New Rochelle, 173 

New York City, visual education 
in, 34, 83, 84, 222, 223